BTR-60


BTR-60

Infobox Weapon
name=BTR-60


caption=BTR-60PB
origin=Soviet Union
type=Wheeled Amphibious Armored Personnel Carrier
is_vehicle=yes
service=1959 - present [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=37 "Pancerni 1"] ]
used_by=See Operators
wars=See Operational history
designer=V. A. Dedkov
design_date=1955
manufacturer=Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (GAZ)
production_date=1959 - 1976
number=10,250
variants=See Variants
spec_label=BTR-60PB
crew=3 + 14 passengers [http://softland.com.pl/aerojac/aaa/btr60/btr60.html "BTR-60 softland"] ]
length=7.56 m [http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/cv/inf/BTR-60.html "Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide"] ]
width=2.825 m
height=2.31 m
weight=11.4 tonnes
armour=Welded steel
Frontal armour can withstand 7.62 mm bullets
The rest of armour protection can withstand 7.62 mm bullets from 100 m
7 mm hull upper front
9 mm hull lower front
7 mm hull sides
5 mm hull upper rear
7 mm hull lower rear
5 mm hull bottom
7 mm hull roof
7 mm turret
primary_armament=14.5mm KPV heavy machine gun (500 rounds)
secondary_armament=7.62 mm PKT tank coaxial machine gun (3,000 rounds)
engine=2×6-cyl. gasoline GAZ-49B
engine_power=115 hp (86 kW) each
suspension=wheeled 8×8
clearance=475 mm
fuel_capacity=290 l
speed=80 km/h on road
10 km/h on water
pw_ratio=20.2 hp/tonne (15.1 kW/tonne)
vehicle_range=500 km

The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers. It was developed in the late 1950s as a replacement for BTR-152 and was seen first time in public in 1961. BTR stands for "Bronetransportyor" (БТР, Бронетранспортер, literally "armoured transporter"). [http://www.milparade.com/Soderzhaniye.pdf] .

The welded steel boat-shaped hull provides protection against small arms fire and shrapnel.

History

Origins

The truck-based BTR-152, developed after the Second World War, had given the Soviet Army useful experience of wheeled armoured personnel carriers. Between 1956 and 1957 a decision was made to convert all rifle and mechanized divisions into new motor rifle divisions and a requirement for a new vehicle was drawn up.

BTR-60

Development proceeded along two paths, a more expensive vehicle, that would eventually become the BMP-1, for use in tank divisions and a cheaper vehicle for use in motor rifle divisions. Two design bureaus were given the requirements, GAZ led by V. A. Dedkov, and ZiL led by Rodionov and Orlov. GAZ had already developed an 8 wheeled vehicle, the izdeliye 62B, this was used as the basis for the new izdeliye 49. The GAZ-49 petrol engine that had been used on the BRDM-1 vehicle was selected. ZiL developed a 6x6 design, the ZiL-153, similar in hull shape to the GAZ design. Both were submitted to state trials in 1959, and the GAZ design was selected and given the designation BTR-60P.

BTR-60P had an open roofed crew and troop compartments which was deemed to be a serious disadvantage because of that a new version, designated BTR-60PA, entered production in 1963. It had an armoured roof, though the capacity was reduced from 16 troopers to 14 troopers.

The appearance of the German HS.30 APC, armed with a 20 mm cannon prompted the addition of a small turret armed with 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun. The new vehicle was designated the BTR-60PAI and entered production in 1965. It was however quickly replaced by BTR-60PB which had better sighting system for the machine guns. The turret used, BPU-1, was originally developed for the BRDM-2.

Description

BTR-60 has a non standard APC formation. The crew compartment is in the front, troop compartment in the middle and engine compartment in the rear.

Crew

In BTR-60P and BTR-60PA the crew consists of driver and commander. Driver's seat is on the left and commander's seat is on the right. In BTR-60PAI, BTR-60PB and BTR-60PZ the crew consists of driver, commander and gunner. Driver's and commander's stations are in the same place as in the previous models. Gunner operates the small MG turret. He uses PP 61 A optical sight. Both driver and commander have forward views through bulletproof windshields which can be additionally protected with steel covers which have small openings through which they can also see what's in front of the vehicle. They can monitor the area around the sides of the vehicle with use of periscopes. Both driver and commander have night sight devices. The commander uses TKN 1 night sight device and driver uses TWN 2 night sight device. Commander also has R-113 radio for communication. In some BTR-60PA R-113 was replaced with R-123.

Troop compartment

The troop compartment is behind the crew compartment and before engine compartment. It can transport up to sixteen fully equipped soldiers. Because the roof was added in BTR-60PA, the number of soldiers that BTR-60 was able to carry in its troop compartment went down from 16 to 14. Also BTR-60 has three firing ports on each upper side of the hull through which the infantry being transported can fire at the enemy with their personal weapons.

Because the engine is located in the rear of the vehicle the transported infantry has to mount and dismount the vehicle via the sides of the hull or the small doors in the sides of the hull in case of BTR-60P or through the troop compartment's roof hatches in case of BTR-60PA, BTR-60PB and BTR-60PZ.

Maneuverability

The engine compartment is in the rear part of the vehicle. The vehicle is propelled by two six cylinder gasoline GAZ 49 engines which deliver 94 hp (70 kW) each. The BTR-60PB introduced new GAZ 49B engines which developed 115 hp (86 kW) each among other improvements. Each engine is propelling two of the vehicles axles. The engine on the right hand side propels the second and the forth axles, while the engine on the left hand side propels the first and the third axles. The vehicle has a single shielded clutch and two gear boxes. Each axle has its own differential. Each axle is hanged on transversal torsion bars. The first two axles have two hydraulic absorbers, the third and forth have one hydraulic absorber. The first and second pair of wheels can be turned.

Amphibious ability

BTR-60 is fully amphibious and moves in water propelled by a single water-jet mounted at the rear of the hull. Also all APCs from BTR-60 series have infrared searchlight.

Models

Production history

BTR-60 vehicles were produced by Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (GAZ). The BTR-60P was produced between 1959 and 1963. BTR-60PA, entered production in 1963.OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide, TRADOC DCSINT Threat Support Directorate, January 1999.] BTR-60PAI entered production in 1965, but was quickly replaced in 1966 by the BTR-60PB, which had a better sighting system for the machine guns. The BTR-60PB remained in production since 1966 and until to 1976, when it was superseded by the BTR-70.

ervice history

Former USSR

BTR-60P entered service with the Soviet Army in 1959. It was first seen by the West in 1961. BTR-60PA entered service with the Soviet Army in 1963 while BTR-60PAI and an improved BTR-60PA did in 1965, BTR-60PB did in 1966, BTR-60PZ did in 1972 and BTR-60PBK did in 1975.

Russia

In Russian service, many BTR-60 variants are replaced by variants of the BTR-80/K1Sh1 or are upgraded with the engines of the BTR-80.

Foreign service

BTR-60 APCs were employed widely both by the Soviet Army and by more than thirty export customers. Operators of the BTR-60 have included Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bhutan, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, East Germany, Ethiopia, Finland, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Laos, Libya, Mali, Mongolia, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nicaragua, North Korea, Romania, Soviet Union, Syria, Uganda, Vietnam, Yugoslavia / Serbia, Yemen, and Zambia, as well as many of the successor states of the Soviet Union.Chris Westhorp (editor), "", Salamander Press, c. 1991, ISBN 0-517-05240-7]

Although BTR-60 still remains in service with many of the world's armies it is almost never used as an APC anymore. They are still being used though as mobile command posts, artillery forward observation posts, airplane guidance posts, communication posts and many other specialized vehicles. [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=37&limit=1&limitstart=1 "Pancerni 2"] ]

The BTR-60 has seen action in the Yom Kippur War, 1971 War between India and Pakistan where it was used very effectively to punch a hole through to Jessore and subsequently Khulna, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the Chechen and Yugoslav wars.

Poland

Ludowe Wojsko Polskie (LWP) used BTR-60PA APCs but since Polish/Czechoslovak OT-64 SKOT APC proved to be superior to BTR-60, it gave those away to Milicja Obywatelska. They were used by ZOMO riot control units and later by the Polish Police. Polish Army also received a number of command variants which were used within the Soviet supplied 9K33 Osa (SA-8 Gecko) SAM regiment delivered in 1980s. ZOMO special squads (An equivalent of modern Anti-Terrorist squads) also used BTR-60PB since early 1980s. These were later modified with additional radio. Some received breakers mounted to the front of the vehicle which were used for clearing obstacles (See Poland section for details). They were also used later by Polish Police which used them for security during European Economy Summit 2004 in Warsaw. All BTR-60 APCs are now replaced by Polish Dzik-AT (AT stands for "antyterrorystyczny" - "anti-terrorist") armoured cars. [http://www.zomoza.kgb.pl/wyposazenie.htm ZOMO Wyposarzenie] ] [http://softland.com.pl/aerojac/aaa/btr60/photo.html softland BTR-60PB] ]

Variants

former USSR

* BTR-60P (1960) - Initial version with troop compartment completely exposed and often covered with bows and canvas. The vehicle has three mounting points for three 7.62 mm light machine guns (either the PKT, SGMB or PKB machine guns can be mounted), one on the front and one on each side between the two small doors, but only one mount which is usually fitted to the front mounting point. The vehicle carries 2,000 rounds for 7.62 mm (either the PKT, SGMB or PKB) light machine guns. [http://www.jedsite.info/afv/bravo/btr-60_series/btr60-series.html "JED The Military Equipment Directory"] ]
** BTR-60P with a modified MG mounting point in the front to fit 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun like in BTR-60PA instead of 7.62 mm light machine gun (either the PKT, SGMB or PKB machine gun). The vehicle carries 500 rounds for 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun and 3,000 rounds for 7.62 mm (either the PKT, SGMB or PKB) light machine guns.
** BTR-60P M1961/1 - BTR-60P fitted with PT-76 turret. Designed for use as fire support vehicle.
*** BTR-60P M1961/1 fitted with a smaller version of the PT-76 turret. Designed for use as fire support vehicle.
** BTR-60P M1961/2 - BTR-60P fitted with a small open-topped turret armed with 37 mm gun with clean barrel with conical flash-hider.
** BTR-60P converted into a mortar carrier. It is armed with two mortars.
** BTR-60 converted into an AA defense vehicle. It is armed with an AA missile launcher.
** BTR-60PA (1963) - This version has armoured roof over the troop compartment. It is fitted with improved 'closed-down' vision devices for the crew. Behind the commander's and driver's hatches is a single rear-opening rectangular hatch in front of which is a single mount for a 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun between the two circular crew hatches at front of personnel compartment and two optional mounts on for 7.62 mm light machine guns (either the PKT, SGMB or PKB machine guns can be mounted) on each side of the roof of the personnel compartment. Early production BTR-60PA had only a single mount for either the PKT, SGMB or PKB light machine gun between the two circular crew hatches at front of personnel compartment. The small doors on each side of the hull that were present in BTR-60P were removed. BTR-60PA introduced collective NBC protection system to the series. It has six handrails on the each side in rows of three. Since the roof has been added driver received a roof-mounted periscope. The personnel compartment has two rectangular hatches. The fact that the roof has been added makes passengers vulnerable to enemy fire while they're exiting the vehicle through top hatches. Also gunner must be at least shoulder high out of the vehicle to operate the weapons. The vehicle carries 500 rounds for 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun and 3,000 rounds for 7.62 mm (either the PKT, SGMB or PKB) light machine guns. It was also known under designation BTR-60PK where K stands for "krisha" - "roof".
*** BTR-60PA (1965) upgraded with improved power plant and new R-123 radio instead of R-113. It entered service in very small numbers.
*** BTR-60PA converted into an artillery command vehicle.
*** MTP-2 ("mashina tekhnicheskoj pomoshchi") - Technical support vehicle based on BTR-60PA. It has a crane mounted in the front of the hull. It's also missing two or three hand rails.
*** Irtish - BTR-60PA converted into civil repair vehicle. It has a crane mounted in the front of the hull and some kind of crate on top of the hull. It's also missing two hand rails, one in the center of the upper side of the hull and one in the center of the lower side of the hull. The firing ports were blocked.
*** BTR-60PAI (1965) - Initial version with 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun replaced by a small conical turret from BRDM-2 armed with 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun and 7.62 mm PKT coaxial light machine gun on the top of the vehicle. The turret is placed over the second set of wheels. Two remaining mountings for 7.62 mm light machine guns (either the PKT, SGMB or PKB machine guns) on the upper hull sides were removed. Since the turret has been added the crew had gone up from 2 to 3 (commander, driver, and gunner). There are two semicircular hatches for the crew in front of the turret. The vehicle carries 500 rounds for 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun and 3,000 rounds for 7.62 mm PKT coaxial light machine gun.
**** BTR-60PB (1966) - Improved sighting system for 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun and improved GAZ-49B engine. The turret has modified to include new telescopic sight, the 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun and the 7.62 mm PKT coaxial light machine gun were moved to the right while the telescopic sight was mounted coaxially to the left. The armour protection has also been improved. The frontal armour of BTR-60PB can withstand fire with use of 7.62 mm bullets from any range while the rest of its armour protection can withstand fire with use of 7.62 mm bullets from range of 100 m. It has a filtration and over pressurization system for NBC protection. It also has self-sealing tires, a central tire inflation system and antennae mount on the right hand side of the rear of the roof. Some BTR-60PB don't have hand rails on the rear of the upper side of the hull or in the center of the upper hull. Some BTR-60PB also lack one of the firing ports on the left hand side of the hull. Late production BTR-60PB have the same sighting improvement as the BTR-70, which consists of a small additional episcope sight which is facing to the rear on the turret roof. The vehicle carries 500 rounds for 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun and 3,000 rounds for 7.62 mm PKT coaxial light machine gun.
***** BTR-60PBK ("komandnyj") (1975) - Company commander version, based on the specialised chassis GAZ-4907. This version is equipped with two radios R-123, one R-148, three whip antennas and an antenna mast on the left upper hull. Late-production models have a modified turret and additional PIN STICK antenna.
***** BTR-60PB converted into a firefighting vehicle. The turret has been replaced with some kind of crate. It's also missing three hand rails, two from the upper side of the hull (one in the rear and one in the center) and one in the center of the lower side of the hull. The firing ports were blocked.
***** MWS - Upgraded BTR-60PB with OHM turret.
****** MWS-M - Improved MWS with larger engine compartment.
***** BTR-60PZ ("zenitnyj") (1972) - Version with improved turret similar to the BTR-70. It had 1PZ-2 roof-mounted periscope on the turret. The turret had high angle-of-fire. It entered service in very small numbers.
****** BTR-70
**** 1V18 "Klyon-1" - Artillery command and forward observer vehicle, used by battery commanders of unist, equipped with towed artillery and MRL systems. The original turret has been replaced by an unarmed one ("Darth Vader") with observation devices NNP-21 and DV and a range finder. Other specialised equipment comprises an internal generator UD-15G, radio sets R-123M (x3) and R-107M, a computer 1V510, the PUO-9M fire control set and an aiming circle PAB-2A. Crew: 5. Each set 1V17 "Mashina-B" consists of three 1V18's, one 1V19 (qv), three 1V110 (on GAZ-66) and one 1V111 (on ZiL-131).
***** 1V18-1 - Modernised model.
**** 1V19 "Klyon-2" - Exterenally identical to the 1V18 but provided with an R-130M radio. Used by the battalion commander.
***** 1V19-1 - Modernised model.
**** PU-12 (9S482) ("punkt upravleniya") (1972) - Air defence command vehicle, that operates with ZSU-23-4, SA-9 or SA-13 units. The PU-12 has no turret but has a telescope mast AMU on the front right hull roof and a 1kW generator AB1-P/30 on top of the blanking plate. The vehicle is equipped with a gyroscope 1G13, a KP-4 navigation apparatus and a computer ASPD-12. Often the PU-12 is connected to a radar and the radar image is directly visible on the vehicle's IT-45 monitor.
***** PU-12M (9S482M) - Improved model, developed in the 80's. This model is fitted with a more modern computer ASPD-U and with a data processing unit S 23-1 that is connected to the MP-21, MP-22, Strela-10M, Osa-AK etc. The PU-12M can process 99 targets instead of only 12.
**** R-975 - Vehicle for Tactical Air Control Parties, fitted with radio sets R-123, R-134, R-853, R-864, a beakon system SMI-2KM (during transport protected by a conical cover) and a generator G-290B. A typical recognition feature are the 2 blade antennas on the rear deck.
***** R-975M1 - Upgraded version without the cone.
**** R-137B - USW signals vehicle. It is equipped with frame antennae around top of hull and telescopic mast in the right-hand-side of the front of personnel compartment's roof.
**** R-140BM - SW signals vehicle.
**** R-145BM "Chaika" - Turret-less command vehicle, based on the GAZ-4907 chassis and fitted with a collapsible AZI frame antenna, 10 m telescopic mast AMU, AB-1-P/30 generator, radio sets R-123MT, R-130, R-111 (x2) and R-012M and a field telephone TA-57. In many sources, this version is called BTR-60PU.
***** R-145BM-1 - Modernised version.
**** R-149BM - Command vehicle; upgraded R-145BM.
**** R-156BTR - HF signals vehicle.
**** R-409BM - Radio-relay station.
****R-419BR - Low-power radio relay station.
**** E-351BR - Battery charger vehicle for signals units.
**** P-238BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telegrafnoj svyazi")
**** P-239BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telegrafnoj svyazi")
**** P-240BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telefonnoj svyazi").
**** P-241BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telegrafnoj svyazi")
**** BTR-60MS - Communications Vehicle fitted with a "High Ball" antennae mount.
**** MBP ("mashina boyevogo posta") - Base security vehicle for Strategic Rocket units. The original turret has been replaced by a new type with improved sight 1PN22M1, loudspeakers, IR search lights OU-3GA-2, additional periscopes TNPO-170 and an NSVT 12.7 mm machine gun.

Bulgaria

* BTR-60PAU - Artillery command variant of the BTR-60PA with 4 whip antennas.
* BTR-60PB with Polish WAT turret from SKOT-2AP. Only a prototype was made.
* BTR-60PB-MD ("bronyetransport’or moderniziran ") - BTR-60PB upgraded with VAMO DT3900 or Rover TD-200 diesel engine, four MB smoke grenade dischargers on the turret (two on each side), "Melopa" night sight, new day sight, new NBC protection system and modern radios. It also has a rear view mirror on the left hand side of the hull. Only a prototype was made.
** BTR-60PB-MD1 - Version for the Bulgarian army, powered by a Cummins ISB 25.30 turbocharged Euro 3 diesel engine of 250 hp and fitted with side hatches. So far 10 delivered.
** BTR-60PB-MD3 - This appears to be an export model, fitted with a KamAZ diesel engine, different sights and eight additional smoke grenade launchers in the front right corner of the hull. The prototype, shown in 2004, was based on a BTR-60PA.

Cuba

*BTR-60PB armed with 73 mm gun with a long barrel in truncated cone BMP-1 turret. It also lacks the hand rails on the upper side of the hull. It is designed to be used for fire support.
*BTR-60PB armed with 100 mm gun in heavily modified T-54 turret. The hull seems to be modified as well since the two hand rails on the side of the hull are gone and the other two are moved to the center of the hull between the upper and lower parts of the side of the hull. The lights in the front seem to have an armoured protection. The chassis has also been modified as th vehicle has a BTR-80 style straight chassis with no slope near the engine compartment. It is designed to be used for fire support.
*BTR-60 armed with twin 23 mm anti-aircraft guns (probably ZU-23-2). It is designed to be used for anti-aircraft purposes.
*BTR-60 armed with twin 37 mm anti-aircraft guns. It is designed to be used for anti-aircraft purposes.

Djibouti

*BTR-60PB armed 90 mm AML-90 gun in French Panhard AML (AML-245) turret. Only one BTR-60PB was converted and it was done so to make use of a spare turret after the original Panhard AML hull was destroyed in a road accident.

Finland

* BTR-60PUM - During 1996-1997 the Soviet-made R-145BM command vehicles were upgraded. The BTR-60PUM has new communication equipment and an NSV-12.7 machine gun and is used in Jäger battalions.

former East Germany

[Gau L-R., Plate J., Siegert J. (2001) "Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge - Bundeswehr und NVA". Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02152-8] [* East-German army manual "Nachrichtenmittel auf SPW 60 PB"]
* SPW-60PA ("Schützenpanzerwagen") - NVA designator for BTR-60PA.
** SPW-60PA(S) - Staff variant.
* SPW-60PB - NVA designator for the BTR-60PB.
** SPW-60PB(ABS) ("Artillerie-Beobachtungsstelle") - Artillery forward observer vehicle with 4 whip antennas (2 two on the rear of the engine deck's roof), two small brackets on the top of the upper left-hand side of the hull with striped poles stowed, commander's and driver's hatches that fold forward horizontally and a modified commanders position with retractable observation device.
** SPW-60PB(BBS) ("Batterie-Beobachtungsstelle") - Command vehicle for air-defence artillery batteries. Externally similar to basic model but with two whip antennas on the rear hull.
** SPW-60PB(S) - Command variant.
** NZ(B) MSR/PR ("Nachrichtenzentrale") - Signals vehicle for motorized rifle and tank regiments. Equipped with R-123M, R-123MT and R-405 radiosets, AB-2-0 generator mounted behind the turret and F-1301 electronic telegraph. Turret has been blanked-off.
** LBGS(B) ("Leitungsbaugerätesatz") or LBT - SPW-60PB converted into telephone cable layer.
** R-137B - Signals vehicle. Differs externally from Soviet type and has some components from local production including the field telephone set FF63M.
** R-140BM - Signals vehicle with SW set R-140M, two movable whip antennas at the rear, a 10 m telescopic mast and an AB-4-T/230-M1 generator. Differs externally from Soviet type and has some components from local production including the SW receiver EKD 315.
** R-409BM - Radio-relay station with 2 semi-sets R-409MA, a receiver R-326, an R-123MT, an P-303-OB and a generator AB-2-0/230-M1.
** R-145BM/AKL1 - Signals vehicle. As R-145BM but with additional R-870M set.
** R-145BM/AKL2 - Signals vehicle. As R-145BM but with additional R-809M2 set.
** R-145BM/L1 - Signals vehicle.
** R-145BM/L2I - Signals vehicle with radiosets R-111, R-123MT, R-130M, R-809M2, R-859D and R-863 of -802
** P-238BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telegrafnoj svyazi") SAS- and Chiffrier Services
** P-239BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telegrafnoj svyazi") SAS- and Chiffrier Services
** P-240BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telefonnoj svyazi") SAS- and Chiffrier Services
** P-241BT - Switchboard vehicle ("kompleksnaya apparatnaya telegrafnoj svyazi") SAS- and Chiffrier Services

Israel

* BTR-60 fitted with the CARDOM 120/81 mm mortar system. It was made by Soltam.

Mexico

* APC-70 - Turret-less APC for Mexican marines, based on a civilianised version of the BTR-60 without firing ports, periscopes and with additional bulletproof windows. Armament consists of a single machine gun (either the Hk-21 or FN MAG58 7.62) or a Mark 19 automatic grenade launcher.

People's Republic of China

* China reversed engineered BTR-60 after capturing some examples during the Sino-Soviet clashes in the late 1960s. The program was completed in the late 1970s. However, the vehicle did not enter Chinese service in large number because the primitive road condition and rugged Chinese terrain meant that the wheeled APC lacked the cross country ability of other tracked APC in Chinese inventory. However, the experience gained did help China in developing other more advanced wheeled APCs later in the 1980s.

Poland

* BTR-60PB that were transferred to the ZOMO special squads and were later in service with Polish Police were fitted with additional radio. [ [http://www.zomoza.kgb.pl/wyposazenie.htm Wyposażenie ] ] [ [http://softland.com.pl/aerojac/aaa/btr60/photo.html BTR-60PB ] ]
** BTR-60PB in service with ZOMO special squads and later with Polish Police fitted with breaker mounted to the front of the vehicle and a counter weight mounted to the rear of the vehicle. They also had additional protection on the infrared searchlight. [ [http://www.zomoza.kgb.pl/wyposazenie.htm Wyposażenie ] ] [ [http://softland.com.pl/aerojac/aaa/btr60/photo.html BTR-60PB ] ]

Romania

* TAB-71 ("transportorul amfibiu blindat") - Romanian license version of BTR-60PB with more powerful SR-225 gazoline engines of 140 hp. This version also has additional periscopes and a protected sight was added to the left side of the turret.
** TAB-71M - Modified version with Saviem 797-05 130hp diesel engines from the TAB-77 and with "suicide hatches" between the 2nd and 3rd wheels. It also has horizontal engine decks and exhausts.
** TAB-71A R-1450 - Command version of the TAB-71 with additional whip antennas.
** TAB-71A R-1451 - Signals vehicle with unarmed turret (on the turret front is a small crane mounted to remove the heavy batteries) and with 1kW generator on the hull roof. Radio equipment consists of the R-1451 and the R-401M.
** TAB-71A R-1452 - Externally identical to the former but with R-1452 set.
** TAB-71AR ("aruncător de bombe") - Self-propelled mortar platform with 82 mm mortar M-37M and 100 rounds. The Soviet mortar might be replaced with a more modern Romanian design like the Model 77. It also has a flat roof on the personnel compartment with circular two-piece hatch opening to sides.
** TERA-71L ("tractor de evacuare şi reparat auto") - Recovery vehicle with crane and dozer blade.

Operators

* [see Military of Abkhazia article for details]
* - 300
* - 530
* - 100
* - 25
* - 188 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/belarus/army-equipment.htm Belarus Army Equipment ] ]
* - 30
* - 737 including BTR-60PB-MD1
* - 210
* - 400
* - 12 including 1 fitted with 90 mm AML-90 gun in French Panhard AML (AML-245) turret. (See Djibouti section for details).
* - 250
* - 65
* - 80
* - 120 being withdrawn from service as of 2006
* - 6
* - 2
* - 20
* - 35
* - 817 BTR-60PB
* - 300 BTR-50 and BTR-60
* - 500
* - Captured a number of those vehicles from Egypt or Syria. Some of them have been converted into mortar carriers (See Israel section for details).
* - 3
* - 70
* - 750
* - 14 BTR-60PB
* - 31
* - 10
* - 100 APC-70
* - 12
* - 300
* - 45+
* - 150
* - 64
* - 6
* - 1,000
* - 400
* - 12
* - 30
* - 2,000
* - 6 (air defense command vehicles for SA-9)
* - BTR-60PB
* Somaliland - 25
* - 600 BTR-60PB
* - 1 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/tajik-army-equipment.htm Tajik-Army Equipment ] ]
* - 302 ex-NVA SPW-60PB bought from Germany.
* - 829 BTR-60, BTR-70 and BTR-80. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/turkmen-army-equipment.htm Turkmen-Army Equipment ] ]
* - 176 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/groundforces-equipment.htm Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine ] ]
* - 24
* - 400
* - 500
* - 13

Former operators

* - PU-12 only.
* - 16 TAB-71 captured from JNA, later scrapped.
* - 260 BTR-60PA and 2,000 BTR-60PB (including variants); passed on to the unified German state.
* - LWP used BTR-60PA APCs but gave them away to Milicja Obywatelska after suppierior Polish/Czechoslovak OT-64 SKOT APC was indroduced. They were used by ZOMO riot control units and later by the Polish Police. Polish Army received a number of BTR-60-based command variants along with the Soviet supplied 9K33 Osa (SA-8 Gecko) SAM regiment delivered in 1980s. ZOMO special squads also used BTR-60PB since early 1980s. They were also used later by Polish Police. All BTR-60 APCs are now replaced by Dzik-AT armoured cars.
* - Passed on to successor states.
* - Passed on to successor states.
*/GER - 260 BTR-60PA and 2,000 BTR-60PB, taken from GDR's army; all scrapped or sold to other countries.
* - 60 TAB-71 passed on to successor states.
* - Passed on to successor state.

*Total: 10,250

See also

*OT-64 SKOT - Polish/Czechoslovak answer to Soviet BTR-60. It has proved to be superior to BTR-60.

External links

* [http://www.armyrecognition.com/Russe/vehicules_a_roues/BTR-60/BTR60_Russie_description.htm Data sheet and pictures BTR-60PB ArmyRecognition.com]
* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/btr-60.htm Fas.org]
* [http://armoured.vif2.ru/btr60.htm Description (in russian) and photo gallery at armoured.vif2.ru]
* [http://freenet-homepage.de/SASundChiffrierdienst/trupps.html P-238xx,P-240xx, P-241xx, P-242xx, P-244xx]

References

* Hull, A.W. , Markov, D.R. , Zaloga, S.J. (1999) "Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present". Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.
* A.V. Karpenko (1996) "Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki (1905-1995 gg.)" Nevskij Bastion


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