- History of Greek
This article is an overview of the history of Greek.
There are several theories about the origins of the Greek language. One theory suggests that it originated with a migration of proto-Greek speakers into the Greek peninsula, which is dated to any period between
2500 BCand 1700 BC. Another theory maintains that the migration into Greece occurred at a pre-proto-Greek (late PIE) stage, and the characteristic Greek sound-changes occurred later.
The first known script for writing Greek was the
Linear B syllabary, used for the archaic Mycenaean dialect. Linear B was not deciphered until 1953. After the fall of the Mycenaean civilizationduring the Bronze Age collapse, there was a period of about five hundred years when writing was either not used or nothing has survived to the present day. Since early classical times, Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet.
Ancient Greek dialects
In the archaic and classical periods, there were three main dialects of the Greek language: Aeolic, Ionic, and Doric, corresponding to the three main tribes of the Greeks, the Aeolians (chiefly living in the islands of the Aegean and the west coast of Asia Minor north of
Smyrna), the Ionians (mostly settled in the west coast of Asia Minor, including Smyrna and the area to the south of it), and the Dorians (primarily the Greeks of the coast of the Pelopennesus, for example, of Sparta, Crete and the southernmost parts of the west coast of Asia Minor). Homer's Iliadand Odysseywere written in a kind of literary Ionic with some loan words from the other dialects. Ionic, therefore, became the primary literary language of ancient Greece until the ascendancy of Athens in the late fifth century. Doric was standard for Greek lyric poetry, such as Pindarand the choral odes of the Greek tragedians.
Attic Greek, a subdialect of Ionic, was for centuries the language of Athens. Most surviving classical Greek literatureappears in Attic Greek, including the extant texts of Platoand Aristotle, which were passed down in written form from classical times.
For centuries, the Greek language had existed in multiple dialects. As Greek culture under
Alexander the Great(356– 323 BC) and his successors spread from Asia Minorto Egyptand the border regions of Indiathe attic dialect became the basis of the Koiné (; "common"). The language was also learned by the inhabitants of the regions that Alexander conquered, turning Greek into a world language.The Greek language continued to thrive after Alexander, during the Hellenistic period ( 323 BCto 31 BC). During this period the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, appeared.
For many centuries Greek was the
lingua francaof the eastern half of the Roman Empire. It was during Roman times that the Greek New Testamentappeared, and Koiné Greek is also called " New TestamentGreek" after its most famous work of literature.
Medieval and Modern Greek
Greek was the official language of the
Eastern Roman Empire(or Byzantine Empire) until Constantinoplefell to the Ottomansin 1453.
After the establishment of Greece as an independent state in
1829, the Katharévusa () form—Greek for "purified language"—was sanctioned as the official language of the state and the only acceptable form of Greek in Greece. The whole attempt led to a linguistic war and the creation of literary factions: the "Dhimotikistés" (), who supported the common (Demotic) dialect, and the "Lóyii" (), or "Katharevusyáni" (), who supported the "purified dialect". Up to that point, use of Dhimotikí in state affairs was generally frowned upon. Use of the Demotic dialect in state speech and paperwork was forbidden.
The fall of the Junta of
1974and the end of the era of Metapolítefsi 1974–76 brought the acceptance of the Demotic dialect as both the de facto and de jureforms of the language for use by the Greek government, though the Katharevousa movement has left marks in the language.
Geoffrey Horrocks, "Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers" (Longman Linguistics Library). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-582-30709-0
History of the Latin language
* [http://www.geocities.com/bulgarmak/karkavitsas.htm A short biography of Karkavitsas]
* [http://greek-language.com/historyofgreek/ A Brief History of the Greek Language]
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