- Title 2 of the Swiss Federal Constitution
Title 2 of the
Swiss Federal Constitutionof 18 April 1999, entitled "Fundamental Rights, Civil Rights and Social Goals", contains a comprehensive and directly enforceable bill of rights, as well as a set of social goals which the state authorities are to pay heed to. A few rights, notably political ones, are explicitly reserved to Swiss citizens, while all others apply to all persons in Switzerland, including (insofar as possible) legal entities such as corporations.
While the 1878 constitution enumerated only a few civil rights, the 1999 constitution explicitly codifies the fundamental rights recognised in the case law of the Supreme Court and the
European Court of Human Rights. It also incorporates the fundamental rights guaranteed in the European Convention on Human Rights, which Switzerland has ratified.
Chapter 1: Fundamental Rights
quote=1 Any limitation of a fundamental right requires a legal basis. Grave limitations must be expressly foreseen by statute. Cases of clear and present danger are reserved.
2 Any limitation of a fundamental right must be justified by public interest, or serve for the protection of fundamental rights of other persons.
3 Limitations of fundamental rights must be proportionate to the goals pursued.
4 The essence of fundamental rights is inviolable.
source=— Article 36|
Application and limitation of fundamental rights
Articles 35 and 36 contain the general rules governing the application of fundamental rights. According to article 35, "the fundamental rights shall be realized in the entire legal system". This implies that the Constitution's fundamental rights are binding on all levels of state authorities and are directly enforceable in the courts, [Rainer J. Schweizer in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 35 N 6.] although the Constitution prohibits
judicial reviewof federal statutes in article 190. Going beyond the classical notion of civil rights as purely defensive rights against the state, though, article 35 also mandates the authorities to give meaning to the fundamental rights in their legislative and executive acts, ["Ibid", N 6 et seq.] and to actively protect fundamental rights even to some degree against non-state actors. ["Ibid", N 12 et seq.] In between private actors, the fundamental rights do not apply directly. ["Ibid", N 20.] Their " horizontal effect", though, is supposed to be realised through legislation to the extent the rights are suited to application between private persons. ["Ibid", N 21.]
Article 36 outlines the circumstances under which the exercise of classical "negative" rights can be limited. [Rainer J. Schweizer in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 36 N 7.] Exceptions must be limited to actions against those persons causing a clear and present danger that
legislationcannot address in time. ["Ibid", N 16.] Any public interest justifying a limitation of rights must arise from the Constitution or from constitutional statutes. ["Ibid", N 19.] Proportionalityrequires that a limitation of rights be suitable and required to achieve its goal, ["Ibid", N 21 et seq.] and that the degree of limitation is reasonable in view of that goal. ["Ibid", N 24.] Essential guarantees, such as the prohibition on torture, the death penaltyand censorshipcannot be limited (see also art. 15 ECHR and jus cogens). ["Ibid", N 27.]
Human rights and civil liberties
The bill of rights begins in article 7 by stating that "
human dignityshall be respected and protected". This is a fundamental principle of the state that should inform all of its acts, a guideline to the interpretation of all law, and under certain circumstances a directly applicable fundamental right. [Bernhard Ehrenzeller in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 7 N 23 et seq.] As such, it prohibits inhuman treatment and guarantees the right of people to be treated as a subject, not an object. ["Ibid", N 44.]
Article 8 establishes
equality before the lawfor all and prohibits discriminationbased e.g. on grounds of origin, (perceived) race, sex, age, language, social position, lifestyle(such as that of homosexuals[Rainer J. Schweizer/Margrith Bigler-Eggenberger in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 8 N 75.] ), personal convictions or disabilities. The principle of equalityimplies economic neutrality of the state, ["Ibid", N 23.] political equality ["Ibid" N 28.] and equality of opportunity. ["Ibid", N 32.] The principle of non-discriminationprohibits differential treatment based on the listed criteria except for clear objective reasons and in a proportionate manner. ["Ibid", N 54.] . Affirmative actionis permitted. ["Ibid", N 58.] Quote_box
quote=Every person has the right to be treated by the state organs without arbitrariness and in good faith.
source=— Article 9|
Article 9's prohibition of
arbitrarytreatment, an extension of the rule of law, guards individuals against rules or decisions of the state that have no serious, objective reasons, or that are meaning- and pointless. [Christoph Rohner in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 9 N 4.] A decision is arbitrary only if its "result" is obviously untenable or contrary to the facts, or if it blatantly violates the law or the idea of justice. ["Ibid".] This rule, which is illimitable, ["Ibid", N 14.] permeates the entire legal system. ["Ibid", N 13.] Applied subsidiarily where other rights are unavailable, ["Ibid", N 15.] it features prominently in Supreme Court jurisprudence, which reviews questions of cantonal law that do not involve rules of federal or constitutional law not " de novo", but only for arbitrary application of the law. ["Ibid", N 33 et seq.] However, the Court applies a narrow rule of standing to independent claims of arbitrary treatment, which has caused wide scholarly criticism. ["Ibid", N 25 et seq.] The rule of good faithrequires the state to protect people's vested confidencein state actions, such as in governmental informations, ["Ibid", N 51 et seq.] and prohibits the abuse of rights by the state, such as through undue delays. ["Ibid", N 57 et seq.]
Article 10 prohibits the
death penalty, tortureand cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. It also refers to the right to live, which does not prohibit abortion [Rainer J. Schweizer in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 10 N 12.] or passive euthanasia, ["Ibid", N 14.] both of which are legal in Switzerland. Also, Article 10 provides for a "right to personal liberty, particularly to corporal and mental integrity, and to freedom of movement". Personal liberty, according to case law, covers all important aspects of personal development and lifestyle, such as choices in diet, healthcare, personal relations and sexual activity. ["Ibid", N 24 et seq.] Article 11, a novel provision in the 1999 constitution, extends particular protection to children and young people.Quote_box
distressand incapable of looking after themselves have the right to be helped and assisted, and to receive the means that are indispensable for leading a life in human dignity.
source=— Article 12|
Article 12, one of few enforceable
social rights in the Constitution, provides for a right to obtain the means indispensable for leading a simple, dignified life. The cantons and municipalities are responsible for running welfare programmes to that effect. [Margrith Bigler-Eggenberger in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 12 N 9.] The Supreme Court has held that the right may not be limited, e.g. to coerce illegal immigrants into leaving the country. [Decision [http://jumpcgi.bger.ch/cgi-bin/JumpCGI?id=18.03.2005_2P.318/2004 BGE 131 I 166] of 18 March 2005.]
The subsequent articles proceed to guarantee the
right to privacy(art. 13), the right to marriageand to have a family (art. 14), as well as the freedom of religionand philosophy (art. 15), opinion, information (art. 16), the media (art. 17), language (art. 18), science (art. 20), art (art. 21), assembly (art. 22) and association (art. 23). Also, article 19 provides for a right to free primary education.
domicileanywhere in the country (art. 24) and protection against extraditionwithout consent (art. 25) are rights reserved to Swiss citizens. However, foreigners enjoy the guarantee of non-refoulementprovided by article 25.
Articles 26 to 28 cover fundamental
economic rights. The right to propertyis guaranteed, and expropriations made subject to full compensation, by article 26. Article 27 guarantees economic freedom, free choice of professionand free private enterprise. Although some state monopolies are permitted (by way of art. 94), [Klaus A. Vallender in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 27 N 47 et seq.] and differing cantonal regulations still impede the intercantonal exercise of some regulated professions, ["Ibid", N 4.] the wide extent to which economic freedom is guaranteed is a distinguishing feature of the Swiss constitution, both in theory and practice. ["Ibid", N 7.] Parliament's extensive discussions about this provision reflect a fundamental systemic decision in favour of a free market economy. ["Ibid", N 66 et seq.]
Article 28 guarantees the right of both employers and employees to unionise. Strikes and lockouts are declared permissible, but only when they relate to
labour relations(i.e., general or political strikes are not covered), [Klaus A. Vallender in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 28 N 25.] do not violate collective agreements, are proportionate in scope ["Ibid", N 26.] and are organised by unions (i.e., are not wildcat strikes). ["Ibid", N 27.] The provision reflects a compromise solution found after long, acrimonious parliamentary debates. ["Ibid", N 21.]
Articles 29 to 32 guarantee essential aspects of
due process. Article 29 covers the rights to fair trial and to an effective remedy as provided for in articles six and thirteen of the ECHR. Specifically, it guarantees the right to be treated equally and fairly within a reasonable time in legal or administrative proceedings, the right to be heard, and the right of indigents to free legal representation (generally realised through appointed private counsel). The right to be heard notably covers the right to be informed about and to participate in all proceedings concerning oneself, the right to offer and to examine evidence (such as to call and question witnesses) and the right to a well-reasoned decision. [Reinhold Hotz in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 29 N 10 et seq.] Article 29 also prohibits the delay or denial of justice, or excessive formalismin its administration. ["Ibid", N 10 et seq.] Quote_box
quote=1 No person may be deprived of liberty except in the cases and in the forms provided by statute.
2 All persons deprived of their liberty have the right to be informed immediately, and in a language that they understand, of the reasons for their detention, and of their rights. They must have the opportunity to assert their rights. In particular, they have the right to have their close relatives informed.
3 Every person taken into preventive detention has the right to be brought before a judge without delay; the judge shall decide whether the person shall remain in detention or shall be released. Every person in preventive detention has the right to be judged within a reasonable time.
4 All persons who are deprived of their liberty without a trial have the right to seize a court at any time. The court shall decide as soon as possible whether the detention is legal.
source=— Article 31|Article 29"a", in addition, guarantees a right to have legal disputes judged by a judicial authority. This provision, which was adopted by popular vote in 2000 and entered into force in 2007, is intended to realise more fully the right guaranteed by article 6 of the ECHR to a hearing by a "independent and impartial tribunal established by law". [Andreas Kley in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 29"a" N 2.] In
administrative lawin particular, access to a court was previously not possible in all cases. As a result of this constitutional provision, the Federal Administrative Court replaced a number of administrative review panels in 2007. The provision still allows statutes to exclude judicial reviewin "exceptional cases" that are considered not amenable to judicial review, such as "actes de gouvernement" e.g. in the area of national security, or acts of pardon or clemency. ["Ibid", N 10 et seq.] In any case, the provision's impact remains somewhat limited because article 190 excludes all federal statutes from judicial review. ["Ibid", N 21.]
Article 30 sets minimal standards for judicial procedures, guaranteeing access to independent and impartial courts established by law, as well as the right to an
open trial. It establishes the principle of separation of powersas relating to the judiciary. [Reinhold Hotz in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 30 N 7.]
Article 31 encompasses the rights guaranteed in article 5 of the ECHR, what the
common lawcalls the right to petition for a writ of habeas corpus, and also what is known in the U.S. as the duty to administer " Miranda warnings" to arrested persons. Article 32 outlines the fundamentals of criminal procedure. They include the presumption of innocence(which includes the principle of " in dubio pro reo" and the right to refuse self-incrimination), [Hans Vest in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 32 N 13 et seq.] the right to appealand the right to effective defence (including the assistance of counsel) ["Ibid", N 19.] .
Article 33 guarantees the right to
petitionauthorities without the fear of sanction. Article 34 guarantees the free exercise of the citizens' political rightsas provided for by the federal and cantonal constitutions. This means that results of votes and elections must reflect the free, unaltered will of the people [Gerold Steinmann in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 34 N 10 et seq.] and that the government may not engage in propagandato influence a vote or election (although it may provide "objective information"). ["Ibid", N 14.] Switzerland has registered a reservation with respect to article 25 of the ICCPR, which guarantees the right to a secret ballot, because the Landsgemeindeassembly system used by two cantons and many municipalities does not allow for secrecy. ["Ibid", N 17.]
Chapter 2: Citizenship and Political Rights
citizenship, according to article 37, is legally a consequence of cantonal and municipal citizenship, reflecting the three-tiered setup of the Swiss state. [Felix Hafner/Denise Buser in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 37 N 3.] Nonetheless, federal law regulates the general rules of acquisition and loss of citizenship, as set forth in article 38. The exact procedure of acquiring citizenship is governed by cantonal law. Some cantons have instituted administrative bodies to process petitions for citizenship, while in others, prospective citizens are vetted, and their petitions voted on, by a municipal citizens' assembly. ["Ibid", Art. 38 N 3.] These procedures are a subject of perennial political controversy between advocates of a more or less strict immigration policy.
Article 37 prohibits privileges or prejudices associated with any particular cantonal or municipal citizenship. Still, the Constitution makes allowance for the continued existence of
bourgeoisies and corporations. These are traditional civic associations carried over from the Old Swiss Confederacy, often consisting of formerly aristocraticfamilies, but regulated by cantonal public law. ["Ibid", Art. 37 N 7.]
Article 39 stipulates that all Swiss citizens may exercise full municipal, cantonal and national political rights at their place of residence, and article 40 allows Swiss citizens domiciled abroad to exercise political rights in Switzerland.
Chapter 3: Social Goals
Article 41 consists of a list of "social goals" which the confederation and the cantons "shall strive to ensure". They include the availability of
social security, health care, housingand public education.
These goals are of a programmatic nature, and are declared not to be directly enforceable. They are also counterbalanced by a reference to
individual responsibilityin . This means that, contrary to many other Western constitutions, so-called positive or second- and third generation rights are mostly absent from the constitutional text, although they are more widely recognised in legal doctrine and practice. [Margrith Bigler-Eggenberger in "Ehrenzeller", Art. 41 N 95.] Even so, the inclusion of this provision in the constitution was strongly contested on grounds of economic policy and cantonal autonomy. ["Ibid", N 8.]
* De icon. Cited as "Ehrenzeller".
* [http://www.admin.ch/ch/itl/rs/1/c101ENG.pdf Non-authoritative English translation] (PDF) of the Constitution, as amended until October 15 2002, provided by the Swiss federal authorities. The present encyclopedia article uses the text of this translation.
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