Effective temperature


Effective temperature

Star

The effective temperature of a star is the temperature of a black body with the same luminosity per "surface area" (mathcal{F}_{Bol}) as the star and is defined according to the Stefan–Boltzmann law mathcal{F}_{Bol}=sigma T_{eff}^4. Notice that the total (bolometric) luminosity of a star is then L=4 pi R^2 sigma T_{eff}^4, where R is the stellar radius. [cite book
first=Roger John | last=Tayler | year=1994
title=The Stars: Their Structure and Evolution
publisher=Cambridge University Press
pages=16 | isbn=0521458854
] The definition of the stellar radius is obviously not straightforward. More rigorously the effective temperature corresponds to the temperature at the radius that is defined by the Rosseland optical depth. [Cite book|title=Introduction to Stellar Astrophysics, Volume 3, Stellar structure and evolution|first=Erika|last=Böhm-Vitense|page=14|publisher=Cambridge University Press] [Cite article|title=The parameters R and Teff in stellar models and observations|last=Baschek|url=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991A%26A...246..374B] The effective temperature and the bolometric luminosity are the two fundamental physical parameters needed to place a star on the HR diagram. Both effective temperature and bolometric luminosity actually depend on the chemical composition of a star.

The effective temperature of our Sun is around 5780 kelvins (K). [Cite book|chapter=Section 14: Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acousticse|publisher=CRC Press|title=Handbook of Chemistry and Physics|section=14-18: Solar Spectral Irradiance|url=http://www.scenta.co.uk/tcaep/nonxml/science/constant/details/effectivetempofsun.htm|edition=88] [cite book|title=Life in the Solar System and Beyond|first=Barrie William|last=Jones|page=7|publisher=Springer|year=2004|isbn=1852331011| url=http://books.google.com/books?id=MmsWioMDiN8C&pg=PA7&dq=%22effective+temperature+of+the+sun%22&lr=&ei=inm8R4vBHYTIyASunImbBQ&sig=U7l2pgwQIqlkMuLIWg1HuTW5AxA] Stars actually have a temperature gradient, going from their central core up to the atmosphere. The "core temperature" of the sun—the temperature at the centre of the sun where nuclear reactions take place—is estimated to be 15 000 000 K.

The color index of a star indicates its temperature from the very cool—by stellar standards, that is—red M stars that radiate heavily in the infrared to the very blue O stars that radiate largely in the ultraviolet. The effective temperature of a star indicates the amount of heat that the star radiates per unit of surface area. From the warmest surfaces to the coolest is the sequence of star types known as O, B, A, F, G, K, and M.

A red star could be a tiny red dwarf, a star of feeble energy production and a small surface or a bloated giant or even supergiant star such as Antares or Betelgeuse, either of which generates far greater energy but passes it through a surface so large that the star radiates little per unit of surface area. A star near the middle of the spectrum, such as the modest Sun or the giant Capella radiates more heat per unit of surface area than the feeble red dwarf stars or the bloated supergiants, but much less than such a white or blue star as Vega or Rigel.

Planet

The effective temperature of a planet can be calculated by equating the power received by the planet with the power emitted by a blackbody of temperature T.

Take the case of a planet at a distance D from the star, of luminosity L.

Assuming the star radiates isotropically and that the planet is a long way from the star, the power absorbed by the planet is given by treating the planet as a disc of radius r, which intercepts some of the power which is spread over the surface of a sphere of radius D. We also allow the planet to reflect some of the incoming radiation by incorporating a parameter called the albedo. An albedo of 1 means that all the radiation is reflected, an albedo of 0 means all of it is absorbed. The expression for absorbed power is then:

P_{abs} = frac {L r^2 (1-A)}{4 D^2}

The next assumption we can make is that the entire planet is at the same temperature T, and that the planet radiates as a blackbody. This gives an expression for the power radiated by the planet:

P_{rad} = 4 pi r^2 sigma T^4

Equating these two expressions and rearranging gives an expression for the effective temperature:

T = left (frac{L (1-A)}{16 pi sigma D^2} ight )^{ frac{1}{4

Note that the planet's radius has cancelled out of the final expression.

The effective temperature for Jupiter is 112 K and 51 Pegasi b (Bellerophon) is 1258 K. The actual temperature depends on albedo, atmosphere, and internal heat. The actual temperature from spectroscopic analysis for HD 209458 b (Osiris) is 1130 K, but the black body temperature is 1359 K.The internal heat within Jupiter of 40 K combined with the effective temperature of 112 K results in a total of 152 K as the actual temperature.

See also

* Color temperature
* Brightness temperature

References

External links

* [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006astro.ph..8504C Effective temperature scale for solar type stars]
* [http://ijolite.geology.uiuc.edu/05SprgClass/geo116/8-1.pdf Surface Temperature of Planets]


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