- Timeline of Middle Eastern history
This timeline tries to compile dates of important historical events that happened in or that lead to the rise of the Middle East. The
Middle Eastis the territory that comprises today's Egypt, the Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and Yemen. The Middle East with its particular characteristics was not to emerge until late second millennium AD. To refer to a concept similar that of today's Middle East but earlier in time, the term Ancient Near Eastis used.
This list is intended as a
timelineof the history of the Middle East. For more detailed information, see articles on the histories of individual countries. See Ancient Near Eastfor ancient history of the Middle East.
8th millennium B.C.
* Circa 8000 BC–Settlements at
Nevali Coriin present-day Turkeyare established.
* Circa 7500 BC –
Çatalhöyük, a very large Neolithicand Chalcolithicsettlement in southern Anatolia, is founded.
* Settlements at Sagalassos in present-day southwest Turkey are established.
* Domestication of
sheepin Southwest Asia
* Circa 7000 BC –
7th millennium BC
* Domestication of the
cowin the Middle East
6th millennium BC
September 1, 5509 BC– "day of creation of the world" (according to the Byzantine Empire) and beginning of their calendar [1 ]
* Around 5400 BC –
* circa 5600 BC – According to the
Black Sea deluge theory, the Black Seafloods with fresh water. Some 3000 cubic miles (12,500 km³) of salt water is added, significantly expanding it and transforming it from a salt-water landlocked lake into a fresh water sea.
Agricultureappears in the valley of the Nile
Wheeland ploughboth invented in ancient Mesopotamia
* Around 5100 BC – Temples founded in South
5th millennium BC
* c. 4500 BC – Civilization of
Susaand Kish in Mesopotamia
* c. 4570 BC–4250 BC –
Merimdeculture on the Nile
* c. 4400 BC–4000 BC –
Badariculture on the Nile
* c. 4000 BC - first examples of Sumerian
Ancient Near East
4th millennium BC
* City of
Urin Mesopotamia(40th century BC).
Naqadaculture on the Nile, 4000 BC–3000 BC.
* Epoch of the modern
Hebrew Calendaroccurred on 7 October 3761 BC.
* Some interpretations of Jewish chronology date creation to
25 Septemberor March 29 3760 BC.
* Civilization of
Sumer, city-states (36th century BC).
* First to Fourth dynasty of Kish in
* c. 3100 BC - King Narmer unifies the Upper and Lower Egyptian Kingdoms, and gives birth to the world's first
nation.The Narmer Paletteis believed to be the historical record of this event: Egypt.
* 35th century BC - beginning of desertification of
Sahara. The shift by the Sahara Desert from a habitable region to a barren desert.
Ur-Ninafirst king of Lagash(ca. 34th century), the earliest historical person known by name.
* Beginnings of
urbanisationin Mesopotamiawith the Sumerians.
* First cities in
Egypt(35th century BC).
writings in the cities of Urukand Susa(cuneiform writings). Hieroglyphs in Egypt.
Potter's wheelused in Middle East.
Sails used in the Nile.
* Archaic Period of
Sumer: Ur, Uruk, Kish, Susa)"
3rd millennium BC
ziggurats built in Sumer
Near Eastcivilizations enter Bronze Agearound 3000 BC
* Completion of the
Great Pyramid of Giza
2nd millennium BC
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
New Kingdom of Egypt
Babylonia, second dynasty of Babylon
Canaan: Ugarit, Kadesh, Megiddo, Kingdom of Israel
Cushitesdrive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt.
* Conquest of
Canaanby the Israelites
* Middle Kingdom in Egypt (2052–1570 BC)
HittitesOld Kingdom in Anatolia(1900 BC)
Civilizationin Canaan (1800 BC)
* Egyptian domination over Canaan and
Bronze Age collapse(1200-1050 BC)
** Fall of
Troy(traditional date 1184 BC, see Troy VII)
* late 2nd millennium BC - begin of the
Iron Agediscovery of iron smelting and smithing techniques in Anatoliaor the Caucasus.
Early Iron Age
Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
* 993 BCE: King
Davidcaptures Jerusalemand designates it the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel.
* c. 960 BCE: King
Solomonbuilds the First Temple.
* 922 BCE: Jerusalem becomes the capital of the (southern)
Kingdom of Judahafter the split of the United Monarchy.
Neo-Hittite kingdoms(10th-7th centuries BC)
Neo-Assyrian Empire(10th-7th centuries BC)
Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt(672-525 BC)
* Median Empire (7th-6th centuries BC)
Inventions, Discoveries, Introductions
Ironuse becomes widespread
Phoenicianspropagate the Phoenician alphabetin the Mediterranean
* Many major religious and philosophical viewpoints are created, further explored or codified
List of Pharaohs
Chronology of the Ancient Near East
* 606 BCE-586 BCE: The
Babyloniansdestroy Jerusalem. King Nebuchadnezzar burns the Solomon's Temple.
Cyrus the Greatconquered Babylonand created the Persian Empire(6th century BC)
* 537 BCE: Cyrus allows the
Israelitesto return from the Babylonian captivityand rebuild the Temple.
* 515 BCE: The
Second Templeis built.
Spartaand Athensfought the Peloponnesian War
Alexander the Greatconquered Persia (330s BC)
* Hellenic Greek culture spread through the
Roman Republicrose and fell
* Beginning of
Christianity(1st Century AD) and Islam(7th Century AD)
Jewish-Roman Warsand Jewish diaspora. In 135, Roman Emperor Hadrianrenamed Iudaea Provinceinto Syria Palaestina.
Olympic Gamesobserved until 393
Library of Alexandria, largest library in the world, burned
* Rise and fall of the
Rise of Islam
Arab Empirefounded during the Muslim conquestsof the Persian Empire, Roman Syria, Roman Egypt, Roman North Africa, Visigothic Hispania, southern Italy, Khazar Khaganate, Afghanistan, and parts of the northwestern Indian subcontinent and northwestern China
* c. 970 -
Al-Azhar University, the oldest Islamicinstitution for higher studies, with its corresponding mosque of Al-Azharare founded.
Turks, Crusaders and Mongols
(The dominance of the Arabs came to a sudden end in the mid 11th century with the arrival of the
* c. 1347, a fleet of Genoese trading ships fleeing Caffa (
Theodosia) reached the port of Messinaand spreads the Black Death
Seljuk Turks, Crusades, Mongols)"
The Ottoman era
"(main article: History of the Ottoman Empire)"
* 1869 - Construction of the
Suez Canalis completed.
European domination of the Arabic and Turkish regions (especially since World War I)
* 1882 - September 13 - British troops occupy Cairo - Egypt becomes British protectorate
* 1922 - February 28 - Egypt is granted independence from British occupation.
Contemporary Middle East
(circa since WWII)
* 1947 - UN General Assembly proposes to divide Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state.
* 1948 - Israel declares independence
* 1948 - The first Arab-Israeli war
Israeliand Palestinian nationalism
petroleumbecomes important political factor
* 1952 - After a revolution in
Egyptthe monarchy is overthrown
* 1954 -
Gamal Abdel Nasserbecomes president of Egypt
* 1954 -
Central Treaty Organization
* 1956 -
* 1963 -
Ba'th Partycomes to power in Syriaand stages military coup in Iraqunder the leadership of General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakrand Colonel `Abd as-Salām `Arif
* 1964 -
Abdul Rahman Arifstages military coup in Iraq against the Ba'th Party and brings his brother, Abdul Salam Arif, to power
* 1967 -
Six-Day War, Israel occupies large Arab territorries
* 1968 - Ba'athists stage second military coup under General
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Saddam Husseinis made vice president of Iraq
* 1970 - Gamal Abdel Nasser dies,
Anwar Sadatbecomes president of Egypt
* 1971 - The
Aswan High Damis completed with Soviethelp in finance and construction; independence of Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrainand the UAE
* 1973 -
Yom Kippur War
* 1974 - The
PLOis allowed to represent the people of Palestinein the UN
* 1975-1990 -
Lebanese Civil War
* 1978 -
Camp David Accords
* 1979 - Saddam Hussein becomes president of Iraq;
Iranian Revolution; Israel-Egypt peace treaty
* 1980-1989 -
* 1981 - Murder of Anwar Sadat
* 1987-1990 -
* 1991 - The
* 1993 -
* 2003 - The 2003 Iraq War
* 2006 - The
2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict; Saddam Hussein executed for "crimes against humanity"
History of the Middle East
History of pottery in the Southern Levant
history of Iraq
history of Syria
history of Anatolia
history of Turkey
history of Palestine
history of Israel
history of Jordan
history of Lebanon
Ancient Egypt: 3000 BC to 332 BC
Ptolemaic Egypt: 332 BC to 30 BC
**Roman Egypt: 30 BC to 639 AD
History of Arab Egypt: 639 to 1517
History of Ottoman Egypt: 1517 to 1805
Egypt under Mehemet Ali and his successors: 1805 to 1882
History of Modern Egypt: since 1882
history of Iran
history of Saudi Arabia
history of Yemen
history of Oman
Timeline of Islamic history
Timeline of Jewish history
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