- History of Saint Petersburg
TsarPeter the Great on May 27, 1703, Saint Petersburg was capital of the Russian Empirefor more than two hundred years (1712-1728, 1732-1918). St. Petersburg ceased being the capital in 1918 after the Russian Revolution of 1917. ["Nicholas and Alexandra: An Intimate Account of the Last of the Romanovs and the Fall of Imperial Russia" (Athenum, 1967) by Robert K. Massie, ASIN B000CGP8M2 (also, Ballantine Books, 2000, ISBN 0-345-43831-0 and Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2005, ISBN 1-57912-433-X)]
The new capital
. ["Peter the Great: His Life and World" (Knopf, 1980) by Robert K. Massie, ISBN 0-394-50032-6 (also Wings Books, 1991, ISBN 0-517-06483-9)]
The city was built under adverse weather and geographical conditions. High mortality rate required a constant supply of workers. Peter ordered a yearly conscription of 40,000
serfs, one conscript for every nine to sixteen households. Conscripts had to provide their own tools and food for the journey of hundreds of kilometers, on foot, in gangs, often escorted by military guards and shackled to prevent desertion, yet many escaped, others died from disease and exposure under the harsh conditions. ["Peter the Great: His Life and World" (Knopf, 1980) by Robert K. Massie, ISBN 0-394-50032-6 (also Wings Books, 1991, ISBN 0-517-06483-9)]
The new city's first building was the
Peter and Paul Fortress, it originally also bore the name of "Sankt Pieterburg". It was laid down on "Zaiachiy" (Hare's) Island, just off the right bank of the Neva, three miles inland from the Gulf. The marshland was drained and the city spread outward from the fortress under the supervision of German and Dutch engineers whom Peter had invited to Russia. Peter restricted the construction of stone buildings in all of Russia outside of St Petersburg, so that all stonemasons would come to help build the new city. [The St. Petersburg of Peter the Great [http://www.saint-petersburg.com/index.asp] ]
At the same time Peter hired a large number of engineers, architects, shipbuilders, scientists and businessmen from all countries of Europe. Substantial immigration of educated professionals eventually turned St. Petersburg into a much more cosmopolitan city than Moscow and the rest of Russia. Peter's efforts to push for modernisation in Moscow and the rest of Russia were completely misunderstood by the old-fashioned Russian Nobility, and eventually failed, causing him much trouble with opposition, including several attempts on the Tsar's life and the treason involving his own son. [Matthew S. Anderson, Peter the Great (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978)]
Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the
Treaty of Nystad. Called the "window to Europe", it was a seaport and also a base for Peter's navy, protected by the fortress of Kronstadt. The first person to build a home in Saint Petersburg was Cornelis Cruys, commander of the Baltic Fleet. Inspired by Veniceand Amsterdam, Peter the Great proposed boats and coracles as means of transport in his city of canals. Initially there were only 12 permanent bridges over smaller waterways, while the Bolshaya Nevawas crossed by boats in the summertime and by foot or horse carriages during winter. A pontoon bridgeover Neva was built every summer.
Peter was impressed by
Versaillesand other palaces in Europe. His official palace of a comparable importance in Peterhofwas the first suburban palace permanently used by the Tsar as the primary official residence and the place for official receptions and state balls. The waterfront palace, Monplaisir, and the Great PeterhofPalace were built between 1714 and 1725. [St. Petersburg: Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN-10: 0789202174] In 1716, Prussia's King presented a gift to Tsar Peter: the Amber Room. [Peter the Great's amber room reborn. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3025833.stm] ] Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, Peter's best friend, was the first Governor General of Saint Petersburg Governoratein 1703-1727. In 1724 St. Petersburg Academy of Scienceswas established in the city. After the death of Peter the Great, Menshikov was arrested and exiled to Siberia. In 1728 Peter II of Russiamoved the capital back to Moscow, but 4 years later, in 1732, St. Petersburg again became the capital of Russia and remained the seat of the government for about two centuries.
St. Petersburg prospered under the rule of two most powerful women in Russian history. Peter's daughter, Empress Elizabeth, reigned from 1740 to 1762, without a single execution in 22 years. She cut taxes, downsized government, and was known for masqerades and festivities, amassing a wardrobe of about 12 thousand dressess, most of them now preserved as museum art pieces. She supported the
Russian Academy of Sciencesand completed both the Winter Palaceand the Summer Palace, which then became residencies of Empress Catherine the Great, who reigned for 34 years, from 1762 to 1796. Under her rule, which exemplified that of an "enlightened despot", more palaces were built in St. Petersburg than in any other capital in the world. [St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN-10: 0789202174]
, who ordered execution of leaders and exiled hundreds of their followers to Siberia. Nicholas I then pushed for Russian nationalism by suppressing non-Russian nationalities and religions. [Edvard Radzinsky. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: The Free Press, 2005. ISBN-10: 074327332X]
Cultural revolution that followed after the Napoleonic wars, had further opened St. Petersburg up, in spite of repressions. The city's wealth and rapid growth had always attracted prominent intellectuals, scientists, writers and artists. St. Petersburg eventually gained international recognition as a gateway for trade and business, as well as a cosmopolitan cultural hub. The works of
Aleksandr Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Ivan Turgenev, Fyodor Dostoyevskyand numerous others brought Russian literature to the world. Music, theatre and balletbecame firmly established and gained international stature.
The son of Tsar Nicholas I, Tsar Alexander II implemented the most challenging reforms [Edvard Radzinsky. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: The Free Press, 2005. ISBN-10: 074327332X] undertaken in Russia since the reign of Peter the Great. The
emancipation of the serfs(1861) caused the influx of large numbers of poor into the capital. Tenements were erected on the outskirts, and nascent industrysprang up, surpassing Moscow in population and industrial growth. By 1900, St. Petersburg had grown into one of the largest industrial hubs in Europe, an important international center of power, business and politics, and the 4th largest city in Europe.
With the growth of industry, radical movements were also astir. Socialist organizations were responsible for the assassinations of many public figures, government officials, members of the royal family, and the Tsar himself. Tsar Alexander II was killed by a suicide bomber
Ignacy Hryniewieckiin 1881, in a plot with connections to the family of Leninand other revolutionaries. The Revolution of 1905 initiated here and spread rapidly into the provinces. During World War I, the name "Sankt Peterburg" was seen to be too German, so the city was renamed "Petrograd". ["The Romanovs: The Final Chapter" (Random House, 1995) by Robert K. Massie, ISBN 0-394-58048-6 and ISBN 0-679-43572-7]
1917 saw next stages of the Russian Revolution [Rex A. Wade "The Russian Revolution, 1917" 2005 Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521841550] , and re-emergence of the
Communist partyled by Lenin, who declared "Guns give us the power" and "All power to the Soviets!" [ Tony Cliff"Lenin: All power to the Soviets" " [http://www.marxists.org/archive/cliff/works/1976/lenin2/index.htm Lenin: All Power to the Soviets] " 1976 Pluto Press] After the February Revolution, the Tsar Nicholas IIwas arrested and the Tsar's government was replaced by two opposing centers of political power: the "pro-democracy" Provisional government and the "pro-communist" Petrograd Soviet. [Pipes, Richard. The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990)] Then the Provisional government was overthrown by the communists in the October Revolution[Reed, John. [http://www.marxists.org/archive/reed/1919/10days/10days/index.htm Ten Days that Shook the World] . 1919, 1st Edition, published by BONI & Liveright, Inc. for International Publishers. Transcribed and marked by David Walters for [http://www.marxists.org/archive/reed/works/index.htm John Reed Internet Archive] . Penguin Books; 1st edition. June 1, 1980. ISBN 0-14-018293-4] , causing the Russian Civil War.
The city's proximity to anti-Soviet armies forced communist leader
Vladimir Leninto move his government to Moscowon March 5 1918. The move was disguised as temporary, but Moscow has remained the capital ever since. On January 24 1924, three days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed "Leningrad". The Communist party's reason for renaming the city again was that Lenin had led the revolution. Deeper reasons existed at the level of political propaganda: Saint Petersburg had stood as the symbol of capitalist culture and the Tsarist empire, but the Soviet empire needed to destroy that. [ Russian source: Factbook on the history of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. Справочник по истории Коммунистической партии и Советского Союза 1898 - 1991 [http://www.knowbysight.info/2_KPSS/08980.asp] ] After the Civil War, and murder of the Tsar Nicholas IIand his family, as well as millions of anti-Soviet people, the renaming to Leningrad was designed to destroy last hopes among the resistance, and show strong dictatorship of Lenin's communist party and the Soviet regime. [Leon Trotsky. Memoir and Critique. New York, 1989.] [Felix Yusupov. Memoirs, "Lost Splendor", New York, 1953.]
St. Petersburg was devastated by Lenin's
Red Terror[Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. By Robert Gellately, 2007, Random House, 720 pages. ISBN 1400040051] then by Stalin's Great Purge[Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union by Barry McLoughlin and Kevin McDermott (eds). Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, [http://books.google.com/books?id=8yorTJl1QEoC&pg=PA6&ots=IOh_JSgyB0&dq=the+communist+elites+were+not+the+main+victims.&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=dPGlm6GphRec7dkugH2rZooFafM p. 6] ] in addition to crime and vandalism in the series of revolutions and wars. Between 1917 and 1930s, about two million people fled the city, including hundreds of thousands of educated intellectuals and aristocracy, who emigrated to Europe and America. At the same time many political, social and paramilitary groups had followed the communist government in their move to Moscow, as the benefits of capital status had left the city. In 1931 Leningrad administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast.
In 1934 the popular governor of Leningrad, Kirov, was assassinated, because Stalin apparently became increasingly paranoid about Kirov's growth [Dmitri Volkogonov. "Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy", 1996, ISBN-10: 0761507183] . The death of Kirov was used to ignite the
Great Purge[Great Purges: [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSpurge.htm Great Purges] Spartacus Educational] where supporters of Trotsky and other suspected "enemies of the Soviet state" were arrested. Then a series of "criminal" cases, known as the Leningrad Centreand Leningrad Affair["Stalin and the Betrayal of Leningrad" by John Barber [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/leningrad_betrayal_04.shtml] ] , were fabricated and resulted in death sentences for many top leaders of Leningrad, and severe repressions of thousands of top officials and intellectuals.
iege of Leningrad
annexation plans as the "German settlement area". This implied the genocide of 3 million Leningrad residents, who had no place in Hitler's "New East European Order".
Hitlerordered preparations for victory celebrations at the Tsar's Palaces. The Nazis looted art from museums and palaces, as well as from private homes. All looted treasures, such as the Amber Room, gold statues of Peterhof, paintings and other valuable art were taken to Germany. Hitler also prepared a party to celebrate his victory at the hotel Astoria. A printed invitation to Hitler's reception ball at the Hotel Astoria is now on display at the City Museum of St. Petersburg.
During the Nazi siege of 1941 - 1944, the only ways to supply the city, and suburbs, inhabited by several millions, were by aircraft or by cars crossing the frozen
Lake Ladoga. The Nazis systematically shelled this route, called the Road of Life, so thousands of cars with people and food supplies had sank in the lake. The situation in the city was especially horrible in the winter of 1941 - 1942. The German bombing raids destroyed most of the food reserves. Daily food ration was cut in October to 400 grams of bread for a worker and 200 grams for a woman or child. On 20 November 1941, the rations were reduced to 250 and 125 grams respectively. Those grams of bread were the bulk of a daily meal for a person in the city. The water supply was destroyed. The situation further worsened in winter due to lack of heating fuel. In December 1941 alone some 53,000 people in Leningrad died of starvation, many corpses were scattered in the streets all over the city.
"Savichevs died. Everyone died. Only Tanya is left," wrote 11-year-old Leningrad girl
Tanya Savichevain her diary. This diary became one of the symbols of the blockade tragedy and was shown as one of many documents at the Nuremberg trials.
The city suffered severe destruction - the Wehrmacht fired about 150,000 shells at Leningrad and the Luftwaffe dropped about 100,000 air bombs. Many houses, schools, hospitals and other buildings were leveled, and those in the occupied territory were plundered by German troops.
As a result of the Nazi siege, about 1,2 million of 3 million Leningrad civilians lost their lives because of bombardment, starvation, infections and stress. Hundreds of thousands of unregistered civilians, who lived in Leningrad prior to WWII, had perished in the Nazi siege without any record at all. About 1 million civilians escaped with evacuation, mainly by foot. After two years of the siege, Leningrad became an empty "ghost-city" with thousands of ruined and abandoned homes.
For the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Nazi Siege, Leningrad was the first city in the former USSR awarded the title
Hero Cityin 1945.
The war damaged the city and killed many old Petersburgers who had not fled after the revolution and did not perish in the mass purges before the war. Nonetheless, Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to the pre-war plans. In 1950 the
Kirov Stadiumwas opened and soon set a record when 110,000 fans attended a football match. In 1955 the Leningrad Metro, the second underground rapid transit system in the country, was opened with its first six stations decorated with marble and bronze.
Timeline of post-war recovery
1945 - 1970s
*Re-building and restoration of thousands of buildings, industries, schools, transport, energy supplies and infrastructure.
*Restoration of the destroyed suburban museums, palaces, and other historic and cultural landmarks and treasures.
*Explosions of land-mines left by the Nazis cause numerous deaths among peaceful citizens. ["Medics and the siege" a book by a group of Medical Doctors studying starvation, epidemics, stress, and other diseases during the siege of Leningrad. Russian original: "Медики и блокада" Татьяна Михайлова, Лидия Веришкина. 2005. St. Petersburg. ]
*January - December. Some schools, universities, and colleges returned to studies.
*January - December. Some theatres and movies were opened for public.
*May. Fountains of
Peterhofpark were opened for public again. But the palaces were in ruins for the next several decades.
Stalin set up a plot to have the leaders of the city government arrested and killed.
Aleksei Kuznetsov, Nikolai Voznesensky, P. Popkov, Ya. Kapustin, P. Lazutin, and several more, who were heroic and efficient in defending Leningrad, and became very popular figures. They were arrested on false accusations. Stalin's plot to kill the leaders of Leningrad was kept top-secret in the former Soviet Union. It is now known as the Leningrad Affair.
Leningrad Metro, which was designed before the war in the 1930s to serve as underground shelter, was completed after the war and opened in 1955 with its first seven stations decorated with marble and bronze. It became the second underground rapid transit system in the country.
*Population of Leningrad with suburbs had increased in the 10 post-war years from under 0,8 million to about 4 million.
* House-Museum of
Ilya Repinis restored in the northern suburb of Repino, and open to public. However, most original paintings and personal items of the artist remain missing since the Finnish army was here during WWII.
* Memorial to Defenders and Survivors of the Siege of Leningrad is erected at the former defence lines on
Moskovsky Prospektnear Pulkovo Airport.
Amber Roomwas re-created with the sponsorship of Germany. It is open for public in the completely restored Catherine Palace.
*January. 60th Anniversary of the Lifting of the Siege of Leningrad in 1944 was officially celebrated in St. Petersburg on January 27, 2004. About twelve thousand survivors of the siege who were children at the time of WWII, are now living on state pension in St. Petersburg and suburbs. Tens of thousands of other survivors, who were evacuated from besieged Leningrad as children, are still living in Russia and other countries across the world.
As of 2007 there are still tens of sites remaining in St. Petersburg and suburbs where homes were destroyed in military operations during the siege.
However, during the late 1940s and 1950s, the entire political and cultural elite of Leningrad suffered from more harsh repressions under dictatorship of Stalin [Dmitri Volkogonov. "Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy", 1996, ISBN-10: 0761507183] , hundreds were executed and thousands were imprisoned in repressions known as the
Leningrad Affair. [Russian publication: Ленинградское дело – надо ли ставить кавычки?: [http://www.contr-tv.ru/print/1608/] ] Independent thinkers, writers, artists and other intellectuals were attacked, magazines "Zvezda" and "Leningrad" were banned, Akhmatova and Zoshchenko were repressed [Russian publication: Маленков против Жданова. Игры сталинских фаворитов. [http://www.akhmatova.org/articles/kostyrchenko.htm] ] , and tens of thousands Leningraders were exiled to Siberia. More crackdowns on the Leningrad's intellectual elite, known as the "Second Leningrad affair", were part of unfair economic policies of the Soviet state. Leningrad's economy was producing about 6% of the USSR GNP, having less than 2% of the country's population, but such economic efficiency was negated by the Soviet Communist Partywhich diverted the earned income from people of Leningrad to other Soviet places and programs. As a result during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the city of Leningrad was seriously underfunded in favor of Moscow. Leningrad suffered from the unfair distribution of wealth, because the Soviet leadership drained the city's resources to subsidise higher standards of living in Moscow and some underperforming parts of the Soviet Union and beyond. Such unfair redistribution of wealth caused struggle within the Soviet government and communist party, which lead to their fragmentation and played a role in the eventual collapse of the USSR.
June 12, 1991, the day of the first Russian presidential election, in a referendum 54% of voters chose to restore "the original name, Saint Petersburg", on September 6, 1991. In the same election Anatoly Sobchakbecame the first democratically elected mayor of the city. [ Jack F. Matlock, Jr., "Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union", Random House, 1995, ISBN 0679413766] Among the first initiatives of Sobchak was his efforts to minimise the federal control by Moscow to keep the income from St. Petersburg's economy in the city.
Original names returned to 39 streets, six bridges, three
Saint Petersburg Metrostations and six parks. Older people sometimes use old names and old mailing addresses. The name Leningrad was heavily promoted in media, mainly in connection with the siege, so even authorities may call it "Hero city Leningrad." Young people may use "Leningrad" as a vague protest against some social and economic changes. A popular ska punkband from Saint Petersburg is called Leningrad. Leningrad Oblastretained its name after a popular vote. It is a separate federal subject of Russiaof which the city of St. Petersburg is the capital.
In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev was elected the head of the
Saint Petersburg City Administration, and changed his title from "mayor" to "governor." In 2003, Yakovlev resigned a year before his second term expired. Valentina Matviyenkowas elected governor. In 2006 she was reapproved as governor by the city legislature.
Constitutional Court of Russiais scheduled to move to the former Senate and Synod buildings at the Decembrists Squarein St. Petersburg by 2008. The move will partially restore Saint Petersburg's historic status, making the city the second judicial capital.
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