- Irish Rebellion of 1641
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted "
coup d'état" by Irish Catholic gentry, but developed into inter communal violence between native Irish and English and Scottish Protestantsettlers, starting a conflict known as the Irish Confederate Wars.
The rising was sparked off by Catholic fears of an impending invasion of Ireland by anti-Catholic forces of the English
Long Parliamentand the Scottish Covenanters. In turn, the rebels' association with the King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles I, helped to trigger the start of the English Civil War. The Irish rebellion broke out in October 1641 and was followed by several months of violent chaos in Irelandbefore the Irish Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the Catholic Confederation in the summer of 1642. The Confederation became a de factogovernment of most of Ireland, free from the control of the English State and loosely aligned with the Royalist side in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The subsequent war continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell's New Model Armydecisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists and re-conquered the country.
The roots of the 1641 rebellion lie in the failure of the English State in Ireland to assimilate the native Irish elite in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest and plantation of the country. The pre-Elizabethan Irish population is usually divided into the "Old (or Gaelic) Irish", and the Old English, or descendants of medieval Norman settlers. These groups were historically antagonistic, with English settled areas such as
the Palearound Dublin, south Wexford, and other walled towns being fortified against the rural Gaelic clans. However, by the seventeenth century, the cultural divide between these groups, especially at elite social levels, was declining. Many Old English lords not only spoke the Irish language, but extensively patronised Irish poetryand music, and were described as "Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis" (more Irish than the Irish themselves). Intermarriage was also common. Moreover, in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest, the native population became defined by their shared religion, Roman Catholicism, in distinction to the new Church of Englandand Church of Scotlandof settlers, and the officially Protestant ( Church of Ireland) English administration in Ireland. During the decades in between the end of the Elizabethan wars of re-conquest in 1603 and the outbreak of rebellion in 1641, the political position of the wealthier landed Irish Catholics were increasingly threatened by the English government of Ireland.
The 16th and early 17th century English conquest of Ireland was marked by large scale "Plantations", notably in
Ulsterand Munster. These were mass dispossessions of Irish landowners who had rebelled against the crown, and sometimes their workers, and the granting of their land to colonists from England and Scotland. The terms of the Plantation, particularly in Ulster, were very harsh on the native population, who were forbidden from owning or renting land in planted areas and also from working there on land owned by settlers. The main reason for this was the dispossession of formerly powerful Irish clan leaders, such as the O'Neills and the O'Donnells, which followed their abandonment of their people in the Flight of the Earlsin 1607. Other Catholic lords, such as the Magennisclan in County Down, sold much of their land to new settlers by the 1630s. The only sizeable plantation of confiscated land after 1630 was a part of the O'Byrne lands in County Wicklow.
Many of the exiles (notably
Owen Roe O'Neill) found service as mercenariesin the Catholic armies of Spainand France. They formed a small émigré Irish community, militantly hostile to the English-run and Protestant state in Ireland, but restrained by the generally good relations between England and Spain and France after 1604. In Ireland itself, though the resentment caused by the plantations was one of the principal causes for the outbreak and spread of the rebellion in 1641, most land still belonged to Catholics.
Most of the Irish Catholic upper classes were not ideologically opposed to the sovereignty of the Charles I over Ireland, but wanted to be full subjects of the triple monarchy (England, Scotland, and Ireland) and maintain their pre-eminent position in Irish society. This was prevented by two factors, firstly their religious dissidence, and secondly the threat posed to them by the extension of the Plantations. The failed
Gunpowder Plotof 1605 curtailed the rights of wealthy Irish Catholics, and unfairly so as they had not been involved. Protestantismwas the only approved form of worship of the Three Kingdoms. Non-attendance at Protestant church services was punishable by "recusant fines" and the public practice of unapproved faiths by arrest. Catholics could not hold senior offices of state, or serve above a certain rank in the army. The Irish privy councilwas dominated by the Protestant Ascendancy. The constituencies of the Irish House of Commons were re-arranged so as to give Protestants a majority in it by the session of 1613. Moreover, the Irish Parliament was subordinate to the English Parliament by a 15th century ordinance known as Poynings' Law. The Protestant Ascendency (and therefore settler) dominated administration took opportunities to confiscate more land from longstanding landowners by questioning their land titles.
In response, Irish Catholics sought what were called
The Graces, and appealed directly to the King, first James I and then Charles I, for full rights as subjects and toleration of their religion. On several occasions, the Monarchs appeared to have reached an agreement with them, granting their demands in return for raising taxes. However, Irish Catholics were disappointed when, on paying the increased levies after 1630, Charles postponed the implementation of their demands. What was more, by the late 1630s, Thomas Wentworth, Charles’ representative in Ireland, launched a new round of plantations, [Padraig Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War, p.10, Wentworth saw plantation as the major instrument of cultural and religious change'] though these had not been effected by 1641. On the pretext of checking of land titles to raise revenue, Wentworth confiscated and was going to plant lands in Roscommon and Sligo and was planning further plantations in Galway and Kilkenny directed mainly at the " Old English" families. [Confederate Catholics at War p.11] In the judgement of historian Padraig Lenihan, 'It is likely that he [Wentworth] would have eventually encountered armed resistance from Catholic landowners' if he had pursued these policies further. [Confederate Catholics at War, p.12] However the actual rebellion followed the destabilisation of English and Scottish politics and the weakened position of the king in 1640.
In 1638 to 1640 many Scots rose in a revolt known as the
Bishops' Warsagainst Charles I's attempt to impose Church of England prayers there, believing them to be too close to Catholicism. The King's attempts to put down the rebellion failed when the English Long Parliament, which had similar religious concerns to the Scots, refused to vote in 1641 for new taxes to pay for raising an army. Charles therefore started negotiations with Irish Catholic gentry to recruit an Irish army to put down the rebellion in Scotland, in return for the concession of Irish Catholics' longstanding requests to practise their religion openly. To the Scots and the English Parliaments, this appeared to confirm that Charles was a tyrant, who wanted to impose Catholicism on his kingdoms, and to govern again without reference to his Parliaments as he had done in 1628–1640. During the early part of 1641, some Scots and Parliamentarians even proposed invading Ireland and subduing organized Catholicism there, to ensure that no royalist Irish Catholic army would land in England.
Frightened by this, and wanting to seize the opportunity, a small group of Irish Catholic landowners conceived a plan to take
Dublin Castleand to control other important towns around the country in a quick coup in the name of the King, both to forestall a possible invasion and to force him to concede the Catholics' demands. More importantly, Charles had failed to beat the Scots, his ministers were under pressure from the "Short" and "Long" London parliaments in 1640–41, and this apparent weakness made it much more likely that a rebellion would be successful.
Economics also contributed to the outbreak of the rebellion. Interest rates in the 1630s had been as high as 30% per annum. The Irish economy had hit a recession and the harvest of 1641 was poor. The leaders of the rebellion like Phelim O'Neill and Rory O'Moore were heavily in debt and risked losing their lands to creditors. What was more, the Irish peasantry were hard hit by the bad harvest and were faced with rising rents. This aggravated their desire to remove the settlers and contributed to the widespread attacks on them at the start of the rebellion.
The planners of the rebellion were a small group of Irish landowners, mainly Gaelic Irish and from the heavily planted province of
Ulster. Hugh MacMahon and Conor Maguire were to seize Dublin Castle, while Phelim O’Neill and Rory O’Moore were to take Derryand other northern towns. The plan, to be executed on 23 October 1641, was to use surprise rather than military force to take their objectives and to then issue their demands, in expectation of support from the rest of the country. [Nicholas Canny: "But when they engaged in their insurrection on 22 October 1641, unquestionably they weren’t intending on the destruction of the entire Plantation that had been brought into place. We don’t know precisely what they intended: they presumably intended to seize the positions of strength, the military fortification of the province; having done that to, from this position of strength, to engage in some negotiation with the Crown with a view to bettering their condition in some way. But they, I think it is correct to say, that they weren’t intent on destroying the Plantation" (Nicholas Canny [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/transcripts/es10_t04.shtml The Plantation of Ireland: 1641 rebellion] BBC. Accessed 12 February 2008.)] However, the plan for a fairly bloodless seizure of power was foiled when the authorities in Dublinheard of the plot from an informer (a Protestant convert named Owen O’Connolly) and arrested Maguire and MacMahon.
O'Neill meanwhile successfully took several forts in the north of the country, claiming to be acting in the King's name. Fairly quickly, events spiraled out of the control of the men who had instigated them. The English authorities in Dublin over-reacted to the rebellion, which they characterized as 'a most disloyal and detestable conspiracy intended by some evil affected Irish Papists' which they claimed was aimed at 'a general massacre of all English and Protestant inhabitants'. [
Richard Bellings, History of the Confederation and War in Ireland (c. 1670), in Gilbert, J.T., History of the Affairs of Ireland, Irish Archaeological and Celtic society, Dublin, 1879. pg. 9 & 18] Their response to the massacres was to send troops under commanders Charles Cooteand William St Leger(themselves Protestant settlers) to rebel held areas in counties Wicklow and Cork respectively in early 1642. Their expeditions were characterised by what modern historian Padraig Lenihan has called, 'excessive and indiscriminate brutality' against the general Catholic population there [ Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War, p. 23] and helped to provoke the general Catholic population into joining the rebellion.
Ulster, the breakdown of state authority prompted widespread attacks by the native Irish population on the English Protestant settlers. [Canny, "But on the 23rd and the 24th and 25th of October 1641, the popular attacks which are relatively spontaneous, are clearly focused upon the tenants who had moved in and become beneficiaries of the Plantation; and that these actions, as well as the words which are articulated in justifying those actions - targeted attacks upon those who had moved in and benefited from the Plantation - these indicate that there was a popular sentiment of dispossession which was articulated in action as well as in words when the opportunity provided itself, when the political order was challenged by the actions which Phelim O’Neill and his associates engaged upon." (Nicholas Canny [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/transcripts/es10_t04.shtml The Plantation of Ireland: 1641 rebellion] BBC. Accessed 12 February 2008.] Initially, Scottish settlers were not attacked by the rebels but as the rebellion went on, they too became targets. [Canny, Making Ireland British, p. 486] Phelim O’Neill and the other insurgent leaders initially tried to stop the attacks on the settlers, but were unable to control the local peasantry. A contemporary—though hostile—Catholic source tells us that O'Neill "strove to contain the raskall multitude from those frequent savage actions of stripping and killing which were after perpetrated and gave their enterprise an odious character as well in the opinion of their countrymen as of strangers" but that "the floodgate of rapine, once being laid open, the meaner sort of people was not to be contained". [ Richard Bellings, History of the Confederation and War in Ireland (c. 1670), in Gilbert, J.T., History of the Affairs of Ireland, Irish Archaeological and Celtic society, Dublin, 1879. p. 14-15]
Communal uprisings spread to the rest of the country. Munster was the last region to witness such disturbances; the rebellion in Munster was in fact largely a product of the severe martial law
William St Legerimposed upon the province. Many Irish Catholic lords who had lost lands or feared dispossession joined the rebellion and participated in the attacks on the settlers. However, at this stage, the attacks usually involved the beating and robbing rather than the killing of Protestants. Historian Nicholas Canny writes, 'most insurgents seemed anxious for a resolution of their immediate economic difficulties by seizing the property of any of the settlers. These popular attacks did not usually result in loss of life, nor was it the purpose of the insurgents to kill their victims. However they were always gruesome affairs because they involved face to face confrontations between people who had long known each other. A typical offensive involved a group of Irish descending upon a Protestant family and demanding, at knife point, that they surrender their moveable goods. Killings usually only occurred where Protestants resisted'. [Nicholas Canny, Making Ireland British, p. 476]
The motivations for the popular rebellion were complex. Among them were a desire to reverse the plantations; rebels in Ulster were reported as saying, 'the land was theirs and lost by their fathers.Age of Atrocity p.154] Another motivating factor was a sharp antagonism towards the
English languageand culture which had been imposed on the country. For example, rebels in county Cavanforbade the use of the English language and decreed that the original Irish languageplace names should replace English ones. A third factor was religious antagonism. The rebels consciously identified themselves as Catholics and justified the rising as a defensive measure against the Protestant threat to 'extirpate the Catholic religion'. Rebels in county Cavanstated, "we rise for our religion. They hang our priests in England". [ Age of Atrocity, p153] Historian Brian MacCuarta writes, "Longstanding animosities against the [Protestant] clergy were based on the imposition of the state church since its inception thirty years previously. Ulster Irish ferocity against everything Protestant were fuelled by the wealth of the church in Ulster, exceptional in contemporary Ireland". [Age of Atrocity p155] There were also cases of purely religious violence, where native Irish Protestants were attacked and Catholic settlers joined the rebellion. [ Canny, Making Ireland British, p.177, Age of Atrocity, p.154]
The number of planters killed in the early months of the uprising is the subject of debate. [Staff [http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2007101901 Massacres and myths] ,
University of Cambridge, Information provided by email@example.com, 21 October 2007] Early English Parliamentarian pamphlets claimed that over 200,000 settlers had lost their lives. [Harvard reference| Surname1 = Royle | Given1 = Trevor|authorlink= |year=2004 |title=Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660 |publisher=London: Abacus |isbn=0-349-11564-8 p.139] In fact, recent research has suggested that the number is far more modest, in the region of 4,000 or so killed, though many thousands were expelled from their homes. [Ohlmeyer, Jane and John Kenyon, "The Civil Wars", p. 278, ' William Petty's figure of 37,000 Protestants massacred... is far too high, perhaps by a factor of ten, certainly more recent research suggests that a much more realistic figure is roughly 4,000 deaths.'] It is estimated that up to 12,000 Protestants may have lost their lives in total, the majority dying of cold or disease after being expelled from their homes in the depths of winter.John Marshal (2006). "John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture",Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052165114X, Page 58, footnote 10, "Modern historians estimate the number massacred in Ireland in 1641 at between 2,000 and 12,000."] Staff. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/planters/es10.shtml The Plantation of Ulster: 1641 rebellion] , BBCParagraph 3. Accessed 17 February 2008.]
The general pattern around the country was that the attacks intensified the longer the rebellion went on. At first, there were beatings and robbing of local settlers, then house burnings and expulsions and finally killings, most of them concentrated in Ulster. Historian Nicholas Canny suggests that the violence escalated after a failed rebel assault on
Lisnagarveyin November 1641, after which the settlers killed several hundred captured insurgents. Canny writes, 'the bloody mindedness of the settlers in taking revenge when they gained the upper hand in battle seems to have made such a deep impression on the insurgents that, as one deponent put it, "the slaughter of the English" could be dated from this encounter' [Canny, "Making Ireland British", p.485.] In one incident after this battle, the planters in Portadownwere taken captive and then killed on the bridge in the town (see the Portadown Massacre). In nearby Kilmore parish, English and Scottish men, women and children were burned to death in the cottage in which they were imprisoned. [Nicholas Canny, "Making Ireland British", p.485, Canny quotes a deposition made by one William Clarke to the effect that, 'about 100 Protestants (including women and children) from the nearby parish of Loughal, who were already prisoners' were killed at the bridge in Portadown in November 1641] , In County Armagh, recent research has shown that about 1,250 Protestants were killed in the early months of the rebellion, or about a quarter of the planter population there. [Ohlmeyer and Kenyon, "The Civil Wars", p. 74] In County Tyrone, modern research has identified three blackspots for the killing of settlers, with the worst being near Kinard, 'where most of the British families planted... were ultimately murdered' [Lenihan, "Confederate Catholics at War", p.31] .
Modern historians have argued that the killings of 1641 had a powerful psychological impact on the Protestant settlers. [Staff [http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2007101901 Massacres and myths] ,
University of Cambridge, Information provided by firstname.lastname@example.org, 21 October 2007. Professor John Morrill, from the University of Cambridge: "The 1641 massacres have played a key role in creating and sustaining a collective Protestant and British identity in Ulster."] [Dr. Raymond Gillespie of the National University of Ireland, Maynoth, "I think in some ways it's what happens after the Plantation which is much more important for the enduring legacy. It's the fears of the Irish which are created in 1641, the fear of massacre, the fear of attack, that somehow or other accommodations which had been made before were no longer possible after that because the Irish were quite simply, as John Temple put it in his history of the rebellion ‘untrustworthy’. And that book was repeatedly reprinted - I think the last time it was reprinted was 1912, so that this message (the message not of the Plantation but the message of the rebellion) is the one that persists and the one which is used continuously right through the 19th century - that the Catholics are untrustworthy; that we can’t do business with them; we shouldn’t be involved with them; they are part of a large conspiracy to do us down" (Raymond Gillespie [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/transcripts/es11_t04.shtml Plantation of Ulster: Long term consequences] , BBC. Accessed 13 February 2008).] Dr. Mary O'Dowd, 'To look at the long-term consequences of the Plantation, it's very difficult to do that without also taking into consideration the long-term implications of the 1641 rebellion: because the massacres of 1641, in the winter of 1641, really were very traumatic for the Protestant settler community in Ulster, and they left long-term scars within that community. [Mary O'Dowd. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/transcripts/es11_t03.shtml The Plantation of Ulster: Long term consequences] BBC. Accessed 12 February 2008]
Contemporary Protestant accounts depict the outbreak of the rebellion as a complete surprise, one stated that it was, 'conceived among us and yet we never felt it kick in the womb, nor struggle in the birth' [Ohlmeyer, Kenyon, "The Civil Wars", p.29] . However after the rebellion, many Protestants in Ireland took the attitude that the native Irish could not be trusted to remain quiescent again. The Protestant narrative of the rebellion as a preconceived plot to massacre them was constructed in the Depositions, a collection of accounts by victims assembled between 1642 and 1655 and now housed in
Trinity College Dublinand articulated in a book published by John Templein 1642, entitled "The Irish Rebellion" [Noonan, Kathleen M. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb005/is_200406/ai_n15321561 "Martyrs in Flames": Sir John Temple and the conception of the Irish in English martyrologies*] . Albion, June, 2004. On the website of [http://findarticles.com/ findarticles.com] ] .
Many settlers massacred Catholics when they got the chance, particularly in 1642–43 when a Scottish
Covenanterarmy landed in Ulster. William Lecky, the 19th century historian of the rebellion, concluded that, "it is hard to know on which side the balance of cruelty rests". Fact|date=February 2008
Among the more prominent incidents was the killing of Irish prisoners at Kilwarlin woods near
Newryand the subsequent massacre of Catholic prisoners and civilians in the town itself. Trevor Royle quotes James Turner who in his memoirs reported that after skirmish in Kilwarlin woods, Irish prisoners were given "bad quarter, being shot dead",Harvard reference| Surname1 = Royle | Given1 = Trevor|authorlink= |year=2004 |title=Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660 |publisher=London: Abacus |isbn=0-349-11564-8 p.142] but two other eye witness accounts of the skirmish, (a letter by Roger Pike and the dispatches of Major-General Robert Monro, the Protestant commander), do not mention the killing of prisoners. [Ulster Archaeological Society, (1860). "Ulster Journal of Archaeology" Volume 8, London: Russell J Smith, Ireland: Hodges & Smith. [http://books.google.com/books?id=RV8NAAAAYAAJ&printsec=titlepage#PPA78,M1 p. 78] -80] Turner records in his memoirs that the following day English soldiers entered Newry and captured its castle, after the capitulation Catholic soldiers and local merchants were lined up on the banks of the river and "butchered to death ... without any legal process".
Rathlin IslandCovenanter Campbell soldiers of the Argyll's Foot were encouraged by their commanding officer Sir Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch Clanenemy in the Scottish Highlands Clan MacDonald, this they did with ruthless efficiency throwing scores of MacDonald women over cliffs to their deaths on rocks below.Harvard reference| Surname1 = Royle | Given1 = Trevor|authorlink= |year=2004 |title=Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660 |publisher=London: Abacus |isbn=0-349-11564-8 p.143] The number of victims of this massacre has been put as low as 100 and as high as 3,000.
The widespread killing of civilians was brought under control to some degree in 1642, when
Owen Roe O'Neillarrived in Ulster to command the Irish Catholic forces and hanged several rebels for attacks on civilians. Thereafter, the war, though still brutal, was fought in line with the code of conduct that both O'Neill and the Scottish commander Robert Munrohad learned as professional soldiers in continental Europe.Pádraig Lenihan, (2001) "Confederate Catholics at War, 1641-49", Cork University Press, ISBN 1859182445. [http://books.google.com/books?id=FPvn8QF3d9cC&pg=RA1-PA211&lpg=RA1-PA211&source=web&ots=QVsXAdnOgL&sig=YsViRtTX4gSbsABUO3l_7-uBv4A p. 211] ,212]
In the long term, the killings committed by both sides in 1641 intensified the sectarian animosity that originated in the plantations. The effects of this can still be seen, particularly in
Northern Ireland, today. The bitterness created by the plantations and the massacres of 1641 proved extremely long lasting. Ulster Protestants commemorated the anniversary of the rebellion on every 23 October for over two hundred years after the event. According to Padraig Lenihan, 'This anniversary helped affirm communal solidarity and emphasize the need for unrelenting vigilance; [they perceived that] the masses of Irish Catholics surrounding them were and always would be, unregenerate and cruel enemies' [ Padraig Lenihan, 1690, "Battle of the Boyne". Tempus (2003) ISBN 0752425978 pp.257-258] Images of the massacres involving Protestant deaths in 1641 are still represented on the banners of the Orange Order. Even today, the killings are thought of by some as an example of attempted genocide[For highly partisan Protestant accounts of the rebellion see:
*Sophie Sadler, [http://www.scotchirish.net/1641.php4 The Irish Massacre of Protestants, 1641] [http://www.scotchirish.net www.scotchirish.net] , Accessed 12 February 2008.
*Clive Gillis [http://www.ianpaisley.org/article.asp?ArtKey=deliverance8 "Days of Deliverance" Part 8: The Irish Rebellion 1641: Rome's Plotting Exposed] 17 March 2004. [http://www.ianpaisley.org/ European Institute of Protestant Studies] © 1999 Ian Paisley.] . In fact, if the upper estimate of 12,000 deaths is accurate, this would represent less than 10% of the British settler population in Ireland, though in Ulster the ratio of deaths to the settler population would have been somewhat higher, namely around 30% [Mary O'Dowd. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/planters/es10.shtml 1641 rebellion]
BBC. Accessed 8 March 2008] .
Civil war and Confederation
Confederate Irelandand Irish Confederate Wars"From 1641 to early 1642, the fighting in Ireland was characterized by small bands, raised by local lords or among local people, attacking civilians of opposing ethnic and religious groups. At first, many of the Irish Catholic upper classes were reluctant to join the rebellion, especially the "Old English" community. However, within six months almost all of them had joined the rebellion. There were three main reasons for this.
* First, local lords and landowners raised armed units of their dependents to control the violence that was engulfing the country, fearing that after the settlers were gone, the Irish peasantry would turn on them as well.
* Secondly, the English Parliament and the Irish administration, and King Charles, made it clear that Irish Catholics who did not demonstrate their loyalty would be held responsible for the rebellion and killings of settlers, and would confiscate their lands under the
* Thirdly, it looked initially as if the rebels would be successful after they defeated a government force at Julianstown. This perception was soon shattered when the rebels failed to take nearby
Drogheda, but by then the Pale lords had already committed themselves to rebellion.
By early 1642, there were four main concentrations of rebel forces; in Ulster under
Phelim O'Neill, in the Pale around Dublin led by Viscount Gormanstown, in the south east, led by the Butler family - in particular Lord Mountgarret and in the south west, led by Donagh MacCarthy, Viscount Muskerry. In areas where British settlers were concentrated, around Cork, Dublin, Carrickfergusand Derry, they raised their own militia in self-defense and managed to hold off the rebel forces.
Charles I was initially hostile to the rebels and sent over a large army to
Dublinto subdue them. The Scottish parliament also sent an army to Ulsterto defend their compatriots there. However, a quick defeat of the rebels in Ireland was prevented by the outbreak of Civil War in England. Among other issues, the English Parliament did not trust Charles with command of the army raised to send to Ireland, fearing that it would afterwards be used against them. Because of the Civil War in England, English troops were withdrawn from Ireland and a military stalemate ensued.
This gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the Catholic Confederation, which would run the Irish war effort. This was instigated by the Catholic clergy and by landed magnates such as Viscount Gormanstown and Lord Mountgarret. By the summer of 1642, the rebellion proper was over and was superseded by a conventional war between the Irish, who controlled two thirds of the country, and the British-controlled enclaves in Ulster, Dublin and around Cork in Munster. The following period is known as
Confederate Ireland. The Confederation sided with the Royalists in return for the promise of self-government and full rights for Catholics after the war. They were finally defeated by regiments of the English Parliament's New Model Armyfrom 1649 through to 1653 and land ownership in Ireland passed almost exclusively to Protestant settlers.
Early Modern Ireland 1536-1691
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
*Bellings, Richard. History of the Confederation and War in Ireland (c. 1670), in Gilbert, J.T., History of the Affairs of Ireland, Irish Archaeological and Celtic society, Dublin, 1879
*Canny, Nicholas, "Making Ireland British 1580-1650", Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001. ISBN 0-19-925905-4
*Edwards, David. Padraig Lenihan & Clodagh Tait (eds), Age of Atrocity, Violence and Political Conflict in Early Modern Ireland. Four Courts Press, Dublin 2007, ISBN 978-1-85182-962-0
*Lenihan, Pádraig (2001). "Confederate Catholics at War, 1641-49", Cork University Press, ISBN 1859182445.
*Lenihan, Pádraig (2003). 1690, Battle of the Boyne. Tempus ISBN 0752425978
*Ohlmeyer, Jane and Kenyon, John (ed.s,) 1998. "The Civil Wars", A Military history of England, Scotland and Ireland 1638-1660, Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-280278-X
*O'Siochru, Michael, "Confederate Ireland 1642-49", Four Courts Press Dublin 1999.
*Royle, Trevor (2004), "Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660", London: Abacus, ISBN 0-349-11564-8
*Canny, Nicholas. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/transcripts/es10_t04.shtml The Plantation of Ireland: 1641 rebellion]
BBC. Accessed 12 February 2008
*Gillespie, Raymond. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/transcripts/es11_t04.shtml Plantation of Ulster: Long term consequences] ,
BBC. Accessed 13 February 2008).
*Noonan, Kathleen M. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb005/is_200406/ai_n15321561 "Martyrs in Flames": Sir John Temple and the conception of the Irish in English martyrologies*] . Albion, June, 2004. On the website of [http://findarticles.com/ findarticles.com]
*O'Dowd, Mary. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/transcripts/es11_t03.shtml The Plantation of Ulster: Long term consequences]
BBC. Accessed 12 February 2008.
*Staff. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/myths_legends/northern_ireland/ni_6/article_2.shtml Secrets of Lough Kernan]
BBC, Legacies UK history local to you, website of the BBC. Accessed 4 February 2008
*Plant, David. [http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/irish-uprising-1641.htm 1641: The Irish Uprising] , [http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/ British Civil Wars] website.
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1641 — Year 1641 (MDCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10 day slower Julian calendar). Events of 1641 January June * January 18 Pau… … Wikipedia
1641 in Ireland — Events*October Irish Rebellion of 1641 starts. *Hugh MacMahon and Conor Maguire were to seize Dublin Castle, but were arrested due to an informer. *Phelim O’Neill successfully took several forts in the north of the country, claiming to be acting… … Wikipedia
Rebellion irlandaise de 1641 — Rébellion irlandaise de 1641 La Rébellion irlandaise de 1641 débuta comme une tentative de coup d État, menée par la petite noblesse irlandaise catholique, qui dégénéra ensuite rapidement en une violence intercommunautaire sanglante entre les… … Wikipédia en Français
Rébellion irlandaise de 1641 — Informations générales Date 23 octobre 1641 – mars 1642 Lieu Irlande Issue Création de la Confédération irlandaise, début des Guerres confédérées irlandaises Belligérants … Wikipédia en Français