BioSand Filter


BioSand Filter

BioSand Water Filters are a technological adaptation of the centuries old slow sand filtration process. While implementations exist in many different sizes and varieties, the most common design is intended for use in rural homes where naturally safe or treated water sources are not available. [Citation | last = Manz | first = David | title = Introduction to the BioSand Water Filter | url = http://manzwaterinfo.ca/ | accessdate = August 29, 2007]

BioSand Filters remove 95.0 to 99.0% of organic contaminants, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, worms, and particles. [Citation | last = Elliot et al. | contribution = Intermittently operated slow sand filtration for point of use water treatment. | title = Safe Drinking Water Symposium | year = 2006| publisher = University of North Carolina ] Safe water produced by the filters is free of discoloration, odor, and unpleasant taste [Citation | title = Our Work: BioSand Water Filter | url = http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/ourwork/water/biosandfilter_general.aspx | accessdate = 2007-08-29] , and can be used for drinking, food preparation, personal hygiene, and sanitation. Most common home-based models can produce between 20 and 60 litres of water per hour. [Citation | last = Manz | first = David | title = Introduction to the BioSand Water Filter | url = http://manzwaterinfo.ca/ | accessdate = August 29, 2007]

History

The BioSand Water Filter (BSF) was developed by Dr. David Manz, while a professor and researcher at the University of Calgary, in Calgary, Alberta. [Citation | title = Our Work: BioSand Water Filter | url = http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/ourwork/water/biosandfilter_general.aspx | accessdate = 2007-08-29] BSF development began in 1990 and has continued, involving numerous individuals and organizations that actively develop and deploy the technology. [Citation | last = Manz | first = David | title = Introduction to the BioSand Water Filter | url = http://manzwaterinfo.ca/ | accessdate = August 29, 2007] While several commercial and community-scale implementations exist, the largest use of BSF technology has been in the humanitarian arena. [Citation | last = Manz | first = David | title = Introduction to the BioSand Water Filter | url = http://manzwaterinfo.ca/ | accessdate = August 29, 2007] The relief organization Samaritan's Purse has installed 70,000 filters world-wide [Citation | title = Our Work: BioSand Water Filter | url = http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/ourwork/water/biosandfilter_general.aspx | accessdate = 2007-08-29] , and has recently embarked on an initiative, called Turn on the Tap to install at least 65,000 more filters by 2010. [Citation | title = Turn on the Tap | year = 2007 | url = http://www.turnonthetap.ca | accessdate = 2007-08-29]

Filtration Process

Most BioSand Filters are constructed from concrete, though new plastic models are being tested.Fact|date=August 2007 Gravel and sand are layered inside the filter with a PVC collection pipe situated at the base of the filter. [Citation | last = Drennan | first = Scott | title = Turn on the T
date = July | year = 2007 | url = http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/ourwork/water/faq.aspx | accessdate = August 29, 2007
] Contaminated water from rain, surface, or ground sources is poured through the top of the filter and passes through a plate that diffuses the stream and blocks large contaminants (e.g. stones, large twigs, leaves).

The top few centimeters of the sand trap the bulk of micro-organisms, which accumulate and develop into a highly active food chain, called the Biological Layer or "Schmutzdeke". [Citation | last = Drennan | first = Scott | title = Turn on the T
date = July | year = 2007 | url = http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/ourwork/water/faq.aspx | accessdate = August 29, 2007
] [Citation | title = Photo Journals: How the BioSand Water Filter Works | url = http://manzwaterinfo.ca/publications.html#academic_pubs | accessdate = 2007-08-29] The biological layer, which must remain partially wet, traps and feeds on the micro-organisms and contaminants in the water. Further filtration occurs in the lower layers of sand and gravel, which removes contaminants that cause odour, cloudiness, and taste. [Citation | last = Drennan | first = Scott | title = Turn on the T
date = July | year = 2007 | url = http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/ourwork/water/faq.aspx | accessdate = August 29, 2007
] [Citation | title = Photo Journals: How the BioSand Water Filter Works | url = http://manzwaterinfo.ca/publications.html#academic_pubs | accessdate = 2007-08-29]

Health Benefits

A 2007 study conducted by the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill indicates that BioSand Water Filters can reduce the incidence of diarrheal illness by up to 40 percent. [Citation | last = Office of Global Health, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | title = Biosand filter reduces diarrheal disease in Dominican Republic villages | date = March 18 | year = 2007 | url = http://www.sph.unc.edu/office_of_global_health_news/biosand_filter_reduces_diarrheal_disease_in_dominican_republic_villages_4381_1957.html | accessdate = 2007-08-02]

Maintenance

Over time, the top layers of sand may become clogged with material, causing flow rates to drop. A simple stirring or skimming of the top layer of sand is usually sufficient to restore optimal flow. Frequency of needed maintenance is dependent on the quality of the source water. [Citation | title = BioSand Water Filter: In Depth | url = http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/ourwork/water/biosandfilter_technical.aspx | accessdate = 2007-08-29] Although longitudinal studies have not been completed, Samaritan's Purse reports that filters have remained in effective operation for over ten years.Fact|date=August 2007

References

ee also

*Drinking water
*Slow sand filters
*Samaritan's Purse

External links

* [http://manzwaterinfo.ca/ David Manz's website]
* [http://www.turnonthetap.ca/ Turn on the Tap Program of Samaritan's Purse]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Slow sand filter — Slow sand filters are used in water purification for treating raw water to produce a potable product. They are typically 1 to 2 metres deep, can be rectangular or cylindrical in cross section and are used primarily to treat surface water. The… …   Wikipedia

  • BSF — could mean * Bean Scripting Framework in relation to Java programming language * Bibliothécaires Sans Frontières a French charitable organisation * Bible Scientific Foreknowledge A belief that verses in the Bible have predicted modern technology… …   Wikipedia


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