- Literature of the Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore( Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ, 1399-1947) was founded by Yaduraya in 1399 as a feudatory of the Vijayanagara Empireand became an independent kingdom in the early 17th century after the decline of the Empire. Though many scholars and musicians may have existed in the Mysore court from the beginning of its establishment, references to records of scholars, writers and their writings only exist from the time of Raja Wodeyar (1578), while the writings themselves are only available from the time of King Ranadheera Kanteerava Narasaraja Wodeyar (1638).Pranesh (2003), preface chapter p(i)] The reign of the Mysore kingdom is considered a golden age in Kannada literature, especially in the fields of musical treatises, compositions and drama. Not only were the kingdom's courts adorned with famous writers and composers, but many of the kings themselves were accomplished in the fine arts and have made important contributions.
During this period, though traditional literature in philosophy and religion continued to be popular, a wave of writings in such new genres as chronicles ("vamshavali"), biographies, histories, encyclopedias, novels, dramas, and treatises on music and musical compositions gained prominence.Narasimhacharya (1988), p23-26]
Yakshagana, a unique and native form of poetic literature with dramatic representation, gained popularity in the 18th century.Narasimhacharya (1988), p25] Kamath (2001), p281] Musical and devotional compositions were written in "dvipadi" (couplets), "tripadi" (three line form)"choupadi" (four line form) "shatpadi" (six line form), "saptapadi" (seven line form), Vachana, "sangatya" (verses rendered musically and rhythmically to the accompaniment of an instrument) and "champu" (mixed prose-verse) metres. A light and lyrical style of Carnatic compositions in Kannada called "javali" or "javadi" was introduced by King Krishnaraja Wodeyar III.Pranesh (2003), p54]
Haridasamovement, which began in the 14th century with the saints of the Madhvaorder of Udupi, continued to flourish, with latter-day saints writing many "dasara padagalu" (devotional songs of dasas).Narasimhacharya (1988), p25] Literature by Brahminand Shaivitewriters was numerous, with some well-known Jainwriters also making important contributions. Among royalty, Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar (1672-1704) and Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1799-1868) are well known for their literary proficiency, though other kings and queens also made notable contributions.Kamath (2001), p230, p250] Narasimhacharya (1988), p23, p26] Other major influences on Kannada literature, particularly in the last two centuries, include English literature, classical Sanskrit literature,Kamath (2001), p280] the changing political situation in India (including Indians' struggle for freedom), the rise of Kannada nationalism and the arrival of the printing press.
References made to literature from the time of Raja Wodeyar (1578-1617) provide ample evidence of the patronage given by the king to writers. In his court, Tirumala Iyengar or
Tirumalarya(1600) composed the "Karna Vrittanta Kathe" in Kannada in sangatya metre. According to tradition, Tirumalarya was a descendant of Anantaraya, an "acharya" (teacher) nominated by the 11th century philosopher Ramanujacharya.Pranesh (2003), p6] King Chamaraja Wodeyar (1617-1637) translated the Valmiki Ramayanafrom Sanskritinto Kannada, calling it "Chamarajokti Vilasa". Other notable works of this time were "Ashwashastra", "Hayasara Samucchaya" and "Brahmottra Kanda".Pranesh (2003), p7]
King Ranadheera Kanteerava Narasaraja Wodeyar (1638-1659) was honoured with the title of "Sangeeta Sahitya Shastra Visharada", indicating his expertise in music and literature.Pranesh (2003), p10] Famous Kannada writers in his court included Govinda Vaidya (1620), Shantaveera Deshika (1650) and others. Govinda Vaidya, a native of
Srirangapatna(in modern Mandya district), wrote a book called "Kanteerava Narasaraja Vijaya" in sangatya metre, describing the lifestyle, the king's court, the music and the types of musical compositions of that time in twenty-six chapters ("sandhis").Pranesh (2003), p11] Shantaveera Deshika's contribution was the "Shivaganga Charitra", also in sangatya metre. Bhaskara wrote a work on mathematics called "Beharaganita" and Timmarasa wrote the "Markandeyaramayana".Kamath (2001), p228] In 1700, Chamaiah wrote a eulogy for King Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar called the "Devarajendra Sangatya".Pranesh (2003), p16-17]
The reign of Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704) produced prolific writers, not least the king himself - he was an accomplished scholar in Kannada and a musician. He is known to be the earliest composer of the dynasty and held the title of "Sahitya Vidyanikasha Prastharam".Pranesh (2003), p20] The famous treatise on music in Kannada called "Geetha Gopala" is credited to him. Though inspired by
Jayadeva's " Geeta Govinda", the work, which was written in saptapadi metre, still had an originality of its own. This is the first writing that attempted to propagate the Vaishnavafaith in the Kannada language.Pranesh (2003), p21] The work consists of two parts of seven sections each, with each section having seven songs. It is considered an extraordinary effort and an asset to students of music and literature. The king also composed twenty-seven songs in the "raga" (mood) Kambhoji.Pranesh (2003), p25, p27] The king's writing "Chikkadevarajabinnapam" was a poem in praise of Lord Cheluvanarayanaswamy, the residing deity at Melkote.Kamath (2001), p230]
Among well known scholars, Tirumalarya (son of the earlier Tirumalarya in the court of Raja Wodeyar), a native of
Srirangapatnaand a childhood friend of the king, was the court poet. He was also a minister in the court of the Queen of Madurai. Well known among his writings in Kannada are "Chikka Devaraja Saptapadi" (1698), a musical treatise and a eulogy for his patron king rendered in seven sections with fifty-two songs. In this work, the poet exalts the king to the level of "God on Earth". It is, along with "Geetha Gopala", considered one of the more important 17th century treatises on music.Pranesh (2003), p29-30] Tirumalarya's other well known contributions in Kannada are "Apratimavira Charite", a eulogy for his patron king, "Chikkadevaraja Vijaya", an account of the king's conquests in sixteen chapters and "Chikkadevaraja Vamshavali", the earliest available Kannada prose historical writing, describing the king's ancestry.Narasimhacharya (1988), p23-24] In addition, he composed in tripadi, sangatya, kirtanas and other devotional songs in Kannada and Telugu.Pranesh (2003), p31] Chikkupadhyaya, also known as Lakshmipathi, was born in 1650 in Terakanambi (in modern Mysore district), and was the most prolific Kannada writer of the time with over thirty writings to his credit. His best known works are "Vishnupurana" (1691), "Kamalachala Mahatmya" (1681), "Hastigiri Mahatmya" (1679), "Rukmangada Charite" (1681), "Satvikabrahma-Vidya-Vilasa" on Visishtadvaitaphilosophy,Narasimhacharya (1988), p24] "Yadugiri Mahatmya" in praise of Kadambi Srirangacharya and "Yadavagiri Mahatmya" in praise of Kadambi Lakshmanacharya, numerous compositions in the champu, sangatya, and gadya metres, seventy songs in praise of his patron king (under the pen name of "Chikkadevaraja"), a composition called "Shringarada Hadugalu" and several commentaries.Pranesh (2003), p31-32]
Chidananda (1675), a
JainKannada poet, wrote philosophical compositions - known as "Tatwada Kirtanegalu" - and other compositions, including "Neeti Nrimaya" and "Munivamsha Bhyudaya" - in sangatya metre.Pranesh (2003), p32]
Singaraya, a brother of Tirumalarya, wrote the earliest known drama in Kannada called "Mitravinda Govinda" in 1680, a work inspired by the Sanskrit drama "Ratnavali" by Sriharsha.Narasimhacharya (1988), p62] Saint Vaikunta Dasa (1680), a
Haridasaand a native of Belur, composed many kirtanas (devotional compositions) on Vishnuin Kannada. Under the pen name "Vaikunta", he also composed a song called "Kapatamata" and many "suladis".Pranesh (2003), p33] Timmakavi (1677) wrote "Hari Vilasa" in sangatya metre and "Yadavagiri Mahatmya", while Mallarasa authored "Dasavatara Charite".Pranesh (2003), p33] Among female Kannada writers, Srirangamma and Sanchi Honnamma were the most recognised. Srirangamma (1685) wrote a "Padmini Kalyana", and Sanchi Honnamma, a Vokkaliganative of Yelandur (in modern Bangalore district), won accolades from her patron king for writing a unique book called "Hadibadeya Dharma". The work intended to reveal the struggles of women in society, and their need to fulfil their daily roles as wife, mother, daughter, daughter-in-law, mother-in-law, sister and sister-in-law.Pranesh (2003), p34] Narasimhacharya (1988), p24] Lakshmisa's "Jaimini Bharata", written in "shatpadi" metre is the poets Kannada version of the epic Mahabharataand is one of the most popular poems of the late medieval period.Narasimhacharya (1988), p 24] A superb story-teller and a dramatist, the author was a native of Devanur in Kadur taluk and writing is dated to the middle of 16th or late 17th century.Narasimhacharya (1988), p 59] A collection of stories, the poem contains the famous tale of the "Sita Parityaga" ("Repudiation of Sita"). The author has succeeded in converting a religious story into a very human tale, making it popular even in modern times.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p 1182]
Other important writings in Kannada by brahmins are the "Asrasastra" by Ramachandra, "Uttara Ramayana" by Tirumalevaidya, "Bhagavadgite" by Nagarasa and a writing on
geometrycalled "Kshetraganita" by Timmarasa.Narasimhacharya (1988), p24] Among Jain writers, Bhattakalanka Devastands out as a grammarian of extraordinary talent. He was the last of the three notables who wrote comprehensively on old Kannada grammar ( Nagavarma IIand Keshirajabeing the other two). A native of South Canara, he was an expert in Sanskrit grammar as well. Though his writing, "Karnataka Sabdanusasanam", is modelled on the lines of Sanskrit grammar, it is an exhaustive work. His emphasis on the importance of Kannada language and its rich literary history is evident.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p 476] Padmana Pandita authored the "Hayasara samuchchaya" and Chandrashekara wrote the "Ramachandra charitra", his Jain version of the story of the Hindu god Rama.
A mendicant poet and moralist whose origin is shrouded in mystery,
Sarvajna, (literally "The all knowing") has left his mark on Kannada literature and the Kannada speaking people. Some clues in the first fourteen of a series of poems written by him ("Reminiscences of Birth") give an indication about his birth, parentage and his reasons for leaving home at an early age. It is believed he was born in Ambalur (Abbalur in modern Haveri district) to an illicit relationship between a Brahmin man called Basavarasa and Mali, the wife of a potter named Mala.Prasad (1987), p 7] Davasale Sarvajna as he calls himself in one of these poems, grew up to be a candid and outspoken boy. Alarmed that he may someday reveal her exra-marital relationship to her husband, his mother may have sent Sarvajna out of the house. Unable to bear the taunts of society, he may have become a drifter. His poems after the 14th focus on his spiritual quest.Prasad (1987), pp 9-10]
Scholars place him between the 15th and 18th centuries based on other literary evidence.Narasimhacharya (1988), p 24] Prasad (1987), p 16] A few of his poems give more hints about his adulthood, his
Guruand a possible unsuccessful marriage. After the deah of his guru, Sarvajna may have taken to ascetism, acquiring knowledge from the world, rather than from formal education, writing poems about the nature of people and places. His witty poems, numbering more about 2000, are his observations on the art of living, the purpose of life and the ways of the world written in a simple "tripadi" metre popular in folk literature.Shiva Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p 191] A tomb in Hirekerur (modern Haveri district) it is said, is his final resting place.Prasad (1987), p 15] Neither was he patronized by royalty nor did he write for fame, his main aim was to instruct people about morality. All his poems end with his name "Sarvajna".Prasad (1987), pp 5-6]
Shadaksharadeva wrote the "Vrishabhendra Vijaya", "Sabarasankara Vilasa" and the "Rajashekara Vilasa" in 1655. The latter work contains poems rivalling Lakshmisa's "Jaimimi Bharata" in popular Kannada poetry. Other well known writers were Harisvara, who wrote "Prabhudeva Purana", Siddhananjesa, the author of "Raghavanka Charitra" and "Gururaja Charitra", Prasabhushana (or Pemmisetti), author of "Gurubhaktandara Charitre" and Mummadi Tamma, the author of "Sankara Samhita".
The period of rule of Kanteerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1673-1714) is often considered the age of
Yakshaganacompositions. A polyglot, the king was proficient in Kannada, Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil and Prakrit. He authored fourteen Yakshaganas in various languages, though all are written in the Kannada script.Pranesh (2003), p37-38] Though Yakshagana in its rudimentary form is known to have existed in the Telugu language going back to the 14th century in the form of songs sung by women, the idea of introducing a philosophical theme to it is credited to saint Paramananda Tirtha, while King Kanteerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1704-1714) is credited with writing the earliest Yakshaganas that included "sangita" (music), "nataka" (drama) and "natya" (dance).Pranesh (2003), p37] These Yakshaganas first became popular in the South Kanararegion of modern Karnataka, with the drama troupes quickly spreading to Mysore, Yelundur and other regions in interior Karnataka.Kamath (2001), p281]
Cheluvambe, a queen of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar I (1714-1732), was an accomplished Kannada writer. Her noted works include "Varanandi Kalyana", which narrates the wedding of Varanandi (the daughter of the
Badshahof Delhi) and the author's deity, Cheluvaraya Swamy of Melkote. The author envisioned Varanandi to be the reincarnation of Satyabhama, the consort of the Hindu god Krishna. Her composition "Venkatachala Mahatmya", written in choupadi metre, is about the Hindu god Venkateshwararesiding on the Vrishabhagiri hill. She also composed works on Alamelu Mangamma, the consort of the Hindu god Venkateshwara of Tirupati.Pranesh (2003), p42-43] Chenniah wrote the "Padmini Parinaya" in "sangatya" metre.Pranesh (2003), p43]
In the court of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar II (1734-1766), Kalale Nanjaraja (1720) was the most noted scholar. A native of Kalale (near
Nanjangudin modern Mysore district), Nanjaraja came from a family of powerful warriors and statesman. A devout Shaivite, he is known to have held court in parallel with the king and earned the title "Nutan Bhojaraja" for his literary pursuits.Pranesh (2003), p45] He was proficient in many languages and is known to have written more than twenty works in Kannada, Sanskrit and Telugu. His most famous writing is a Sanskrit work called "Sangita Gangadhara" or "Gita Gangadhara". The writing is based on Jayadeva's "Gita Govinda" and narrates the romance of the Hindu god Shivaand his consort Parvation the banks of the KapilaRiver, a tributary of the Kaveri River.Pranesh (2003), p46]
Other Shaivite writers in Kannada were Nurondiah (1740) who composed the "Soundarya Kavya" (a eulogy for his patron king) in sangatya metre, and Sankara Kavi, who authored "Chorabasava Charitre". Among Jain writers in Kannada, Payanna wrote the "Ahimsacharitre", Padmaraja wrote the "Pujyapada Charitre" in 1792, Padmanabha authored the "Ramachandra Charitre" and Surala wrote the "Padmavati Charitre", and Jayendra was the author of "Karnataka Kuvalayananda".Narasimhacharya (1988), p25] Shalyada Krishnaraja, a poet from the royal family, was a proficient writer in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit. His contributions to treatises on music include "Nija Dipika Ratna", "Anubhava Rasayana", "Bhakti Marga Sarovara" and "Gnana Sarovara", the last two mentioned writings containing eighty-six compositions. He is credited with a host of sangatya, gadya, vachana compositions and eighteen philosophical compositions in the work "Shalyada Arasinavara Tikina Kirtane".Pranesh (2003), p49-50]
Among brahmin writers in Kannada, Helavanakatte Giriyamma, a
Haridasa, wrote the "Chandrahasana Kathe", Lakshmakavi wrote "Bharata" and "Rukmangada Charite", Venkatesha authored "Halasya Mahatmya" in champu metre, Konayya wrote the "Krishnarjuna Sangara", Timmamatya narrated his version of the Ramayanain "Ramabhyudaya Kathakusumamanjari" and Balavaidya Cheluva is credited with the writings "Lilavati" and an encyclopedia of precious stones called "Ratnasastra".Narasimhacharya (1988), p25]
King Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1799-1868) is called the "Morning Star of the Renaissance in Karnataka". He gave munificient grants to scholars of all kinds while being a prolific writer in Kannada himself. Over forty notable writings are attributed to him of which a poetic romance called "Saugandhika Parinaya" is best known. There are two versions of this - one is a sangatya and the other a drama.Narasimhacharya (1988), p26] In this writing, the author imaginatively narrates the story of the sage
Durvasa, who curses Devendra (Hindu god Indra) to be born as Sucharitra, the son of Sugandharaya, the king of Ratnapuri. Devendra's wife Shachidevi takes birth as Sougandhika and marries Sucharitra.Pranesh (2003), p55] Krishnaraja Wodeyar III also wrote three important treatises. They are the "Sri Tatwanidhi" and "Swara Chudamani" on music and the "Sara Sangraha Bharata" on dance.Pranesh (2003), p55] For the first time in South India, Krishnaraja Wodeyar III incorporated musical iconography into writings on music in his "Sri Tatwanidhi". This work is considered a beautiful combination of literature, music and painting. The language used is Sanskrit and is written in the Kannada script and is essentially an encyclopedia of Purana, Agama, Jyothishya ( astrology), music, history (Itihasa), Tantraand Shilpa (art). It was written on 1500 royal sized sheets in nine chapters containing one thousand pictures. After 1799, the British completely took over the administration of the kingdom and the king devoted all his time to developing the fine arts, earning the title "Abhinava Bhoja".Pranesh (2003), p53]
In the court of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar III, Aliya Lingaraja Urs, a native of Heggadadevanakote (in modern Mysore district), became the foremost writer in Kannada and Sanskrit. His name, Aliya, means "son-in-law" in Kannada as he was married to two of the king's daughters. To the credit of Lingaraja Urs are over fifty works spanning such forms as literature, songs, Javalis, Yakshagana and drama. For his contributions to the fine arts, he earned the title "Ubhaya Kavita Visharada" (master of poetry in two languages) and "Sarasa Kavi Kula Tilaka". His compositions are written with many pen names all starting with the term "linga", such as "lingaraja" and "Linganripa".Pranesh (2003), p78] Famous among his Kannada writings is the well known poem "Prabhavati Parinaya" and the Yakshagana called "Girija Kalyana" in sangatya metre containing six chapters. In this work the author narrates the birth of Girija the daughter of Himavanta, her youthful days, her penance and finally her marriage to the Hindu god
Shiva.Pranesh (2003), p80] Narasimhacharya (2003), p26]
Eager to spread their gospel in Kannada, Christian missionaries were responsible for printing the earliest books in that language (1817). The first Kannada Bible was printed in 1820, the Rev. Reeve compiled the earliest English-Kannada dictionary in 1824 and the Rev. Carrey published a Kannada grammar in 1817.Kamath (2001), p279] Modern Kannada prose was born in 1823 when "Mudra Manjusha", a translation of the Sanskrit play by Vishakadatta, was written by Kempu Narayana in the court of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III.Kamath (2001), p280] The influence of English literature and poetry on Kannada was evident from the numerous songs of prayer composed by the missionaries.Kamath (2001), p281]
The rise of Devalapurada Nanjunda to the stature of court poet under King Krishnaraja Wodeyar III came under unusual circumstances. A native of Nagarle village in
Nanjangud(modern Mysore district), he received his education at Devalapura and was initially employed as a mere attendant in the king's palace. When an important seer (saint) from the Sringeri Advaitaorder visited the king's court, the king ordered his staff to contribute one month's salary as a token of respect for the seer. Unable to come up with this amount, Nanjunda composed a poem for the seer. Impressed by his poetic ability, the seer advised that king to make Nanjunda his court poet.Pranesh (2003), p87] For his scholarship in Kannada and Sanskrit, he received the title "Ubhaya Bhasha Kavi". Among his famous compositions in Kannada are "Sougandhika Parinaya" in sangatya metre, "Samudra Mathana Kathe" as a Yakshagana, "Sri Krishna Sarvabhoumara Charitre" in sangatya metre and "Krishnendra Gite" in choupadi metre.Pranesh (2003), p87-88] In Sanskrit, he composed the "Pattabhisheka Mahotsava Varnanam".
A luminary in the court of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar III and Chamaraja Wodeya IX (1868-1901) was Basavappa Shastry, a native of Mysore. Known as "Kannada Nataka Pitamaha", Shastri composed the first state anthem of the Mysore kingdom, "Kayou Sri Gowri", for the coronation of Chamaraja Wodeyar IX.Pranesh (2003), p81] Because of his proficiency in Kannada and Sanskrit and his knowledge of the fine arts, especially drama, he was appointed the head of Chamaraja Nataka Sabha (a drama college) in 1882. Basavappa Shastry authored many dramas in Kannada and translated
Shakespeare's "Othello" into its Kannada version called "Shurasena Charite" with the help of D.C. Subba Rao. His translations from Sanskrit to Kannada are many and include "Kalidasa", "Abhignyana Shakuntala", "Vikramorvasheeya", "Malavikagnimitra", "Uttara Rama Charite", "Chanda Koushika Nataka", "Malathi Madhava" and "Ratnavali".Pranesh (2003), p82] In addition to translating or writing original dramas, Basavappa Shastry incorporated hundreds of musical compositions into the script of the drama.
Mysore Karigiri Rao, a native of Tumkur and an expert in Sanskrit with a knowledge of both theoretical and practical aspects of music, wanted to write in simple Kannada about music that could appeal to all musicians. As a result, he wrote two treatises called the "Gana Vidya Rahasya Prakashini" and "Sangita Subhodhini" focusing on the "lakshya" and "lakshana" aspects of music. He was a court poet and musician during the rule of King Chamaraja Wodeyar IX and held such titles as "Sangeeta Vidya Kanteerava".Pranesh (2003), p124, p127] Other well known Kannada writers in the court of Chamaraja Wodeyar IX were S.G. Narasimhacharya, Nandalige Lakshminaranappa, Dhondo Narasimha Mulabaglu, Santa Kavi and B. Ventakacharya.Narasimhacharya (1988), p26]
Mysore Vasudevacharya, a child prodigy, was born in Mysore in 1865 to Subramanyacharya (of Chevur, modern Tamil Nadu) and Krishna Bai. From the age of five, the talented lad was patronised by the King Chamaraja Wodeyar IX. In his early years he learnt Sanskrit at the Maharaj's College and veena from Veena Padmanabiah, and eventually was sent by the king to learn music from Patnam Subramanya Iyer of Tiruvayyur (in modern Tamil Nadu). The pinnacle of his musical career came when he performed at the National Congress Convention in 1926 at Belagavibefore an audience made up of Mahatma Gandhiand other leaders.Pranesh (2003), pp135-137] Apart from a vast array of compositions in Sanskrit and Telugu, he wrote two books in Kannada, one of them an autobiography called "Nenapugalu" ("Memories") and "Nha Kanda Kalavidaru" ("The Musicians I Have Met") in which he wrote the biographies of many well-known musicians.Pranesh (2003), p147]
Modern Kannada literature gained momentum under the patronage of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV (1902-1940). The earliest modern novels in the Kannada language are the "Suryakantha" by Lakshmi Gadagkar (1892) and the "Indrabayi" (1899) by Gulvadi Venkata Rao. Translations of novels from Marathi and Bengali were also popular.Kamath (2001), p281] The rise of a national consciousness from the freedom struggle, the birth of Kannada nationalism and pride in the history of ancient Karnataka had a direct impact on the literature of this age. Dr. J.F. Fleet wrote the "Dynasties of Canarese Districts of the Bombay Presidency" in 1894. Under the patronage of Mysore Kingdom, Dr. Louis Rice compiled an exhaustive history of Karnataka in his "
Epigraphia Carnatica" (1886), and "Mysore and Coorg from Inscriptions" (1909). Dr. Bhandarkar published the "Early History of the Dekhan" (1884) and Robert Sewell wrote the "A Forgotten Empire" (1901). Soon after, Alur Venkata Rao consolidated all these histories into Kannada in his book "Karnataka Gatavaibhava" in 1917.Kamath (2001), p281]
Belakawadi Srinivasa Iyengar (born as Kuppaswamy Iyengar), who was born in Srigiripura (near Shivagange in Karnataka state), became a court musician during the rule of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV in 1916. He authored an important treatise on music in Kannada called "Ganamrita" in twelve chapters to help students of music understand its theoretical and practical aspects easily. The book was published by his son in 1936.Pranesh (2003), p205] Jayachamaraja Wodeyar, the last king of Mysore, was a noted writer in Kannada and English and wrote the classics "Dattatreya - The Way and the Goal" and "Gita and the Indian culture" in English and the "Dharma mattu manava" in Kannada.Pranesh (2003), p225]
* Pranesh, Meera Rajaram (2003), Musical Composers during Wodeyar Dynasty (1638-1947 A.D.), Vee Emm Publications, Bangalore EBK 94056
* R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras,1988 ISBN 81-206-0303-6.
* Suryanath U. Kamat, A Concise history of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002) OCLC: 7796041
*cite book |last=Prasad |first=K.B. Prabhu|title= Sarvajna|origyear=1987|year= 1987|publisher= Sahitya Akademi|location=|isbn=817201404X
*cite book |last=Shiva Prakash|first=H.S.|editor=Ayyappapanicker|title=Medieval Indian Literature:An Anthology |year= 1997|publisher=Sahitya Akademi|location=|isbn=8126003650|chapter= Kannada
*cite book |last= Various|first= |title= Encyclopaedia of Indian literature - vol 2|origyear=1988|year=1988|publisher= Sahitya Akademi|location= |isbn=8126011947
*cite book |last= Various|first= |title= Encyclopaedia of Indian literature - vol 1|origyear=1987|year=1987|publisher= Sahitya Akademi|location= |isbn=8126018038
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