List of tributaries of Imperial China


List of tributaries of Imperial China

The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China.

Chronological list

Many entities have paid tribute to Imperial China.
*Loulan (樓蘭)
*Dayuan (大宛)
*Wusun (鳥孫)
*Wuhuan (烏桓)
*Shennong tribe
*Nanman (南蠻)
*Qiang (羌)
*Tianzhi (天氏)
*Gaochang (高昌)
*Yuezhi ("also" Yüeh-Chih, 月氏)
*Khotan (于闐, 和田)

*Brunei
**Poni (渤泥)
**Brunei(文莱)

*Cambodia
**Kingdom of Funan [cite web|url=http://goasia.about.com/library/weekly/blfunan.htm|title=Funan|publisher=About.com|accessdate=2007-06-02] (扶南)
**Zhenla [cite web|url=http://www.geocities.com/khmerchronology/preangkor.htm|title=The Kingdom of Funan and Chenla (First to Eighth Century AD)|accessdate=2007-06-06] (真臘)

*Malaysia and Indonesia
**Langkasuka (狼牙脩)
**Malacca (满剌加 / 馬六甲) 拜里米苏拉
**Melayu
**Srivijaya (三佛齐,室利佛逝)
**Palembang (旧港)
**Majapahit

*Japan
**Wa [http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org/Ket/C09/E0901.htm "Tribute and Trade"] , KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.] ("also" Wae, Wei, 倭)
**Nippon (日本)

*Ryūkyū Kingdom [http://www.wonder-okinawa.jp/002/003/e_min.html "The Ancient Ryukyus Period/The Sanzan Period"] ]
**Hokuzan Principality (Northern Mountain, 北山)
**Chūzan Principality (Middle Mountain, 中山)
**Nanzan Principality (Southern Mountain, 南山)

*Korea
**Goguryeo [http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org/Ket/C03/E0302.htm "Guardian Protector of Silla"] , KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.] (高句麗) [http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org/Ket/C03/E0302.htm "Guardian Protector of Silla"] , KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.]
**Unified Silla [http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org/Ket/C03/E0304.htm "Unified Silla"] , KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.] (統一新羅)
**Balhae (渤海)
**Goryeo [http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org/Ket/C07/E0704.htm "Usurpers and Freebooters"] , KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.] (高麗)
**Joseon Dynasty [http://www.koreanhistoryproject.org/Ket/C09/E0901.htm "Tribute and Trade"] , KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.] (朝鮮)

*Philippines [http://pascn.pids.gov.ph/DiscList/d99/s99-16.pdf The Political Economy of Philippines- China Relations] ]
**Manila
**Sulu (蘇祿)

*Tibet

*Thailand
**Siam 邏羅
*Bhutan 不丹 Fact|date=January 2007
*Nepal 尼伯爾 Fact|date=January 2007
**Karakum (喀喇庫木)
**Yuli ("also" Weili, 尉犁)
**Kushana ("also" Kuşāņa, Guishuang, 貴霜)
**Boluo'er (博羅爾)

*Vietnam
**Âu Lạc (甌雒, 甌貉)
**Champa ("also" Chiêm Thành/占城, Lin-yi/ 林邑)
**Van Xuan (萬春, 野能)
**Đại Việt ("also" Dai Co Viet, Dai Ngu, 大越, 大瞿越, 大虞) (Ngô Dynasty 吳朝, Đinh Dynasty 丁朝, Prior Lê Dynasty 前黎朝, Lý Dynasty 李朝, Trần Dynasty 陳朝, Hồ Dynasty 胡朝, Later Lê Dynasty 後黎朝, Mạc Dynasty 莫朝)

Western Han Dynasty

* Internal vassals (206 BC - ?) - Upon the founding of the dynasty, the first emperor awarded up to one-half of territory of Han as fiefdoms to various relatives, who ruled as princes. These fiefdoms collected their own taxes and established their own laws and were not directly administered by imperial government. Consolidation and centralization by succeeding emperors increased imperial controls and gruadually dissolving the princedoms.
* Nanyue (211 BC - 111 BC) - A kingdom situated today's northern Vietnam, and the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi founded by a former Chinese general, Zhao Tuo. Under Zhao Tuo it paid nominal tribute to Han but his successors lost more and more power. After a coup d'état against the king, Han directly the kingdom and directly administered it from then onFact|date=September 2007.
* Minyue (138 BC - ?) - A "baiyue" people situated in modern-day Fujian province. After an attack by the Minyue people, Emperor Wu of Han launched a massive expedition, and forced their entire population to relocate within imperial borders.
* Dian Kingdom (109 BC) - A kingdom located in modern day Yunnan province. Brought into subjugation by Emperor Wu of Han, who annexed the kingdom into an imperial commandary but allowed local rulers to remain in power.
* Loulan (108 BC) - Located along the northeastern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in modern-day Xinjiang province. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of HanFact|date=September 2007.
* Cheshi (108 BC) - City-state in modern-day Turpan. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of HanFact|date=September 2007.
* Wusun (105 BC - ?) - Central Asian people. Bitter enemies with the Xiongnu, they entered a military alliance with the Han. In 53 BC, the kingdom split into two following a succession dispute. Both continued to recognize Han sovereignty and remained faithful vassalsFact|date=September 2007.
* Dayuan (102 BC) - Kingdom located in the Fergana Valley. Hearing tales of their high-quality horses, which would be of great utility in combatting the Xiongnu, Emperor Wu of Han dispatched an expedition to acquire their submission and the horses. The first expedition of 3,000 was woefully undermanned, but the second, numbering 100,000 besieged the capital, bringing them into submission after negotiations. The expedition returned with 10,000 horses along with a promise to pay an annual tribute in horsesFact|date=September 2007.
* Xiongnu (53 BC - 10) - A nomadic confederation/empire in Central Asia and modern day Mongolia and extending their control to territories as far as Siberia, western Manchuria, the areas along the Caspian Sea, and modern day Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang. They entered tributory relations with the Han after several defeats, territorial losses, and internal conflictsFact|date=September 2007. Tributory relationships terminated as a result of diplomatic fumblings during the reign of Wang Mang.

Wang Mang interregnum (Xin Dynasty)

During Wang Mang's reign, relations with many of the empire's allies and tributories deteriorated, due in large part to Wang Mang's arrogance and inept diplomacy.

Eastern Han Dynasty

*Southern Xiongnu (50-220) - The Xiongnu split into northern and southern factions. The southern Xiongnu brought themselves into tributory relations with the Han. They were resettled along with large numbers of Chinese immigrants in frontier regions. Economically dependent on Han, they were obliged to provide military services under a tightened tributory system with greater direct imperial supervision.

Ming dynasty

Under the Ming, countries that wanted to have any form of relationship with China, political, economic or otherwise, had to enter the tribute system. As a result, tribute was often paid for opportunistic reasons rather than as a serious gesture of allegiance to the Chinese emperor, and the mere fact that tribute was paid may not be understood in a way that China had political leverage over its tributary. [John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü: "On the Ch'ing Tributary System", in: Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941), p. 137-150] For example, Mongolian chronicles of the 17th century say that the Ming paid tribute to Altan Khan, not the other way around. Fact|date=October 2007 Also some tribute missions may just have been up by ingenious traders. A number of countries only paid tribute once, as a result of Zheng He's expeditions. As of 1587, in Chinese sources the following countries are listed to have paid tribute to the Ming emperors: [John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü: "On the Ch'ing Tributary System", in: Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941), p. 150ff]

*Korea (since 1369, first every year or every three years, after 1403 every year)
*Nippon (日本)
*Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)
*Dai Viet (every three years since 1369)
*Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371 (?))
*Siam (every three years since 1371)
*Champa (every three years since 1369)
*Pahang (1378, 1414)
*BaiHua(?) (1378)
*Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)
*Samudra (on Dvarasamudra in Southern India, 1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)
*Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)
*LanBang(?) (1376, 1403-1435)
*DanBa(?) (1377)
*Sulu (1417, 1421)
*GuMaLa (?) (1420)
*Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)
*Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445, 1459)
*Borneo (SoLo?) (1406)
*Aru (1407)
*Kollam (1407)
*Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)
*Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)
*Jaunpur (1420)
*Syria (Fulin?, 1371)
*Cochin (1404, 1412)
*Melinde (1414)
*Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)
*TieLi (?), ZhiLoXiaShi (?), HoMaoLi (Marinduque?) (1405)
*GuLiBanZu (?) (1405)
*DaHui(?) (1405)
*Hormuz (1405)
*Coyampadi (1411)
*Cail, Djofar, Maldives, Burma (YaWa), Lambri (NanWuLi), Kelatan, QiLaNi, XiaLaBi (Arabia?), KuChaNi, WuSheLaTang, Aden, Rum, Bengal (PengJiaNa), SheLaQi, BaKoYi, HeiGaDa, LaSa, Barawa, Mogadishu, QianLiTa, Cananore (all somewhere between 1403 and 1425)
*WaLa (Oirads) (beginning in 1403, annually, with interruptions, since 1458)
*Altan Khan (annually since 1570)
*DoYan(?), FuYü(?), Taining(?) (1388,twice a year from 1403)
*Jurchens and other tribes in the northeast (irregularly)
*JienZhou(?) (annually)
*Hami (beginning in 1404, annually from 1465, every five years from 1475)
*AnDing(?) (beginning in 1374)
*HanDong(?) (?)
*ChiShin (another group of Mongols?) (beginning in 1404, every five years since 1563)
*QuXian (1437)
*Herat (1402, 1409, 1437)
*HaSan(?)
*HaLieEr(?)
*ShaDiMan(?)
*Kashgar
*HaTiLan(?)
*Sairam
*SaoLan (identical to Sairam?)
*Ilbalik and Bashbalik (1391, 1406, 1413, 1418(?), 1437, 1457ff)
*NieKoLi (or MiekoLi) (?)
*Badakhshan
*Balkh
*Almalik (?)
*Togmak
*Chalish
*GanShi(?)
*Bukhara(?)
*PaLa(?)
*Shiraz
*Nishapur
*Kashmir
*Tabriz
*GuoSaSü(?)
*HuoTan(?)
*Khodjend
*KuXian(?)
*YaXi(?)
*Yarkand
*Jong(?)
*Bai(?)
*WuLun(?)
*Alani
*Hotan (?)
*YeSuCheng(?)
*KunCheng (Kunduz?)
*SheHei(?)
*BaiYin(?)
*KoQie(?)
*Turfan (1430, 1497, 1509, 1510, every 5 years since 1523)
*Karakhodjo (1409, 1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
*LiuChen(?) (1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
*Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc, after 1523 every five years)
*Rum (after 1524 every five years)
*Arabia (TienFang, Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)
*Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)
*Hotan 1408
*ZhiLo(?), Badakhshan, Andkhui, Isfahan (all somewhere between 1403 and 1424)
*Horasan (1432)
*Ejijie(?), HaShin(?) (both somewhere between 1522 and 1566)
*A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest.

Qing Dynasty

This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875, and were not covered under the Lifanyuan. Therefore, Tibet or the Khalkha are not included, although they did send tribute in the period given. The tribute system did not dissolve in 1875, but tribute embassies got less frequent and regular: twelve more Korean embassies until 1894, one more (abortive one) from Liuqiu in 1877, three more from Annam, and four from Nepal, the last one in 1908. [John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü: "On the Ch'ing Tributary System", in: Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941), p. 193ff]

*Korea (annually, with very few exceptions)
*Liuqiu (about every two years on average, 122 times in total between 1662 and 1875)
*Vietnam (47 times)
*Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780)
*Burma (17 times, most of them in the 19th century)
*Laos (17 times)
*Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)
*Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)
*Dzungars (1681, 1685, 1735, 1738, 1742, 1743, 1745, 1746, 1752, and 1753)
*Russia (1676 and 1727)
*Great Britain/United Kingdom (1793, 1795 (no tribute presented), and 1816)
*Holland (1663(?), 1667, and 1686)
*Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)
*Turfan (1673 and 1686)
*Holy See (1725)
*Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)
*Khanate of Kokand (between 1774-1798)
*Ku er le Beg (1762)

ee also

* China
* Chinese imperialism
* Chinese nationalism
* Foreign relations of Imperial China
* Greater China
* Imperial China
* List of recipients of tribute from China
* Silk Road
* Sinocentrism
* Sinosphere
* Suzerainty
* Tributary
* Zheng He

References

* John K. Fairbank. "Tributary Trade and China's Relations with the West." "The Far Eastern Quarterly" 1, no. 2 (1942): 129-49.


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