- Target tug
A target tug is an
aircraftwhich tows a drone or otherwise unmanned , for the purposes of gunor missiletarget practice. Target tugs are often conversions of transport and utility aircraft, as well as obsolescent combat types.
Boulton Paul Defiant
Prior to and during
World War IItarget tugs were typically operated by the air arms on behalf of which they flew, and were usually conversions of aircraft that had failed in combat or that were otherwise unsuitable or obsolete in their design roles (see Fairey Battleand Short Sturgeon). These aircraft typically trailed a drogue, or fabric sleeve, at the end of a long cable and student fighter pilots or air gunners would shoot at the target from other aircraft (using painted bullets so that 'hits' could be recorded and later analysed). The chief modifications to the aircraft were a station for the drogue operator and a winch (usually air-driven) to reel in the cable prior to landing; the drogue would often be jettisoned at some location convenient for recovery prior to the aircraft's landing. The use of such aircraft continued post-war, although a trend developed whereby ex-military aircraft were purchased, modified and operated by civilian companies under contract. Deutsche-Luftfahrt Beratungsdienst of West Germanyand Svensk Flygtjansk AB of Swedenwere two notable companies in the field in the post-war years, operating such types as the Hawker Sea Fury, Fairey Fireflyand Douglas Skyraider. Many air arms however continued to operate target tugs on their own behalf.
In later years the use of civilian companies expanded significantly worldwide, with many companies forming or entering the field in the 1960s and 1970s. The trend was still to use ex-military aircraft, for example Illawarra Flying Services in
Australiaused two ex-RAAF CAC Mustangs from 1960 until the latter part of the 1970s ["Mustangs of the RAAF and RNZAF" Peter N. Anderson. A. H. & A. W. Reed. ISBN 0 589 07130 0.] . Flight Systems Inc. commenced operations at Mojave, Californiawith Canadair Sabres converted as QF-86E missile targets, the first aircraft making it's first unmanned flight in April 1975; this company later also operated Sabres as target tugs [http://f-86.tripod.com/fsi.html Retrieved 2007-07-18] . Flight Systems Inc was later purchased by Tracorand these operations are still performed by BAE Systems Flight Systems with Douglas Skyhawks [www.landings.com Online search of US civil aircraft register database performed July 18 2007] . The practice of using ex-military aircraft as target tugs (and of air arms retaining older aircraft themselves for such use) resulted in them surviving into an era where such aircraft became desirable as Warbirds; many former target tugs are now to be found on the airshowcircuit or under restoration to fly, and in aviation museums.Today, more air arms have turned to civilian companies for provision of target towing services. Many companies operating in this field today do so using modified corporate jetaircraft instead of ex-military aircraft. Advantages of operating civil aircraft types include ease of registration (it being difficult in many countries to register ex-military jets as civil aircraft), ease of maintenance and lower operating costs when compared to ex-military aircraft. Companies active in 2007 providing target towing services include FR Aviation Services Ltd. in the UKand associated companies AVdef (in France) and Falcon Special Air Services (in Malaysia) [http://www.fraviation.com/about.aspx Retrieved 2007-07-18] using Falcon 20s; Pel-Airin Australiausing Learjets and (in something of a reversal of recent trends) EIS Aircraft Gmbh in Germanyusing Pilatus PC-9aircraft.
Target towing operations are not without risk. On
September 17 1994a Golden Eagle Aviation Lear 35A was accidentally shot down by a ship of the Taiwanese Navyduring a live-fire exercise[http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19940917-1 Retrieved 2007-07-18] .
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