- Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport
Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport
Aéroport international de Beyrouth - Rafic Hariri
مطار بيروت رفيق الحريري الدولي
Matar Bayrūt Rafiq al-Hariri ad-Dowaly
IATA: BEY – ICAO: OLBA Summary Airport type Public Owner/Operator Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) Serves Beirut, Lebanon Hub for Middle East Airlines (MEA) Elevation AMSL 27 m / 87 ft Coordinates Website Runways Direction Length Surface m ft 03/21 3,800 12,467 Concrete 16/34 3,395 11,138 Concrete 17/35 3,250 10,663 Asphalt Statistics (2010) Aircraft Movements 81,040 Total Passengers 5,552,746
Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport (formerly Beirut International Airport) (IATA: BEY, ICAO: OLBA) (Arabic: مطار بيروت , French: Aéroport international de Beyrouth - Rafic Hariri) is located 9 km (5.6 mi) from the city centre in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon and is the only operational commercial airport in the country. It is the hub for Lebanon's national carrier, Middle East Airlines (more commonly known as MEA). It is also the hub for the Lebanese cargo carrier Trans Mediterranean Airways (more commonly known as TMA Cargo), as well as the charter carriers Med Airways and Wings of Lebanon.
It is the main port of entry into the country along with the Port of Beirut. The airport was selected by "Skytrax Magazine" as the second best airport and aviation hub in the Middle East; it came behind Dubai International Airport.
The airport is managed and operated by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) which operates within the Ministry of Public Works and Transport. The DGCA is also responsible for operating the air traffic control (ATC) at the airport as well as controlling Lebanon's airspace.
Maintenance and general upkeep duties ranging from cleaning the terminal to de-rubberising the runways are the responsibility of Middle East Airports Services (MEAS) which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the national carrier, Middle East Airlines.
There are plans to eventually replace the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) with an independent autonomous government owned agency called the Lebanese Civil Aviation Authority (LCAA) which would assume the responsibilities of regulation and safety oversight while a new government-owned corporation named the Beirut International Airport Corporation (BRHIAC) would assume management and operations responsibilities of the airport.
- 1 History
- 2 Plans
- 3 Passenger Terminal
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Passenger services
- 6 Airport services
- 7 Statistics
- 8 Accidents and incidents
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The airport opened on 23 April 1954, replacing the much smaller Bir Hassan Airfield which was located a short distance north. At the time of its opening, the terminal was very modern and it featured an excellent spotters terrace with a cafe. The airport consisted of two asphalt runways at the time. Runway 18/36 at 3,250 metres (10,663 feet) was used primarily for landings from the 18 end while runway 03/21 at 3,180 metres (10,433 feet) was used primarily for take-offs from the 03 end.
A premier Middle East hub
The airport grew to become a premier hub in the Middle East, thanks to limited competition from neighbours, with fast and steady growth by the country's four carriers at the time, Middle East Airlines (MEA), Air Liban, Trans Mediterranean Airways (TMA), and Lebanese International Airways (LIA) plus numerous foreign carriers.
In response to an attack on an El Al jet in Athens, on the night of 28 December 1968, Israeli commandos mounted a surprise attack on the airport and destroyed 13 civilian aircraft belonging to the Lebanese carriers, Middle East Airlines (Air Liban had merged with MEA by this time), Trans Mediterranean Airways, and Lebanese International Airways. This caused serious devastation to the Lebanese aviation industry. Middle East Airlines managed to rebound quickly, but Lebanese International Airways went bankrupt and its employees were transferred to MEA.
Lebanese Civil War
The airport lost its status and the glamour it once had with the start of the 15-year long Lebanese Civil War in April 1975 in which it lost virtually all of its airline services with the exception of the two Lebanese carriers, Middle East Airlines and Trans Mediterranean Airways, which continued operating with the exception of certain periods of interruption when the airport was completely closed. Despite the conflict, the terminal was renovated in 1977, only to be badly damaged 5 years later by Israeli shelling during the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. The airport was the site of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, in which 241 American servicemen were killed. The airport's runways were renovated in 1982 and 1984.
By the time war finally came to an end in 1990, the airport was clearly outdated and fatigued. It was clear that if Beirut was to try to rebound itself, it needed to launch a massive reconstruction program. A 10-year reconstruction program was launched in 1994 which included the construction of a brand new terminal, two new runways, a new fire station building, a new powerplant, a new general aviation terminal, a new underground parking garage, and the rehabilitation of many structures such as the radar building.
In 1998, the first phase of the new terminal was completed. It was located immediately adjacent to the east of the old terminal and consists of gates 1-12. After it was inaugurated, the old terminal was demolished and construction on the western half began and was completed in 2000, however it was not inaugurated until 2002. This consists of gates 13-23. The new terminal can handle 6 million passengers annually and is expected to be expanded to handle 16 million passengers by 2035.
It was decided early on that the original runways were no longer sufficient, especially if Beirut was to see large aircraft like the upcoming Airbus A380. A new landing runway, 17/35 was constructed protruding at an angle out into the sea, with a length of 3,395 metres (11,138 feet). This seaward protrusion was built in order to move landing traffic away from the city in a bid to improve safety and reduce aircraft noise. A new take-off runway was constructed parallel to the old 03/21 at a length of 3,800 metres (12,467 feet) making it the longest runway in the airport. The old 03/21 was converted to a taxiway for accessing the new runway 03/21. Unlike the old runways, the two new runways were constructed from concrete and feature more advanced lighting systems and instrument landing systems. Runway 18/36 is still open, although it is used very rarely.
In 2004, runway 17/35 was re-designated 16/34 and runway 18/36 was re-designated 17/35 after more accurate runway heading measurements were conducted.
On 17 June 2005, the General Aviation Terminal was finally opened. It is located on the northwestern corner of the airport and is one of the most advanced general aviation terminals in the Middle East featuring state of the art facilities. All fixed base operators and VIP charter providers have moved their operations to this state-of-the art terminal.
More damage during the 2006 war
On 13 July 2006 at approximately 6:00 a.m. local time, all 3 runways of the airport sustained significant damage from missile strikes directed at it by the Israeli Air Force as part of the 2006 Lebanon War. The Israeli Air Force claimed at the time that Hezbollah had received a weapons shipment there. The runways were rendered inoperative and the Lebanese Government declared that the airport was closed until further notice.
Limited activity at the airport
The airport reopened to commercial flights on August 17, 2006 with the arrival of a Middle East Airlines (MEA) flight around 1:10 p.m. local time (10:10 a.m. GMT) from Amman, followed by a Royal Jordanian flight also from Amman. This marked the first commercial flight arrival at Beirut International Airport since the airport's closure almost 5 weeks before. All runways and taxiways at the airport have been successfully repaired and the airport is operating as it was before the hostilities.
Israel ends air blockade
On Thursday, 7 September 2006, Israel ended its air blockade of Lebanon. The first plane to land at the airport after the end of the blockade was a Middle East Airlines flight at 6:06 p.m. local time (3:06 p.m. GMT). Soon after that, a Kuwait Airways flight landed at the airport. Over the next couple of days, more airlines resumed flights to the airport, including Emirates, Etihad, Jazeera Airways, Air Arabia, Air France, British Airways (BMED), Cyprus Airways, Egypt Air, Air Algérie, Royal Air Maroc, Jet Airways and Gulf Air.
US air traffic ban lifted
On June 6, 2007, U.S. President Bush lifted a ban on air traffic to Lebanon imposed since the 1985 hijacking of TWA Flight 847. A press release issued by the White House said Bush was determined that the “prohibition of transportation services to Lebanon … is hereby further amended to permit U.S. air carriers under contract to the United States Government to engage in foreign air transportation to and from Lebanon of passengers, including U.S. and non-U.S. citizens.”
On December 17, 2009, President Michel Sleiman announced that US based airlines are considering a partnership agreement with Middle East Airlines (MEA) as a first step to resuming direct flights between Lebanon and the United States and eventually Canada. Brazil's Varig started services from São Paulo and suspended operations in 2006. Before Varig's suspension, it was the only airline of Latin and South America to fly to Beirut.
The ambitious 10-year reconstruction program of the airport is mostly complete and Beirut now has a world-class facility which is ranked among the top airports in the Middle East.
Near-term plans include the rehabilitation of the old runway 17/35, the rehabilitation and construction of new taxiways, the construction of 12 small hangars for the newly inaugurated General Aviation Terminal, and the construction of a cargo village to attract more cargo carriers.
In July 2010, in an interview with Lebanon’s director general of Civil Aviation, Dr Hamdi Chaouk, it was confirmed that Beirut is to increase its capacity from six million passengers a year to 18 million with the construction of a new terminal and 23 new gates – taking the total to 46. Construction would begin on January 2011.
Dr Chaouk said that up to seven of these gates would be designed to take the Airbus A380. He mentioned that talks have been occurring with Emirates and Qatar on the possibility of using Beirut as a hub for flights to London.
The modern terminal consists of 23 gates, 21 of which have jetways, and two of which are dual jetway gates for large aircraft.
The terminal consists of two wings, the East and West Wing, joined together by the Main Terminal, forming a U-shaped building, with each wing being parallel to the other, and the Main Terminal connecting the wings. The Main Terminal includes the bulk of the duty free, some other shops, a restaurant, and the lounges (see below for more details). The East Wing, which opened in 1998, has gates 1-12 and the West Wing, which opened in 2002, has gates 13-23. Gates 2 and 3 are dual jetway gates for large aircraft. Gates 4 and 22 are bus boarding gates, however these are rarely used. When an aircraft is parked on a stand it is usually towed into a jetway position closer to departure. There is Wi-Fi throughout the airport; however, the Wi-Fi is not free of charge, and a card with a password must be purchased.
The Main Terminal consists of 4 levels. They are:
- The Ground Level, which features the arrival area, and also contains a duty free section for arriving passengers next to baggage claim. The duty free shops are accessible to arriving passengers after they clear passport control, but before they clear customs (this duty free, like all the others, is not open to the general public). Car rental agencies are located on this level as well, available for arriving passengers after they clear customs. This level also has cafes open to the general public (i.e., people who are waiting for the arriving passengers).
- The 2nd Level, featuring the departure level, ticketing, and gates area. It also includes the primary duty free shopping area, as well as some other shops, including a Virgin Megastore. Like the Ground Level, there are some cafes open to the general public; these are located in the main entrance foyer, before passengers begin the boarding process, which includes security, ticketing, and passport control. There are 2 security entrances on opposite sides of the foyer, which lead to 1 ticketing area; only passengers with a valid ticket and passport may pass through security. Duty free shopping is not open to the general public, and passengers can only access the duty free area once they have cleared passport control.
- The 3rd Level, which houses all of the private airline lounges, as well as a Japanese restaurant. The restaurant is only available to passengers once they clear passport control.
- The 4th Level, which mainly houses the airport administration offices. Closed to the public.
Each Wing of the airport is accessible from the Main Terminal on opposite sides of the Main Terminal, via its own entrance. Each has only 1 level, and is considered part of the 2nd Level. Both entrances have a security check-point before entering (this is in addition to the 2 security entrances featured just past the main entrance foyer). The 2 Wings are not connected to each other, and are only available to each other via the Main Terminal. Each Wing contains the following:
- 2 cafes, both offering self-service items (drinks, sandwiches, pastries, and chocolates). One of the cafes is much larger than the other, and features televisions displaying international news channels.
- A small duty free shop.
- A magazine/newspaper newsstand, offering publications in Arabic, English, and French.
- A store selling Lebanese touristic merchandise and souvenirs.
- Computer kiosks with internet connection, payable by cash or credit.
- Pay phones.
Airlines and destinations
Airlines Destinations Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo Air Algérie Algiers Air Arabia Sharjah Air Arabia Egypt Alexandria-Borg el Arab Air France Marseille, Paris-Charles de Gaulle Air Méditerranée Paris-Orly Alitalia Rome-Fiumicino Armavia Yerevan Bahrain Air Bahrain, Kuwait Belavia Minsk bmi Khartoum, London-Heathrow Bulgaria Air Seasonal: Sofia Bulgarian Air Charter Seasonal: Varna Cyprus Airways Larnaca Czech Airlines Prague EgyptAir Cairo EgyptAir Express Alexandria-El Nouzha Emirates Dubai Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa Flydubai Dubai Germania Berlin-Tegel, Düsseldorf Gulf Air Bahrain Iran Air Mashhad, Tehran-Imam Khomeini Iraqi Airways Baghdad, Basra, Najaf Jazeera Airways Kuwait Kuwait Airways Kuwait Lufthansa Berlin-Brandenburg [begins 3 June], Frankfurt Malév Hungarian Airlines Budapest Med Airways Arbil, Baghdad, Khartoum, Sulaymaniyah Middle East Airlines Abidjan, Abu Dhabi, Accra, Amman-Queen Alia, Arbil, Athens, Baghdad, Brussels, Cairo, Dammam, Doha, Dubai, Frankfurt, Geneva, Istanbul-Atatürk, Jeddah, Kano, Kinshasa, Kuwait, Lagos, Larnaca, London-Heathrow, Milan-Malpensa, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Riyadh, Rome-Fiumicino
Seasonal: Copenhagen, Düsseldorf, Madinah, Nice
Nas Air Jeddah, Riyadh Oman Air Dubai, Muscat Qatar Airways Doha Pegasus Airlines İstanbul-Sabiha Gökçen Royal Air Maroc Casablanca Royal Jordanian Amman-Queen Alia Saudi Arabian Airlines Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh
Swiss International Air Lines
operated by Edelweiss Air
Zurich  Syrian Air Brussels, Damascus Tarom Bucharest-Otopeni Tunisair Tunis Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk UM Airlines Kiev-Boryspil Wings of Lebanon Najaf Yemenia Amman-Queen Alia, Sana'a
Airlines Destinations Cargolux Luxembourg DHL Express Midex Airlines Al Ain, Paris-Orly TMA Cargo  Amman, Amsterdam, Bahrain, Cairo, Damascus, Doha, Dubai, Jeddah, Khartoum, Kuwait, Milan-Malpensa, Nairobi, Paris-CDG, Riyadh
The airport has all of the typical airport passenger facilities including duty free shops, cafes, restaurants, banks, a post office, prayer rooms and a tourist information centre (managed by the Ministry of Tourism). Additional facilities and conveniences include:
The airport has three lounges for premium passengers located on the mezzanine level above the Duty Free area in the departure area. They are:
- MEA's Cedar Lounge, the largest of the three lounges. It occupies half of the available lounge space, and was expanded and upgraded on August 1, 2005. It is open to non-MEA passengers with first or business class tickets.
- Saudi Arabian Airlines's Golden Lounge. Only Saudi Arabian Airlines passengers are allowed to use this lounge.
- LAT Lounge operated by the ground handler, Lebanese Air Transport (LAT). Open to all the other airlines' premium passengers.
Most airlines serving Beirut simply choose to use either the Cedar Lounge or the smaller LAT Lounge for their premium passengers, which is the reason why there are so few airline lounges in the airport.
The airport has a 3-level car park with a total capacity 2350 cars.
At the moment, there is no public transportation directly to the airport. LCC Bus Route 1 takes passengers from the airport roundabout, one kilometer from the terminal, to Rue Sadat in Hamra, whereas Route 5 takes to the Charles Helou bus station. OCFTC buses number seven and ten also stop at the airport roundabout en route to central Beirut.
Taxis are plentiful at the airport. Comfortable taxis that are authorized by the airport are parked next to the terminal in the arrivals level, and have an airport logo on the side. As these taxis are regulated by the airport authorities, they are guaranteed to be honest in their rates, but they do tend to be very expensive. Regular taxis are also available and are located a little farther from the airport, but these are not guaranteed, as the price can be negotiated. It is advised that you discuss the price prior to departing in the taxi.
In the future, there are plans to offer regularly scheduled bus services from the airport to various parts of the city, and even other parts of the country. However, as of yet, nothing has been achieved with regards to this matter. Bus shelters are already constructed at the airport.
Ground handling providers
The airport has two ground handling operators, Middle East Airlines Ground Handling (MEAG) and Lebanese Air Transport (LAT).
Middle East Airlines Ground Handling (MEAG) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the national carrier, MEA. It provides ground handling services for the national carrier, MEA, as well as most of the carriers serving the airport, including the cargo carriers. MEAG handles nearly 80% of the traffic at the airport.
Lebanese Air Transport (LAT) is a smaller ground handling operator that conducts ground handling operations for a number of carriers serving the airport. LAT specialises in handling charter flights, but do have contracts with a number of scheduled carriers such as British Airways. Once upon a time, LAT was an airline that operated its own aircraft, however this was many years ago.
The airport has one catering company named Lebanese Beirut Airport Catering Company (LBACC).
Fixed Base Operators (FBO)
The airport is home to four fixed base operators for private aircraft.
MEAG recently launched its own FBO services with the opening of the new General Aviation Terminal called Cedar Jet Centre. It is now regarded as the top FBO in the airport.
Another leading FBO is Aircraft Support & Services (ASAS) which specialises in fixed base operator services for private and executive aircraft. In addition, they operate two executive jets which can be chartered to various places.
JR Executive operates a fleet of small propeller aircraft that can be chartered or leased. They also have a flight school to train people how to fly. They also conduct light maintenance on light aircraft and also offer fixed based operator services.
Cirrus Middle East, a member of the German-based Cirrus Group is partnering up with Universal Weather and Aviation to create a fixed base operator and VIP charter service to be launched on October 15 of this year. The company will initially be called Universal/Cirrus Middle East, but will eventually become Universal Aviation Beirut. They aim to become one of the top FBOs in the Middle East and will cater aircraft as large as Boeing 747s.
LAT offers limited fixed base operator services for private and executive aircraft.
Executive Aircraft Services (EAS) offers aircraft charter services, ground handling services, aircraft management and aircraft acquisition and sales.
Aircraft maintenance providers
The airport is the home base of MidEast Aircraft Services Company (MASCO), an aircraft maintenance provider that specialises in all kinds of maintenance for Airbus aircraft, particularly the A320 and A330 series of aircraft. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the national carrier, MEA. MASCO has JAR 145 approval and as a result can maintain any aircraft registered in Europe.
Passenger use and aircraft movements have increased each year since 1990 with the exception of 2006, which saw a sharp decrease in both. Total cargo has trended upwards since 1990, but also experienced a significant decrease in 2006.
Statistics for Beirut International Airport Year Total Passengers Total Cargo (metric tons) Total Aircraft Movements 1990 637,944 8,048 1991 837,144 44,064 10,822 1992 1,092,645 48,859 14,963 1993 1,343,289 45,539 16,581 1994 1,489,429 54,007 19,045 1995 1,672,657 49,742 20,478 1996 1,715,434 46,505 21,004 1997 1,715,434 46,505 21,004 1998 2,006,956 55,037 23,051 1999 2,222,344 54,300 25,010 2000 2,343,387 52,439 29,707 2001 2,444,851 62,789 30,627 2002 2,606,861 65,913 32,952 2003 2,840,400 65,674 34,468 2004 3,334,710 62,081 39,023 2005 3,892,356 68,852 44,295 2006 2,463,576 52,638 27,870 2007 3,009,749 59,387 32.674 2008 4,004,972 71,965 49,873 2009 4,952,899 57,545 69,724 2010 5,552,746 92,098 81,040
Accidents and incidents
- On 21 November 1959, Ariana Afghan Airlines Flight 202 crashed near Beirut on a flight from Beirut to Tehran, killing 24 of the 27 passengers and crew on board the Douglas DC-4.
- On 23 February 1964, Vickers Viscount SU-AKX of United Arab Airlines was damaged beyond economic repair in a heavy landing.
- On 30 September 1975 a Tupolev Tu-154 of Malév Hungarian Airlines, Malév Flight 240 crashed into the sea while approaching the airport. The cause and the circumstances remain mysterious, but it was most likely shot down.
- In September 1970, Pan Am Flight 93 was hijacked while flying to New York. The plane landed to refuel and pick up another PFLP hijacker. It was then flown to Cairo where it was blown up.
- On 17 May 1977 — Antonow An-12, SP-LZA, a cargo plane leased by LOT Polish Airlines from the Polish Air Force along with its crew, flying to Lebanon with a cargo of fresh strawberries crashed 8 kilometers from Beirut airport, all 6 crew members and 3 passengers on board were killed. The airplane crashed due to language problems, the crew repeated the order to descend given by the air traffic control and flew into a mountain.
- On 23 July 1979, a TMA Boeing 707-320C, on a test flight for 4 co-pilots due to be promoted to captains, crashed whilst on a third touch-and-go. The plane touched down but then yawed right to left to right again before the wing clipped the ground causing the plane to flip and come to rest inverted across a taxiway. All 6 crew were killed.
- On 8 January 1987, Middle East Airlines Boeing 707-323C OD-AHB was destroyed by shelling after landing.
- On 25 January 2010, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 409 crashed into the Mediterranean Sea shortly after take-off. The flight had 90 passengers, about 54 of which were Lebanese, and was bound for the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa.
- ^ Ministry of Finance Lebanon-Paris III Progress Report – Transport Sector
- ^ Israelis Enter Lebanon After Attacks
- ^ CNN Report: Israeli warplanes hit Beirut suburb
- ^ http://www.iq-airways.com/AirqAirways/trips_special.php?w=45
- ^ map showing Beirut
- ^ TMA network
- ^ Yearly Traffic 1990-2004.[dead link] Beirut Airport website.
- ^ Official statistics for 2009
- ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19640223-0. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- ^ TMA 1979 crash
- ^ "Criminal Occurrence description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19870108-0. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- ^ "Ethiopian plane crashes off Beirut, 90 feared dead". Reuters. 25 January 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60O08T20100125. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "Ethiopian Airlines plane crashes into Mediterranean sea". The Daily Telegraph (London). 25 January 2010. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/ethiopia/7068288/Ethiopian-Airlines-plane-crashes-into-Medierranean-sea.html. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- Beirut International Airport (Arabic) (English)
- Beirut Duty Free
- Airport information for OLBA at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.
- Current weather for OLBA at NOAA/NWS
- Airport information for BEY / OLBA at Great Circle Mapper.
- Accident history for BEY / OLBA at Aviation Safety Network
- BRHIA guide
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