Hieracium pilosella


Hieracium pilosella
Mouse-ear Hawkweed
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Pilosella
Species: P. officinarum
Binomial name
Pilosella officinarum
(L.) F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip.
Synonyms

Hieracium pilosella L.
Hieracium pseudoincanum t.infr.
Hieracium bauhinii Schult. t.infr.
Pilosella bauhinii (Schult.) Arv.-Touv.
Hieracium adenocladum (Rehmann) Czerep.
Hieracium agathanthum (Rehmann) Czerep.
Hieracium arvorum (Nägeli & Peter) Pugsley
Hieracium callicymum (Rehmann) Üksip
Hieracium cimpiense Prodán
Hieracium cryptomastix (Nägeli & Peter) Freyn
Hieracium cymanthodes (Koslovsky & Zahn) Üksip
Hieracium cymanthum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium empodistum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium erythrophylloides (Zahn) Czerep.
Hieracium fastigiatum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium georgieffianum Zahn
Hieracium hispidissimum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium ingricum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium insolens Norrl.
Hieracium limenyense (Zahn) Czerep.
Hieracium macrum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium melachaetum Tausch
Hieracium mnoocladum (Rehmann) Czerep.
Hieracium obscuribracteum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium parvistolonum (Nägeli & Peter) Üksip
Hieracium plicatulum Üksip
Hieracium polyanthemum (Nägeli & Peter) Czerep.
Hieracium pseudosparsum (Zahn) Czerep.
Hieracium pseudothaumasium (Zahn) Üksip
Hieracium radiocaule Tausch
Hieracium rojowskii (Rehmann) Üksip
Hieracium sedutrix (Rehmann) Üksip
Hieracium spraguei Pugsley
Hieracium stauropolitanum Üksip
Hieracium thaumasioides (Peter) J. Weiss
Hieracium thaumasium (Peter) J. Weiss
Hieracium varatinense Wo\u0142.
Hieracium viscidulum (Tausch) Üksip
Pilosella adenoclada (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella agathantha (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella arvorum (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella botrychodes Schljakov
Pilosella callicyma (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella chaunocyma (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella cryptomastix (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
Pilosella cymantha (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella cymanthodes (Koslovsky & Zahn) Sennikov
Pilosella dobromilensis (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella empodista (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella erythriophylla (Vuk.) Soják
Pilosella erythrophylloides (Zahn) Schljakov
Pilosella fastigiata (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella georgieffiana (Zahn) Soják
Pilosella hispidissima (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella ingrica (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella insolens (Norrl.) Schljakov
Pilosella limenyensis (Zahn) Schljakov
Pilosella melachaeta (Tausch) Schljakov
Pilosella mnooclada (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella obscuribractea (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella parvistolona (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella plicatula (Üksip) Schljakov
Pilosella polyanthema (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella pseudosparsa (Zahn) Schljakov
Pilosella pseudothaumasia (Zahn) Schljakov
Pilosella rojowskii (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella sedutrix (Rehmann) Schljakov
Pilosella thaumasia (Peter) Dostál
Pilosella thaumasioides (Peter) Schljakov
Pilosella varatinensis (Wo\u0142.) Schljakov
Pilosella viscidula (Tausch) Schljakov[1]

Mouse-ear Hawkweed (Pilosella officinarum, syn. Hieracium pilosella L.) is a yellow-flowered species of Asteraceae, native to Europe and northern Asia. It produces single, citrus-colored inflorescences. It is an allelopathic plant. Like most hawkweed species, it shows tremendous variation and is a complex of several dozens subspecies and hundreds of varieties and forms.

Common names

  • Catalan: Pelosella
  • Danish: Håret Høgeurt
  • Czech: Jestřábník chlupáček
  • French: Epervière piloselle, Piloselle, Oreille de souris, Piloselle de rat, Herbe à l'épervier, Veluette.
  • German: Kleines Habichtskraut
  • Finnish: Huopakeltano
  • Hungarian: Ezüstös hölgymál
  • Dutch: Muizenoor
  • Norwegian: Hårsveve
  • Polish: Jastrzębiec kosmaczek
  • Swedish: Gråfibbla
  • Ukrainian: Нечуйвітер волохатенький

Description

It is a hispid (hairy) perennial plant, with a basal rosette of leaves. The whole plant, with the exception of the flower parts, is covered in glandular hairs, usually whitish, sometimes reddish on the stem. The rosette leaves are entire, acute to blunt, and range from 1-12 cm long and 0.5-2 cm broad. Their underside is tomentose (covered with hair). The flowering stem (scape) is generally between 5 cm to 50 cm tall, and sprouts from the centre of the basal rosette. The flowerheads are borne singly on the scape and are a pale lemon-yellow colour, with the outermost ligules having a reddish underside. It flowers from May until August.

The plant favours dry, sunny areas. It grows well on sandy and similarly less fertile ground types. It produces stolons are which generate a new rosette at their extremity, each rosette has the possibility of developing into a new clone forming dense mats in open space. It also propagates by seeds.

Ecology

It is a known allelopathic plant, whose roots secrete several substances inhibiting root growth,[2] including its own. It can be controlled through rotation with clover and grasses where possible.[2]

Recent research claims that Hieracium pilosella exhibits an atavism by the reemergence of sexual reproduction.[3]

Similar species

Shetland Mouse Ear Hawkweed (Pilosella flagellaris ssp. bicapitata) is similar, but has two flowers per leaf stalk. Found in the Shetland Islands only, on rocky coastal grassland. It flowers from May to August..[4]

Cultivation and uses

Mouse-ear Hawkweed has become a common introduced invasive species in North America (where it is found in southern Canada and both northeast and northwest U.S.), and New Zealand. It is a level C noxious weed in the United States (with higher levels in the states of Washington and Oregon), and a weed in Quebec. It does not have special designations in other locations of Canada. It is known to be strongly invasive in New Zealand's tussock fields, where there are no native species of hawkweed, and biological control measures are being undertaken to control it and other hawkweed species.

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort mentions that blades covered in this plant's juices were believed to cut through stone as easily as through wood.[5]

Medicinal uses

The Mouse-ear Hawkweed contains umbelliferone, a compound similar to coumarin and a known antibiotic against brucellosis,[6] as well as a frequent active compound in sunscreen lotions. The plant is also a potent diuretic.

Subspecies synonyms

  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. bauhinii (Schult.) Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium praealtum subsp. bauhinii (Schult.) Petunn.
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. adenocladum (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. adenocymoides Rohlena & Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. aeriostolonum Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. agathanthum (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. arvorum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. auriculoidiforme Urum. & Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. auriculoidiforme Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. botrychodes Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. callicymum (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. chaunocymum (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. colorifilum K. Malý & Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. cryptomastix (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. cymanthodes Koslovsky & Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. cymanthum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. dobromilense (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. doiranicum Rech. f. & Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. empodistum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. erythriophyllum (Vuk.) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. erythrophylloides Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. fastigiatum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. florentinifolium (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. hispidissimum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. ingricum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. insolens (Norrl.) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. macrocaule (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. macrum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. melachaetum (Tausch) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. melanocymum K. Malý & Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. metalitzae Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. mnoocladum (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. nematomastix (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. obscuribracteum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. parvistolonum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. plicatulum Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. polyanthemum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. pseudobauhinii (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. pseudosparsum Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. pseudothaumasium Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. pseudotransgressum K. Malý & Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. radiocaule (Tausch) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. sedutrix (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. subauriculoidiforme Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. thaumasioides (Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. thaumasium (Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. transgressum (Nägeli & Peter) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. varatinense (Wo\u0142.) Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii subsp. viscidulum (Tausch) Zahn
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. adenocladum Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. agathanthum Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. anisocladum Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. arvorum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. callicymum Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. chaetophorum Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. chaunocymum Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. cryptomastix Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. cymanthum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. dobromilense Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. effusum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. empodistum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. erythriophyllum (Vuk.) Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. fastigiatum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. florentinifolium Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. hispidissimum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. ingricum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. macedonicum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. macrocaule Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. macrum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. melachaetum (Tausch) Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. mnoocladum Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. nematomastix Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. obscuribracteum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. parvistolonum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. plicatum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. polyanthemum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. pseudobauhinii Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. radiocaule (Tausch) Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. rojowskii Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. rojowskii (Rehmann) Zahn
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. sedutrix Rehmann
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. thaumasioides Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. thaumasium Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. transgressum Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium magyaricum subsp. viscidulum (Tausch) Nägeli & Peter
  • Hieracium praealtum subsp. thaumasium (Peter) P. D. Sell
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. adenoclada (Rehmann) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. anisoclada (Rehmann) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. arvorum (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. chaunocyma (Rehmann) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. cymantha (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. fastigiata (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. hispidissima (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. macra (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. melachaeta (Tausch) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. obscuribractea (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. plicata (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. polyanthema (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. thaumasioides (Peter) Soják
  • Pilosella bauhinii subsp. viscidula (Tausch) Soják
  • Pilosella praealta subsp. spraguei (Pugsley) P. D. Sell & C. West
  • Pilosella praealta subsp. thaumasia (Peter) P. D. Sell
  • Hieracium bauhinii var. limenyense Zahn
  • Hieracium bauhinii var. sparsum Hayek
  • Hieracium bauhinii var. viscidulum Tausch
  • Hieracium microcephalum f. erythriophyllum Vuk.
  • Pilosella bauhinii t.infr. thaumasia (Peter) Soják[1]

Illustrations

References

  1. ^ a b Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (June 5, 2007). "Details for: Pilosella piloselloides". The Euro+Med Plantbase. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=7702100&PTRefFk=7000000. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  2. ^ a b Carol Piening (1988-08-29). "Element Stewardship Abstract for Hieracium Pilosella". The Global Invasive Species Initiative. Archived from the original on 2006-09-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20060918192827/http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/hierpilo.html. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  3. ^ Science News, vol. 171, p. 302
  4. ^ Rose, Francis (2006). The Wild Flower Key. Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 480–481. ISBN 978-0723251750. 
  5. ^ Hieracium pilosella in the online Flore Laurentienne
  6. ^ Bishop, G. F.; A. J. Davy (March 1994). "Hieracium Pilosella L. (Pilosella Officinarum F. Schultz & Schultz-Bip.)". Journal of Ecology (British Ecological Society) 82 (1): 195–210. doi:10.2307/2261400. JSTOR 2261400. ISSN 0022-0477. 

External links


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  • Hieracium Pilosella — Mouse ear Mouse ear , n. (Bot.) (a) The forget me not ({Myosotis palustris}) and other species of the same genus. (b) A European species of hawkweed ({Hieracium Pilosella}). [1913 Webster] {Mouse ear chickweed}, a name of two common species of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hieracium pilosella — ID 40520 Symbol Key HIPI Common Name mouseear hawkweed Family Asteraceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Introduced to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution CT, DE, GA, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI,… …   USDA Plant Characteristics

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  • Hieracium pilosella L. — Symbol HIPI Common Name mouseear hawkweed Botanical Family Asteraceae …   Scientific plant list

  • Hieracium pilosella var. pilosella — ID 40522 Symbol Key HIPIP Common Name mouseear hawkweed Family Asteraceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Introduced to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution CT, DE, GA, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI,… …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Hieracium pilosella var. niveum — ID 40521 Symbol Key HIPIN Common Name mouseear hawkweed Family Asteraceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Introduced to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution CT, MA, ME Growth Habit Forb/herb Du …   USDA Plant Characteristics