Savoia-Marchetti heavy fighter prototypes


Savoia-Marchetti heavy fighter prototypes

The Savoia-Marchetti SM.88, SM.91 and SM.92 were Italian twin-engined heavy fighter prototypes of World War II. All featured a dual-fuselage structure and used German Daimler-Benz engines.

avoia-Marchetti SM.88

infobox Aircraft
name = SM.88
type = Heavy fighter
manufacturer = Savoia-Marchetti


caption =
designer =
first flight = 1939
introduction =
retired =
status =
primary user =
more users =
produced =
number built = 1
unit cost =
developed from =
variants with their own articles =

The SM.88 was created around 1938 and intended for export. Resembling the P-61 Black Widow, it was a light-medium, land based, multi-role fighter. This was a new concept for Italian aircraft industries, though Savoia had already developed a similar aircraft with the S.55 (that had twin fuselages without a central nacelle). The SM.88 was meant as an advanced combat aircraft, offering modern design at low cost.

The SM.88 had a crew of three; two pilots and a rear gunner. The crew nacelle was located in the middle of the wing structure linking the two fuselages, behind the two Daimler-Benz DB 601 engines. The cockpit was entirely glassed and the upper part could be ejected.

The tail had two vertical rudders with a single horizontal surface between. The retractable landing gear consisted of four wheels, two in the front and back, respectively. The structure was a wooden frame covered with a metal skin.

When the aircraft bombed a target, the pilot took on the role of bombardier. To improve accuracy the pilot lay on the floor of the fuselage while the co-pilot flew the aircraft. The rear gun was encased in a flexible plastic enclosure in the rear fuselage (??) while two more 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns were fixed in the wings.

The aerodynamic design of the plane gave it good performance at a low cost and it was presented for consideration to the Regia Aeronautica in 1939. However with the coming of World War II the export of Italian aircraft with DB601 engines was forbidden.

Unfortunately for Savoia-Marchetti, the Messerschmitt Bf 110, with the same engines, was almost as fast as the SM.88, but featured a much more conventional and reliable layout (and better armament). Thus only one prototype SM.88 was built.

In 1942 the Regia Aeronautica requested a redesign of the aircraft into a fast reconnaissance aircraft or bomber. They requested a range of 2,000 km (1,240 mi) with auxiliary tanks, or 1,500 km (930 mi) with 500 kg (1,100 lb) bombload (with an effective radius of 750 km (465 mi)).

pecifications (SM.88)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?= plane
jet or prop?= prop
ref=
crew=Three; pilot, co-pilot, rear-gunner
capacity=
payload main=
payload alt=
length main= 12.1 m
length alt= 39 ft 8 in
span main= 14.5 m
span alt= 47 ft 6 in
height main= 3.5 m
height alt= 10 ft 6 in
area main= 32.5 m²
area alt= 349.7 ft²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 5,000 kg
empty weight alt= 11,000 lb
loaded weight main= 7,000 kg
loaded weight alt= 15,400 lb
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
more general=Fuel: 1,250 litres in 10 wing tanks
engine (prop)= Daimler-Benz DB 601
type of prop=liquid-cooled supercharged inverted V12 engines
number of props=2
power main=
power alt=
power original=
max speed main= 560 km/h
max speed alt= 302 knots, 348 mph
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
range main=
range alt=
ceiling main= 8,700 m
ceiling alt= 28,535 ft
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=
loading alt=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=
* Climb to 5,000 m (16,400 ft): 12 min. 30 sec.
armament=
* 3 × 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns
* 600 kg (1,320 lb) bombload
avionics=

avoia-Marchetti SM.91

infobox Aircraft
name = SM.91
type = Fighter/bomber
manufacturer = Savoia-Marchetti



caption =
designer =
first flight = 11 March 1943
introduction =
retired =
status =
primary user =
more users =
produced =
number built = 2
unit cost =
developed from =
variants with their own articles =

Savoia-Marchetti first developed the SM.91, a long range fighter/bomber, to compete in a contract offered by the Regia Aeronautica to the Italian aircraft companies in 1938.

In July 1942, the Regia Aeronautica requested designs for a new aircraft, propelled by the DB605 engine, capable of flying at 620 km/h (385 mph) with a range of 1,600 km (995 mi). The armament should consist of six MG 151 cannon in the nose and wings and a 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine gun as a defensive weapon. It should have a 800 kg (1,760 lb) bombload. At this point, the request for a long range fighter killed the SM.88, still in development, and the SM.91, a larger, heavier and more modern design, was authorized.

The fuselage and the wings were all-metal, to achieve the best performance regardless of cost. The central nacelle held the crew of two, and the wings and tail was similar to the SM.88. Fuel capacity was 1,600 liters. but with auxiliary tanks could be raised to 1,800 liters. It is unknown if it was capable of a range of 1,600 km.

The two DB 605 engines gave a total of 2,950 hp. The aircraft's maximum speed at 585 km/h (363 mph), was better than the SM.88. There were three 20 mm MG 151 cannon in the nose. Two more were mounted in the wings, close to the fuselage. Another machine gun was provided for the rear gunner. Total bombload was 1,640 kg (3,608 lb) or a torpedo.

The prototype, designated "MM.530", flew for the first time on 11 March 1943, tested by Aldo Moggi. There were two prototypes, the second a modified SM.88 prototype.

The machine flew at Vergiate and logged 27 hours in the next few months. It was advanced, but was not entered into the official tests at Guidonia, perhaps because it was still undergoing testing. The first prototype was captured and sent to Germany in October 1943, after which it vanished and is presumed destroyed. The second prototype was captured by the Germans incomplete when they occupied northern Italy in September 1943. This aircraft was tested on 10 July 1944, but was destroyed by Allied bombers later in the year.

pecifications (SM.91)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?= plane
jet or prop?= prop
ref=
crew=Two, pilot and rear gunner
capacity=
payload main=
payload alt=
length main= 13.25 m
length alt= 43 ft 6 in
span main= 19.7 m
span alt= 64 ft 7 in
height main= 3.85 m
height alt= 12 ft 7 in
area main= 41.76 m²
area alt= 449.3 ft²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 6,400 kg
empty weight alt=14,080 lb
loaded weight main=
loaded weight alt=
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
more general=
engine (prop)= Daimler-Benz DB 605
type of prop=liquid-cooled supercharged inverted V12 engines
number of props=2
power main=
power alt=
power original=
max speed main= 585 km/h
max speed alt= 315 knots, 363 mph
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
range main= 1,600 km
range alt= 864 nm, 995 mi
ceiling main= 10,800 m
ceiling alt= 35,425 ft
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=
loading alt=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=
* Climb to 6,000 m (19,680 ft): 7 min. 40 sec.
armament=
* 5 × 20 mm MG 151 cannons
* 1,640 kg bombload
avionics=

avoia-Marchetti SM.92

infobox Aircraft
name = SM.92
type = Heavy fighter
manufacturer = Savoia-Marchetti



caption =
designer =
first flight = October 1943
introduction =
retired =
status =
primary user =
more users =
produced =
number built =1
unit cost =
developed from =
variants with their own articles =

Another heavy fighter/bomber based on the SM.88 was the SM.92. The SM.92 did away with the mid-wing crew nacelle. The crew of two sat in the left fuselage only. Two DB 605 engines were fitted.

Armament consisted of three 20 mm MG 151 cannon, two in the mid-wing and one in the right fuselage, and three 12.7 mm machine guns, one under each engine, and one remotely-controlled in the tail. A bombload of up to 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) could be carried under the inner wing, and 160 kg (350 lb) bombs were carried under the outer wings.

The maximum speed was increased, but still did not meet that required. It had a complex and advanced structure which contributed to difficulties in producing a working prototype. The prototype "MM.531" flew for the first time in October 1943 and logged over 21 hours of flight time. In March 1944 it was mistaken for a P-38 Lightning and attacked by a Macchi C.205. The aircraft survived by performing evasive manoeuvres, but it was so badly damaged that it was grounded for months. The SM.92 was destroyed by Allied bombing in 1944.

pecifications (SM.92)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?= plane
jet or prop?= prop
ref=
crew=Two, pilot and rear gunner
capacity=
payload main=
payload alt=
length main= 13.7 m
length alt= 44 ft 11 in
span main= 18.55 m
span alt= 60 ft 10 in
height main= 4.15 m
height alt= 13 ft 7 in
area main= 38.52 m²
area alt= 414.5 ft²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 5,900 kg
empty weight alt= 12,980 lb
loaded weight main=
loaded weight alt=
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
more general=
engine (prop)= Daimler-Benz DB 605
type of prop=liquid-cooled supercharged inverted V12 engines
number of props=2
power main=
power alt=
power original=
max speed main= 615 km/h
max speed alt= 332 knots, 382 mph
max speed more= at 6,700 m (21,976 ft)
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
range main= 2,000 km
range alt= 1,080 nm, 1,243 mi
ceiling main= 12,000 m
ceiling alt= 39,360 ft
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=
loading alt=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=
* Climb to 6,000 m (19,680 ft): 7 min. 10 sec.
armament=
* 3 × 20 mm MG 151 cannons
* 3 × 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns
* Up to 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) bombload
avionics=

ee also

aircontent
related=

similar aircraft=

sequence=

lists=
* List of aircraft of Italy, World War II
see also=

References

* Lembo, Daniele, "I bifusoliera della Regia", Storia militare magazine, Westward editions, n.11, April-May 2000 it icon

External links

* [http://worldatwar.net/chandelle/v3/v3n1/italtwin.html SM.91 & SM.92]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Savoia-Marchetti SM.85 — infobox Aircraft name = SM.85 type = Dive bomber manufacturer = Savoia Marchetti caption = designer = first flight = 19 December 1936 introduction = retired =1940 status = primary user = Regia Aeronautica more users = produced = number built = 34 …   Wikipedia

  • List of World War II topics (S) — # S 1 Uranium Committee # S 50 # S mine # S Phone # S. A. Ayer # S. J. Warmington # S.L.A. Marshall # S.S. Doomtrooper # S.S. Pink Star # S?awomir Maciej Bittner # S?kichi Takagi # S?saku Suzuki # Søren Kam # Søren Petersen # S1 Scout Car # SA… …   Wikipedia

  • Regia Aeronautica — Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction) …   Wikipedia

  • List of bomber aircraft — is organized by grouped years, countries, and bomber aircraft type.1914 1918*France ** Breguet Bre.4 ** Breguet Bre.5 ** Breguet 6 ** Breguet 14 (reconnaissance bomber) ** Breguet 16 (night bomber) ** Caudron G.4 ** Farman F.40 (reconnaissance… …   Wikipedia

  • Alfa Romeo — Infobox Company name = Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. type = Private foundation = 24 June 1910 in Milan, Italy location city = flagicon|Italy Turin location country = Italy area served = Worldwide (except United States and Canada) industry =… …   Wikipedia

  • Development of Chinese Nationalist air force (1937–1945) — Polikarpov I 16 with Chinese insignia. I 16 was the main fighter plane used by the Chinese Airforce and Soviet volunteers. The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) was formed by the Kuomintang after the establishment of the Aviation Ministry in… …   Wikipedia

  • IAR 80 — infobox Aircraft name = IAR 80 type = Fighter aircraft manufacturer = Industria Aeronautică Română (IAR) caption = IAR 80 on patrol designer = Ion Grosu first flight = 1938 introduced = retired = produced =IAR 80: 170 IAR 81: 176 number built =… …   Wikipedia

  • Junkers Ju 52 — infobox Aircraft name = Junkers Ju 52/3m type = Military transport aircraft manufacturer = Junkers caption = designer = first flight = 13 October 1930 introduced = 1931 retired = status = primary user = Luftwaffe more users = Spain France… …   Wikipedia