- East St. Louis, Illinois
name = East St. Louis
category = City
image_caption = East St. Louis houses.
country = United States
state = Illinois
region_type = County
region = St. Clair
area_imperial = 14.4
area_land_imperial = 14.0
area_water_imperial = 0.4
area_round = 2
area_water_percentage = auto
area_percentage_round = 2
lat_d = 38
lat_m = 36
lat_s = 56
lat_NS = N
long_d = 90
long_m = 07
long_s = 40
long_EW = W
elevation_round = 1
population_as_of = 2000
population = 31542
population_density_imperial = 2242.9
population_density_round = 1
government = Council-Manager
established_type = founded
June 6, 1820
leader_type = Mayor
mayor = Alvin Parks, Jr
timezone = CST
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = CDT
utc_offset_DST = -5
postal_code = 62201 62202 62203 62204 62205 62206 62207
area_code = 618
map_caption = Location of East St. Louis within Illinois
map_locator = Illinois
map1 = Map of USA IL.svg
map1_caption = Location of Illinois in the United States
website = [http://www.cesl.us/ www.cesl.us]
East St. Louis is a city located in
St. Clair County, Illinois, USA, directly across the Mississippi Riverfrom St. Louis, Missouri. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 31,542, less than half its peak in 1959. Like many larger industrial cities, it was severely affected by loss of jobs in the restructuring of the railroad industry and deindustrialization of the Rust Beltin the second half of the 20th century.
One of the highlights of the city's waterfront is the
Gateway Geyser, the tallest fountain in the United States. Designed to complement the Gateway Archacross the river in St. Louis, it raises water to a height of 630 feet, the same height as the arch. It is part of the redevelopment of the waterfront.
Native Americans long inhabited both sides of the
Mississippi Riverat this point. Mound builders of the Mississippian cultureconstructed mounds at what became St. Louisand East St. Louis, as well as the large settlement at Cahokiato the east.
After European settlement, East St. Louis' original name was "Illinoistown."cite web |url= http://www.siue.edu/ALESTLE/library/SPRING2001/apr03/alumnus.html|title= Alumnus' book highlights history of East St. Louis|accessdate=2007-07-25 |author= Meier, Jenee|publisher= "Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville Alestle"]
Several destructive tornadoes have hit East St. Louis, the deadliest being the
St. Louis-East St. Louis Tornadoof 1896 which killed at least 255, injured over 1000, and incurred an estimated $2.9 billion in damages (1997 USD). [ [http://www.illinois.com/details/city.php?cityFips=1722255 East St. Louis: Description, Illinois.com] , accessed 19 April 2008]
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and the St. Louis commune
A period of extensive industrial growth followed the
American Civil War. In the expansion, many businessmen became overextended in credit, and a major economic collapse followed the Panic of 1873. This was due to railroad and other manufacturing expansion, land speculation and general business optimism caused by large profits from inflation. The economic recession began in the East and steadily moved west, severely crippling the railroads, the main system of transportation. In response to the difficulties, railroad companies began dramatically lowering workers' wages, forcing employees to work without pay, and cutting jobs and the amount of paid work hours. These wage cuts and additional money-saving tactics used by the industry prompted strikes and unrest on a massive scale.
While most of the strikes in the eastern cities during 1877 were accompanied by violence and mayhem, the late July 1877 St. Louis strike was marked by a bloodless, efficient and quick take-over by dissatisfied workers of commerce and transportation in the area. By
July 22, the St. Louis Communebegan to take shape as representatives from almost all the railroad lines met in East St. Louis. They soon elected an executive committee to command the strike and issued General Order No. 1, halting all railroad traffic other than passenger and mail trains. John Bowman, the mayor of East St. Louis, was appointed arbitrator of the committee. He helped the committee select special police to guard the property of the railroads from damage. The strike and the new "de facto" workers' government, while given encouragement by the largely German-American Workingmen's Partyand the Knights of Labor(two key players in the organization of the Missouri general strike), were run by no organized labor group.
The strike reached the business sector by closing packing industry houses surrounding the
National Stockyards. At one plant, workers allowed processing of 125 cattle in return for 500 cans of beef for the workers. The strike continued to gain momentum, with different regions and workers asking to join in. Though the East St. Louis strike continued in an orderly fashion, across the river there were isolated incidents of violence. Harry Eastman, the East St. Louis workers' representative, addressed the mass of employees: "Go home to your different wards and organize your different unions, but don't keep coming up here in great bodies and stirring up excitement. Ask the Mayor, as we did, to close up all the saloons... keep sober and orderly, and when you are organized, apply to the United Workingmen for orders. Don't plunder ... don't interfere with the railroads here ... let us attend to that".Fact|date=December 2007
July 28the strike was peacefully ended when US troops took over the Relay Depot, the Commune's command center. [ [http://www.riverweb.uiuc.edu/IBEX/IDOT/idot23.htm] ]
The East St. Louis riots of 1917
East St. Louis in 1917 had a strong industrial economy boosted by
World War I. Many workers entered the military and the other workers that was left went on strike,and the war prevented immigration from Europe. Major companies recruited black migrants from the South to work at the Aluminum Ore Companyand the American Steel Company. They were available because the US Army initially rejected many black volunteers in the years before an integrated military. [ [http://www.redstone.army.mil/history/integrate/CHRON3.html A Chronology of African American Military Service: From WWI through WWII] ] Resentment on both sides and the arrival of new workers created fears for job security and raised social tensions. At a white labor meeting on May 28, men traded rumors of black men's and white women's fraternizing. Three thousand white men left the meeting and headed as a mob for the downtown, where they randomly attacked black men on the street. They destroyed buildings and physically attacked people, but no one was killed. The governor called in National Guard to prevent further rioting, but rumors continued to circulate about an organized retaliation from the blacks.
July 1, 1917, a black man attacked a white man. Whites drove by shooting in retaliation. When police came to investigate, the black attacker proceeded to fire on the police and wounded at least one. The next morning, thousands of white spectators marched into the black section of town. The rioters burned entire sections of the city and shot blacks as they escaped the flames. They also lynched several blacks.
Although the governor had called in the National Guard to try to control the situation, several accounts reported that they joined in the rioting. The mob included "ten or fifteen white women, [who] chased a negro woman at the Relay Depot in broad daylight. The girls were brandishing clubs and calling upon the men to kill the woman." 2 The woman was a known prostitute frequented by white men.
East St. Louis was named an
All-America Cityin 1959, having retained prosperity through the decade as its population reached a peak of 82,295 residents. Through the 1950s and later, the city's musicians were an integral creative force in blues, rock and roll and jazz. Some left and achieved national recognition, like Ike and Tina Turner. Many were featured on the PBS series "River of Song" in 1999, covering music of cities along the Mississippi River.
The city was dramatically affected by mid-century deindustrialization and restructuring. As a number of local factories began to close because of changes in industry, the railroad and meatpacking industries also were cutting back and moving jobs out of the region. This led to a precipitous loss of working and middle-class jobs. The city's financial conditions deteriorated. Elected in 1951, Mayor Alvin Fields resorted to ill-judged funding procedures to try to buy the city out of its financial morass. The scheme increased the city's bonded indebtedness and the property tax rate. More businesses closed as workers left the area to seek jobs in other regions. Crime increased as a result of poverty and lack of opportunities. The city is also left with expensive clean-up of brownfields, areas with environmental contamination by heavy industry that makes redevelopment more difficult.
Street gangs such as the War Lords, Black Egyptians, 29th Street Stompers and Hustlers appeared in inner neighborhoods. Like other cities with endemic problems by the 1960s, East St. Louis suffered riots in the latter part of the decade. In September 1967, rioting occurred in the city's South End. Also, in the summer of 1968, a still-unsolved series of sniping attacks took place. These events contributed to residential mistrust and adversely affected the downtown retail base and the city's income.
Construction of freeways and
urban sprawlcontributed to East St. Louis' decline as well. The freeways cut through and broke up existing neighborhoods and community networks. The freeways also made it easier for residents to commute back and forth from suburban homes, so more were inclined to move to newer housing. East St. Louis adopted a number of programs to try to reverse decline — the Model Cities program, the Concentrated Employment Program and Operation Breakthrough. The programs were not enough to offset the industrial restructuring.
In 1971, James Williams was elected as the city's first black mayor. Faced with overwhelming economic problems, he was unable to stop the city's decline and depopulation.Fact|date=July 2007 By the election of Carl Officer as mayor (the youngest in the country at that time at age 25) in 1979, many said the city had nowhere to go but up, yet things grew worse. Middle-class whites and African Americans left the city. People who could get jobs simply went to where there was work and decent quality of life. Because the city had to cut back on maintenance, sewers failed and garbage pickup ceased. Police cars often did not work, and neither did their radios. The East St. Louis Fire Department went on strike in the 1970s.
Before Gordon Bush was elected mayor in 1991, the state imposed a financial advisory board to manage the city in exchange for a financial bailout. State legislative approval in 1990 of riverboat gambling and the installation of the
Casino Queenriverboat casinoprovided the first new source of income for the city in nearly 30 years.
The past decade can be characterized as one of redevelopment and renewal.Fact|date=July 2007 In 2001 the city completed a new library. It also built a new city hall. Public-private partnerships have resulted in a variety of new retail developments, housing initiatives, and the
St. Louis Metrolink light rail, which have sparked renewal.
The city, now small in terms of population, is still one of the prime examples of drastic urban blight in the country. Sections of "
urban prairie" can be found where vacant buildings were torn down and whole blocks became overgrown with vegetation. Additionally, white people have massively moved away from the city, a phenomenon known as White Flightthat has affected the whole of Greater St. Louis, including St. Louis proper and Metro-East, among other big cities of the United States.
An incident occurred in August 2008 at a RoCorp chemical plant in the city that caused the spillage of a toxic white powder that seriously sickened several people and caused at least two area emergency rooms to be quarantined and locked down; it was not a terrorist incident or a release of anthrax, but an accident from ordinary
nitroaniline. [cite web |url=http://www.bnd.com/389/story/455649.html|title="East St. Louis mayor: No further cause for concern about chemical spill" Belleville News-Democrat On-Line|accessdate=2008-09-01,]
Famous natives or residents
Josephine Bakersurvived the 1917 race riots in East St. Louis and ran away at age 13 to dance in vaudeville on Broadway and, most famously, with the Folies Bergèrein Paris. There she became an international star. During World War II, Baker gathered intelligence for the French Resistance.
New York Yankeesplayer Hank Bauerwas born in East St. Louis in 1922. He played for the Yankees from 1949-59 and won seven World Serieschampionships.
Homer Bush(b. November 12, 1972, in East St. Louis, Illinois) was a Major League Baseball second baseman with a career .285 batting average, who played for the New York Yankees, Toronto Blue Jaysand Florida Marlins.
Tennislegend Jimmy Connorswas born in East St. Louis, and grew up near Frank Holten State Park.
Bryan Cox, former NFL player, is a native of East St. Louis. Cox has been a major philanthropist for East St. Louis High School and his alma mater Western Illinois University.
Miles Daviswas born in Alton but grew up in East St. Louis.
Katherine Dunham– dancer, choreographer, anthropologist and author – introduced U.S. and European audiences to Caribbean- and African-based dance movements. She returned to East St. Louis, established an arts center and lived there to the end of her long life.
Richard Durbin– Senior U.S. Senatorof Illinois, born in East St. Louis.
LaPhonso Ellis, former NBA player, is a native of East St. Louis.
Athlete and Texas Businessman Tyron K. TaylorBorn in 1957; Member of the Western Illinois University Athletic Hall of Fame-Track and Field https://admin.xosn.com/ViewArticle.dbml?&SPSID=83364&SPID=4917&DB_OEM_ID=12000&ATCLID=876598&Q_SEASON=2007http://agent.allstate.com/TyronTaylor/Welcome/
*Kerry Raymond Glenn, former NFL player was born and raised in East St. Louis, Ill. He played in the NFL for the
New York Jets1985-1990 and Miami Dolphins1990-1993.
*Dana Howard- former NFL player who was born and raised in East St. Louis.
Reginald Hudlin, who wrote and directed the 1990s films "House Party", was born in East St. Louis.
Jackie Joyner-Kerseewas born and raised in East St. Louis.
Dawn Harper, Gold Medalist in 100 meter hurdlesat the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.
Al Joyner, track gold medalist and brother of Jackie Joyner-Kersee, was born and raised in East St. Louis.
Albert Kingand B.B. Kinghave ties to the city.
Darius Miles, current NBA player, is a native of East St. Louis.Fact|date=July 2008
Ike Turnermet Tina Turnerin 1956 at the Club Manhattanin East St. Louis. She joined his band and they later married.
*Kellen Boswell Winslow (born 1957 in St. Louis and raised in East St. Louis) is a former professional American football tight end with the
San Diego Chargers.
Robert Wrigleywas born in East St. Louis in 1951.
Poet Laureate Eugene B. Redmondis a native of East St. Louis. He has taught across the country and locally, and established the Eugene B. Redmond Writers Club in his hometown.
Registered historic places
Majestic Theatre (East St. Louis)
Pennsylvania Avenue Historic District
East St. Louis in popular culture
* In an episode of "
Leave It to Beaver", Hugh Beaumont(Ward Cleaver) mentioned that Barbara Billingsley(June Cleaver) was the "Former Belle of East St. Louis."
The Simpsons" episode " They Saved Lisa's Brain," the local chapter of Mensa takes over the government of Springfield and improves the city to 299th place on America's list of 300 most livable cities, displacing East St. Louis. According to the DVD commentaryfor this episode, this joke caused a lot of controversy.
* In "
The Simpsons" episode " Days of Wine and D'oh'ses," Homer claims to be planning a trip to East St. Louis.
Aaron McGruderand Reginald Hudlinpenned a 2004 graphic novel "Birth of a Nation", in which they theorize what would happen if the 2000 Florida election debacle had instead happened in East St. Louis, resulting in ESL seceding from the nation and creating its own called "Republic of Blackland."cite web |url= http://www.readaboutcomics.com/2004/08/05/birth-of-a-nation/|title= Birth of a Nation|accessdate=2007-07-25 |author= McElhattan, Greg|publisher= "ReadAboutComics.com"|date= 2004-08-05]
* Comic book author
Dennis O'Neilof St. Louis based "The Question"'s fictional Hub City on East St. Louis.
Duke Ellingtonand Bubber Mileywrote a song, "East St. Louis Toodle-Oo", which also appeared on the Steely Danalbum " Pretzel Logic".
*In the song "This my City" by Raw Reese he talks about East St. Louis.
*In the films "
Going My Way" (1944) and " The Bells of St. Mary's" (1945), the character of Father Charles O'Malley (played by Bing Crosby) was from East St. Louis. He sang the "East St. Louis High" alma mater("Hail alma mater, thy time-honored halls shall echo with our praise till we die, and round our hearts are the ivy-covered walls of East St. Louis High.") in "Going My Way".
*In the 1981 science fiction/
action film" Escape from New York", director John Carpenterused East St. Louis to represent a decaying, semi-destroyed future version of New York City. At that time, East St. Louis had entire neighborhoods burned out in 1976 during a massive urban fire, which suited the directors vision of a Manhattan Islandthat has been turned into a maximum security prison.
*In the 1983
comedy film" National Lampoon's Vacation", directed by Harold Ramis, the Griswold family, en route from Chicago to Los Angeles, gets lost in East St. Louis (despite having crossed the Mississippi River into Missouri beforehand in the original film version) and has to ask for directions to get back, but not before the car gets vandalized.
*The 1992 film "Trespass", starring
Ice Cubeand Ice-Tand shot in East St. Louis, is about local gangs' interrupting two corrupt Arkansasfirefighters in their quest for riches stored in condemned buildings in an abandoned part of East St. Louis.
East St. Louis is located at 38°36'56" North, 90°7'40" West (38.615550, -90.127825).GR|1
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles (37.4 km²), of which, 14.1 square miles (36.4 km²) of it is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km²) of it is water. The total area is 2.56% water.
East St. Louis usually experiences cold winters and warm summers. On
July 14, 1954the temperature at East Saint Louis unexpectedly rose to 117°F (48°C), the highest temperature ever recorded in Illinois.
East St. Louis has one of the highest crime rates in the
United States. According to FBI's data of 2006, its murderrate hit 83.8 per population of 100,000, surpassing that of cities such as Compton, California(40.4 per pop. 100,000), Gary, Indiana(48.3 per pop. 100,000), New Orleans, Louisiana(37.6 per pop. 100,000), Richmond, Virginia(38.8), Baltimore, Maryland(43.3), Camden, New Jersey(40.0), Detroit, Michigan(47.3), and Washington, D.C.(29.1), as well as that of its neighbor St. Louis (37.2). FBI data also shows East St. Louis' high rate of rape, which exceeded 250 per population of 100,000.
East Saint Louis and
Opa Locka, Floridahave the highest crime rates in the United States (Opa Locka had the absolute highest crime rate in 2003 and 2004 for cities of any population.)
The following table shows East St. Louis' crime rate in 6 crimes that
Morgan Quitnouses for their calculation for "America's most dangerous cities" ranking, in comparison to the national average: [ [http://www.city-data.com/city/East-St.-Louis-Illinois.html City-Data.com] ] Year: 2006" number of crimes per 100,000.
estref= [http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-04-17.xls] ] As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 31,542 people, 11,178 households, and 7,668 families residing in the city. The population densityis 2,242.9 people per square mile (866.2/km²). There are 12,899 housing units at an average density of 917.2/sq mi (354.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 97.74% African American, 1.23% White, 0.19% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, and 0.55% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 11,178 households out of which 33.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 21.9% are married couples living together, 40.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 31.4% are non-families. 27.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.80 and the average family size is 3.42.
In the city the population is spread out with 32.8% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 81.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 72.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $21,324, and the median income for a family is $24,567. Males have a median income of $27,864 versus $21,850 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city is $11,169. 35.1% of the population and 31.8% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 48.6% of those under the age of 18 and 25.2% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
The city is served by the
East St. Louis School District 189[http://www.estlouis.stclair.k12.il.us/] .
All residents are zoned to
East St. Louis High School.
*Heaps, Willard Allison. "Target of Prejudice: The Negro." "Riots, U.S.A., 1765–1970". New York: The Seabury Press, 1970. 108–117.
*Kozol, Jonathan. "Life on the Mississippi." "Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools". Crown, 1991. 7–39. ISBN 0-517-58221-X
*"Race Rioters Fire East St. Louis and Shoot or Hang Many Negroes; Dead Estimated at from 20 to 76." "
New York Times" 3 July 1917.
* [http://www.cesl.us City of East St. Louis official web site]
* [http://www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/default.htm The IBEX Archive: ESLARP's Social History Project] - Cultural and historical material on East St. Louis. Includes a bibliography and several links
** [http://www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/IDOT/idot.htm IDOT Survey] - History of East St. Louis
* [http://www.pbase.com/cincyimages/east_st_louis_illinois Photos of East St. Louis]
* [http://www.builtstlouis.net/eaststlouis/index.html Evocative photos from Built St. Louis]
* [http://www.city-data.com/city/East-St.-Louis-Illinois.html City-Data.com - East St. Louis, Illinois]
** [http://www.city-data.com/picfilesv/picv14034.php Downtown East St. Louis]
** [http://www.city-data.com/picfilesv/picv14033.php Metrolink station]
** [http://www.city-data.com/picfilesv/picv7375.php ruined old church]
** [http://www.city-data.com/picfilesv/picv7377.php ruined house]
* [http://east-stlouis.618football.com East St. Louis Flyers Football]
* [http://www.inBoxmag.com inBox Magazine & DVD | East St. Louis Premier Magazine]
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