Audiquattro] Torsen, (full name Torsen traction), is an automotivepart, a limited slip differential. It was invented by American Vernon GleasmanCite web|url=http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2004/11/19/285488.html|title=Inventor Of Automotive Technologies - Vernon Gleasman's Legacy|accessdate=2008-05-17|work=theautochannel.com] and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation.
Torsen is a contraction of "Torque-Sensing".
"TORSEN" and "TORSEN Traction" are registered
trademarksof JTEKT Torsen North America Inc (formerly Zexel Corporation, formerly Gleason Power Systems).
Torsen differentials can be utilised in one or more positions on a
* centre - used to apportion appropriate
torquedistribution between front and rear axles on a four-wheel drivevehicle.
* rear - used to apportion appropriate torque distribution between left and right sides in rear axles. This may be on either a
rear-wheel driveor four-wheel drive vehicle.
* front - used to apportion appropriate torque distribution between left and right sides in front axles. This may be on either a
front-wheel driveor four-wheel drive vehicle.As an example, on a four wheel drive vehicle, it may use either one, two, or three Torsen differentials.
Types of Torsen
There are currently three types of Torsen differentials.
# The original "Torsen T-1 (Type A)" uses crossed axis
helical gears to increase internal friction. The Type I can be designed for higher torque bias ratios than the Type II, but typically has higher backlash and the potential for Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) issues, and requires a precise setup/installation.
# The later "Torsen T-2 (Type B)" uses a parallel gear arrangement to achieve a similar effect. There is also a specialist application of the T-2, known as the "T-2R (RaceMaster)".
# The latest "Torsen T-3 (Type C)" is a planetary type differential, in that the intended
torquesplit is not 50:50. The Type C is available as single or twin version, the Torsen twin C differential has front and center differential in the same unit.Cite web|url=http://www.autozine.org/html/Alfa/Brera.html|title=Alfa Romeo Brera|accessdate=2008-05-17|work=autozine.org]
The Torsen T-3 will be employed as the centre differential in all future non-
Haldex Traction Audimodels with quattro four-wheel drive, current applications: 2008 Audi S4 (B7), Audi RS4 (B7), and Audi Q7. Alfa Romeouses Torsen C twin differential in Alfa Romeo 156 Crosswagon Q4 and then in 159, Brera and Spider Q4 models. Also Toyotauses a Torsen T-3 in the center differential of the Toyota 4Runnerand Lexus GX470, with manual locking feature, and GM has a Torsen T-3 centre differential in the (non rear drive) Chevrolet TrailBlazer SS.
How they work
The Torsen differential works by supporting a torque imbalance, the maximum ratio of torque imbalance being defined by the Torque Bias Ratio (TBR). When a Torsen has a 3:1 TBR, that means that one side of the differential can handle up to 75% while the other side would have to only handle 25% of applied torque. During acceleration under asymmetric
tractionconditions, so long as the higher traction side can handle the higher percentage of applied torque, no relative wheelspinwill occur. When the traction difference exceeds the TBR, the slower output side of the differential receives the tractive torque of the faster wheel multiplied by the TBR; any extra torque remaining from applied torque contributes to the angular accelerationof the faster output side of the differential.
NOTE: The TBR should not be confused with the uneven torque-split feature in the planetary-type Torsen III. The planetary gearset allows a Torsen III center differential to distribute torque unevenly between front and rear axles during normal (full traction) operation without inducing wind-up in the drivetrain. This feature is independent of the Torque Bias Ratio.
Torsens in front and/or rear axles
When attempting to turn with a torque sensitive differential, the outer wheel will need to rotate more quickly relative to the differential, and the inner wheel will rotate more slowly than the differential. Friction in the differential will oppose motion, and that will work to slow the faster side and 'speed up' the slower/inner side. This leads to asymmetric torque distributions in drive wheels, matching the TBR. Cornering in this manner will reduce the torque applied to the outer tire, leading to possibly greater cornering power, unless the inner wheel is overpowered (which is easier to do than with an open differential). When the inner tire (which has less traction due to weight transfer from lateral acceleration) is overpowered, it angularly accelerates up to the outer wheel speed (small percent wheel spin) and the differential locks, and if the traction difference does not exceed the TBR, the outer wheel will then have a higher torque applied to it. If the traction difference exceeds the TBR, the outer tire gets the tractive torque of the inner wheel multiplied by the TBR, and the remaining applied torque to the differential contributes to wheel spin up.
When a Torsen differential is employed, the slower-moving wheel always receives more
torquethan the faster-moving wheel. The Torsen T-2R RaceMaster is the only Torsen to have a preload clutch. So even if a wheel is airborne torque is applied to the other side. If one wheel were raised in the air, the regular Torsens would act like an open differentialand no torque would be transferred to the other wheel. This is where the parking brake 'trick' can help out. If the parking brake is applied, assuming that the parking brake applies even resistance to each side, the drag to the airborne side is 'multiplied' through the differential and TBR times the drag torque is applied to the other side. So the ground side would see (TBR X drag torque) minus drag torque, and hopefully that can help restore progress either forward/backwards. In Hummer/ HMMWVapplications, there are both front and rear torsen differentials, so use of the main brakes will operate this 'trick' on both axles simultaneously.
Notable Torsen users
One of the most famous uses of Torsen differentials are in many of the various
Audiquattro models, notably excluding the A3 & S3 and TT (which have transverse-mounted engines and use Haldex Traction4WD systems).
It is also used, for example, in the
Toyota Supraand Toyota Soarer(or Lexus SC430), the B5 platform revision of the Volkswagen Passat 4motion(based upon the Audi A4), and some versions of the Mazda MX-5/Miata. The Lancia Delta Integrale, as well as the 1999-2002 model Pontiac Firebirdand Chevrolet Camaro, had a Torsen differential.
The HMMWV or Humvee uses two Torsens, front and rear, with a normal manually lockable center differential (NVG242HD AMG transfer case) in the center.
Alfa Romeo: 156 Crosswagon & Sportwagon, 159, Brera & Spider Q4
* quattro versions of
** Audi 80 & 90, Audi S2 & RS2,
Audi RS2 Avant
** Audi 100 / Audi 200 / Audi 5000
Audi Coupé quattro
Audi A4, Audi S4, Audi RS4
** Audi A5 & S5
Audi A6, Audi S6, Audi RS6
Audi A8, Audi S8
** A6 allroad quattro
Audi V8(manual transmission)
* Chevrolet TrailBlazer SS
* Lexus GX 470, LS 600h / LS 600h L
Toyota: 4runner, FJ Cruiser (only manual models)
Volkswagen Passat(badged as 4motion) (B5 platform)
Center and rear
Audi V8with manual transmission
Front and rear axles
Front axle only
* Honda/Acura Integra Type R
Alfa Romeo: GT, 147 Q2
Honda Civic Si(06-current)
Honda Civicvti 1.8
Ford Focus RS
Nissan SentraSE-R Spec-V
* Oldsmobile Calais W41 (7 cars equipped from the factory, C41 option code)
* Oldsmobile Achieva W41 (7-10 cars equipped from the factory, C41 option code)
Rover 200 CoupeTurbo, 200 BRM/LE, 220 Turbo , 420 Turbo , 620 Ti , 820 Vitesse (200PS version only)
Honda AccordType R
Rear axle only
Audi V8with automatic transmission
Alfa Romeo: 155 Q4, 164 Q4
Citroen BX4x4 with ABS
* Ford FX4
Hyundai Genesis Coupe
Lancia Delta Integrale
Mazda: Miata/MX-5 ('94+ manual models), RX-7, RX-8
Peugeot 4054x4 with ABS (same as Citroen BX 4x4)
Subaru Impreza WRX STI(2007)
Toyota Supra, Toyota Mark II, Toyota Chaser, Toyota Cresta, Toyota Verossa
Pontiac Firebird4th Generation, only years 1999-2002
Chevrolet Camaro4th Generation, only years 1999-2002
Limited slip differential
* [http://www.torsen.com Torsen Traction official site]
** [http://www.torsen.com/files/Traction_Control_Article.pdf Torsen traction control article] (PDF)
* [http://torvec.com/products_isotorque.html Torvec IsoTorque]
* [http://members.rennlist.org/951_racerx/PS84Gleason.html Popular Science article]
* [http://individual.utoronto.ca/stehlik/torsen.html Torsen in LEGO]
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