- Urum language
speakers=45,000 [cite web |url=http://www.qypchaq.unesco.kz/urums-en.htm |title=North Azovian Urums - Greeks Speaking Turkic Language |last=Garkavets |first=Alexander]
fam1=Altaic [" [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90009] Ethnologue"] (controversial)
Cyrillic alphabet, Greek alphabet
Urum is a
Turkic languagespoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraineand in diasporacommunities world wide.
The name "Urum" is derived from "
Rûm" ("Rome"), the term for the Byzantine empirein the Muslim world. The Ottoman Empireused it to describe non-Muslims within the empire. The initial vowel in Urum is prosthetic: originally Turkic languages did not have r- in word-initial position, and in borrowed words used to add a vowel before it. The common use of the term Urum appears to have led to some confusion, as most Turkish-speaking Greeks were called Urum. The Turkish-speaking population in Georgia is often confused with the distinct community in the Ukraine. [cite web |url= http://www.publish.diaspora.ru/magazin/articles/russia026_1.shtml |title=Понтийские греки |last=Казаков |first=Алексей |year=2000 |month=12 |language=Russian] [cite web
url = http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=uum
title = Ethnologue Report for Urum
last = Gordon
first = Raymond G. (ed.)
year = 2005
work = Ethnologue: Languages of the World
publisher = SIL International] (see:
(1) /IPA|ʦ/ is found only in loanwords.
(2) /θ/ and /ð/ are found only in loanwords from Greek.
A few manuscripts are known to be written in Urum using Greek characters. [cite web
url = http://www.language-museum.com/u/urum.php
title = Urum
work = Language Museum] During the period between 1927 and 1937,the Urum language was written in reformed Latin characters, the so called
New Turkic Alphabet, and used in local schools; at least one primer is known to have been printed. In 1937 the use of written Urum stopped. Alexander Garkavets uses the following alphabet: [cite book |last=Гаркавець |first=Олександр |title=Урумський словник |url=http://www.unesco.kz/qypchaq/Urum_Dictionary.htm |format=pdf, html |year=2000 |language=Ukrainian, Urum |pages=632 ]
Very little has been published on the Urum language. There exists a very small lexicon [cite book
last = Podolsky
first = Baruch
title = A Tatar - English Glossary
year = 1985
publisher = Harrassowitz
location = Wiesbaden
id = ISBN 3-447-00299-9] , and a small description of the language [cite journal
last = Podolsky
first = Baruch
year = 1986
title = Notes on the Urum Language
journal = Mediterranean Language Review
volume = 2
pages = 99–112] .
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