West Virginia's Moneton tribe on the Kanawha Valley[Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora (Iroquois) means "waterway", "kye" is augmentive suffix.
Kaniatarowanenneh means "big waterway" in Mohawk (Iroquois).
Lachler, McElwain, and Burke http://www.mingolanguage.org/
Mingo (Iroquois) etymology about boating: kaháwa' noun means boat. kényua'. This switch-interactive verb means to row a boat or more to ferry someone across a stretch of water. It belongs to the semantic fields the sea and transportation. Etymology kényua' -NYU- Verb Root. Grammatical Info Base -nyu-.Stem Class LX. Conjugation Class XX. kényua' "I row boats". kaháwa', (boat) grammatical info base -haw- Stem Class C, Prefix Class Agent, Linker Vowel ö. Note that the -h- at the beginning of this base is strong, and so does not drop out when it would come between two vowels. Varies with kahôwö'. Possessed Form akháwa' my boat. Plural Form kahawa'shö'ö boats. káhu' means "this way" or in this direction.] has been a subject of debate. It is unknown what these people may or may not have called themselves. In the 1670s,
Abraham Woodwrote and spelled the name "Moneton" and the other variant "Monyton", the only known source. Swanton educated guessed the Moneton language was Siouan. [Swanton, West Virginia, Smithsonian, http://books.google.com/books?id=vtHI5pkJOGMC&printsec=frontcover#PPA74,M1] This era was a century before Chickamauga Wars. Points from the Blue Ridge Mountainsand Shenandoah Rivertributary outcrops have been found near Beckley, West Virginia. The eastern slopes of the southern Allegheny Mountains in today's Virginia is traditionally the Mahock, "Virginia Cherokee" [ [the name of the Kanawha on the Spanish map of Lopez y Cruz (1755), is given as "Tchalaquei" (the earliest Spanish form of "Cherokee," from the Choctaw, choluk, a hollow or cave); while'the Cherokee (now Tennessee) River itself is called "Rio de los Cherakis."] The Wilderness Trail (New York, 1911) Charles A. Hanna] and western rim of Tutelo Siouanlanguage groups and those of Iroquois dialects. The Monacan, [Monacan: "Monahassanaugh" of Smith's map of Virginia, Hale & Mooney states that the prefix "Ma", "Mo" and "Mon" may be the same as the Siouan "man" meaning "Land" or "Country".
Monacan Indian Nation http://www.monacannation.com/ ] another element of Tutelo, lived all along the
James River (Virginia)through the 17th century, encountered when Jamestown, Virginiawas established. [Cross-checked with Britannica 1988 ed.] Virginia Siouan groups derive the Nottoway Confederacy of the Piedmont. Some Monacans, in 1728, joined the IroquoisFive Nations while some did not (Houck, p. 28: Cook, p. 48). [Generational tellings calls this mix in the Kanawhan Region, "Monecagas" or "Monechee" as sometimes said in local dialects.] Mooney declared this element, Moneton of western most Colonial Virginia, to be Siouan(eastern, word). Some scholars suggest Monetons were an element of Monacan and a variation of colonial spelling. The phrase Woods writes can be understood a couple of ways and having no surety. Although, Tomahitans are often identified as Carolina mountain valley Yuchiand allied with the Catawba at this time. It is not clear if the King was Yuchi, Siouan or even Cherokee. But, he was King of the Tomahitans who had no problem in shooting a Siouan. Needham and Arthur was sent to establish trade with the Cherokee.
Wood's remarks imply that some of the [sic] "Tomahittons" favored the [sic] "Occheneechees" position in Virginia's
Fur Tradeas middlemen. A small group of Tomahitans tied Arthur, Wood's agent, to the stake to burn him under the instructions of the "Occheneechees". The King of "Tomahittons" arrived, in time, and rescued Arthur, shooting that sub-group's leader. This seems to have put a quick end to the political dispute within the Tomahitan tribe. The Tomahitan tribe did accept members of certain other tribes to live with them as subordinates. Woods' recapitulation of Arthur's travels does yield the Moneton neighbor's of 3 days journey or about 60~90 miles away and much further away if by canoe. This distance is based on the well known explorier surveyors Christopher Gist's and George Washington's several journals ability to travel these regions. The Moneton neighbor's shot arrows at Tomahitans on sight, but did not bother themselves to give chase. Alas, this still does not achieve the question, who were the Moneton's?
- From a letter dated August 22, 1674 of Abraham Wood to John Richards: "Now ye king (Tomahitans) must goe to give ye monetons a visit which were his frends, mony signifing water and ton great in theire language Gabriell must goe along with him They gett forth with sixty men and travelled tenn days due north and then arived at ye monyton towne sittuated upon a very great river att which place ye tide ebbs and flowes. [Generally to be a base of a water falls or upper most point on a major waterway that a vessel can navigation before portage, also, a series of islands and sand bars on a river.] Gabriell swom in ye river severall times, being fresh water, this is a great towne and a great number of Indians belong unto it, and in ye same river Mr. Batt and Fallam were upon the head of it as you read in one of my first jornalls. This river runes north west and out of ye westerly side of it goeth another very great river about a days journey lower where the inhabitance are an inumarable company of Indians, as the monytons told my man which is twenty dayes journey from one end to ye other of ye inhabitance, and all these are at warr with the Tomahitans. when they had taken theire leave of ye monytons they marched three days out of thire way to give a clap to some of that great nation, where they fell on with great courage and were as curagiously repullsed by theire enimise."-- Abraham Woods. [THE JOURNEYS OF JAMES NEEDHAM AND GABRIEL ARTHUR IN 1673 AND 1674 THROUGH THE PIEDMONT AND MOUNTAINS OF NORTH CAROLINA TO ESTABLISH TRADE WITH THE CHEROKEE Contained in a letter from Abraham Wood to John Richards August 22, 1674 http://rla.unc.edu/archives/accounts/Needham/NeedhamText.html]
- "The First Explorations of the Trans-Alleghany Region by the Virginians" 1650- 1674 "The word Monetons, according to Mooney (letter of Jan. 7, 1909) is Siouan. The identity of the tribe is doubtful. From location and similarity of name they may perhaps be simply the Mohetan of Fallam's journal, and belong to the Cherokee. The Mohetan told Batts and Fallam that their villages were about half-way between Peters' Mountain and the Ohio."-- Clarence Walworth Alvord and Lee Bidgood, 1912
Using topo maps, geographical landmarks and travel distances, Briceland (1987) [Briceland, Alan V. 1987 Westward from Virginia: The Exploration of the Virginia Carolina Frontier, 1650-1710. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville. also
Briceland, Alan V. 1991 Batts and Fallam Explore the Backbone of the Continent. In Appalachian Frontier, edited by Robert D. Mitchell.] demonstrates that Batts & Fallam reached Matewan on the
Tug Fork. There are no known, else discovered, archaeological village sites on this branch. However, using the same method, the local university discussions point to the Guyandotte at the Logan archaeological village site being Batts & Fallam's farthest reach in exploration. The islands near Logan resembles the falls of the James Rivernear Wood's Fort in Virginia. The gravel bar near Matewan does not resemble these early descriptions of the village's location of Batts & Fallam. These studies, also, are speculation yet to be proven.
Other of ye inhabitance
Of the unidentfied people on the
Ohio Valley, Woods writes, "He (Gabriell) made signes to them the gun was ye Tomahittons which he had a disire to take with him, but ye knife and hatchet he gave to ye king. they not knowing ye use of gunns, the king received it with great shewes of thankfullness for they had not any manner of iron instrument that hee saw amongst them". The reports of this tribe given by the Mohetan to Batts and Fallam correspond with those given to Arthur by the Moneton. Iberville in August, 1699, wrote "...some Maheingans who are savages whom we call Loups..." which document helps identify the "Mohecan" in the Kanawha Valley and assimilation. ["NEW ADVENT, Second Edition of the New Advent, 2008 by Kevin Knight. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. The editor of New Advent Kevin Knight. The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15605a.htm (May 16, 2008)
also: "The wilderness trail, or the ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania] traders on the Allegheny path, with some new annals of the old west, and the records of some strong men and some bad ones" (New York, 1911) Charles A. Hanna
also:"...In my Letter of the 24th. Instant, I mentioned the arrival of thirteen of our Caghnawaga Friends (Hanson's Journal, Canawagh working on the Kanawha Valley April 1774.); They honored me with a Talk to-day as did three of the Tribes of St. Johns and Pasmiquoddi Indians; Copies of which I beg leave to inclose you. I shall write General Schuyler respecting the Tender of Service made by the former, and not to call for their Assistance, unless he shall at any time want it, or be under the necessity of doing it to prevent their taking the side of our Enemies...", George Washington to Continental Congress, January 30, 1776.
also: The Appalachian Indian Frontier; "The Edmond Atkin Report and Plan of 1755", edited by Wilbur R. Jacobs, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1967] Fallam called those on the Great
Kanawha River"Mohetan" and this is perhaps an example of tribal influx. In 1671, Thomas Batts wrote, "We understand the Mohecan Indians did here formerly live. It cannot be long since we found corn stalks in the ground." Batts and Fallam, Wood's agents, are credited as having discovered Kanawha Falls. Mr Batts wrote about what he saw. Earlier scholars have this site as found to be on Campbells Creek near Belle. [Editor's Note: An example of the influx of the Moneton's region is found in the following quote in note: "The fight at the forks of the Pamunkey in 1656 in which Totopotamoi fell was really with the strange Ricahecrian Indians from beyond the mountains. The Rickahockans or Ricahecrians entered Virginia from beyond the mountains in 1656. Through misunderstanding and mismanagement they were attacked, and inflicted a severe defeat upon Colonel Edward Hill and the friendly Pamunkeys, at the forks of the river of that name. Neill, E. D. Virginia Carolorum, 245-246. The Bureau of American Ethnology identifies these Indians with the Cherokee [Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, also Handbook of American Indians, art. "Cherokee"] . They have also been identified with the Erie or Rique, who were defeated and expelled from their home on Lake Erie in 1655. [See Parkman, Jesuits in America, 438-441; Charlevoix, History of New France, vol. ii, 266.] They are referred to in many cases under the name "Riquehronnons" or "Rigueronnons"-Iroquois designations. [See Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, index s. v. "Eries;" Handbook of .American Indians, article "Erie," and synonyms.] They retired behind the Blue Ridge after defeating Hill, and remained there for several years.* Colonial Papers, Public Record Office, vol. xxiv; Winder Papers, Virginia State Library, vol. i, 252. Major William Harris is the same who accompanied Lederer on his second expedition. He received his rank in December, 1656, was Abraham Wood's subordinate in the Charles City County regiment, and is again mentioned in the militia records of that county, July 2, 1661. Hening, Statutes at Large, vol. i, 426; William and Mary Quarterly, vol. iv, 167-168."
Sir William Talbot's "The Discoveries of John Lederer" The First Expedition from the head of Pemaeoncock, alias York-River (due West) to the. top of the Apalataean Mountains
[Coxe's Account of the Activities of the English in the Mississippi Valley in the Seventeenth Century "A Memorial" by Dr. Daniel Coxe Report relative to the English discoveries in Carolina and Florida, and the settlement -of English and French claims (temp. George 1) : the writer Edward Billing"] , The First Explorations of the Trans-Alleghany Region by the Virginians 1650- 1674" By Clarence Walworth Alvord and Lee Bidgood Published by The Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1912] Continued speculation otherwise, there is the archeaological village site at Marmet which is more likely Gabriel Arthur's visit with the Moneton (Maslowski et al) and very near Belle.
Iroquois League, Huron Confederacyand Andaste(Sultzman) are well reported as blocking the Nation du Chat from attaining fire arms, the latter serving as middlemen to the French and Dutch trade. The Dutch had provided Andastewith fire arms, another of the League's enemy who also spoke a dialect of Iroquoisas did the "Panther People" (corrupted Nation du Chat) otherwise Eire. [Editor Note: "Apparently some of the Neutrals were more closely attached to the Erie than the others, because both the Seneca and Huron often referred to both the Erie and Neutrals as the "Cat Nation." Sultzman, First Nations Histories] Their neighbor east, at that time, of the Allegheny Mountains were the late Conestoga ( Quakerfor Andaste), earlier called Susquehannocks (Virginian). Susquehannocks is first mentioned in the "Voyages of Samuel Champlain" for 1615 as he calls one of their some 20 villages "Carantouan". It rallied more than 800 warriors with two other villages, Champlain reports. "Carantouan" was nearer to the New Yorkand Pennsylvaniaborder on the tributaries of the Susquehanna Riveron his map approaching towards the region from the Saint Lawrence Seaway. [Louise Welles Murray, Director, Tioga Point Museum, Athens, Pennsylvania, 1931] A Susquehanna site is located in the Eastern Panhandle at Moorefield, West Virginia.
Mohawks and Senecas in 1642 began a crescendo invasion into Huroncountry of New Francealong the Richelieu, the Ottawa, and the St. Lawrence. New Hollandsupported the Mohawks ( Mohawk Dutch) who became the pirates of the French fur trade. "In the face of the Iroquois attack, instead of recovering themselves the Hurons were seized with panic. Almost the entire Bear tribe took refuge with the Tobacco Nation. Others sought asylum with the Neutrals, the Eries( Ohiocountry), the Algonkins, or fled to the nearby islands. The Huron confederacy fell completely to pieces." [ "On 16 March, 1649 more than 1,000 Iroquois attacked Saint-Ignace (Taenhatentaron), then Saint-Louis, where Brébeuf the priest, Jesuit, founder of the Huron mission and his assistant, Gabriel Lalemant, were carrying on their work."-- BRÉBEUF, JEAN DE (called Échon by the Hurons), priest, Jesuit, founder of the Huron mission; b. 25 March 1593 at Condé-sur-Vire in Lower Normandy; martyred 16 March 1649 at the village of Saint-Ignace in the Huron country (in the region of Midland, Ontario), canonized 29 June 1930 by Pius XI and proclaimed by Pius XII on 16 Oct. 1940 patron saint of Canada along with his seven martyred companions.-- University of Toronto/Université Laval, http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=92 (April 27, 2008)] "Les Tionontatacaga", shown on Homann Johann Baptist's map of 1710, had taken refuge in West Virginia's hollows (after 1701) from the great heat of the Iroquois invasion, the Moneton's territory. [The Wyandots are called Tiononaties, Petuns or Petuneuae, Tobacco Indians, from their industrious habit of cultivating that plant. Petun (obsolete French for tobacco derived from the Brazilian) being a nickname given to them by the French traders. ("Historical Magazine," Vol. V, O. S., 1861, p. 263.) In the Mohawk dialect of the Iroquois the name for tobacco is O-ye-aug-wa. (Gallatin's "Synopsis American Aboriginal Archives," Vol. II, p. 484.) In the Huron of La Hontan, Vol. II, p. 103, Oyngowa; and in Campinus "History of New Sweden," in the Mingo (Mingo phrase: "Oyngowa").-- WILLIAM M. DARLINGTON [1815-1889]
also: Tionontati was the name given them by the Huron and translates as "on the other side of the mountain," Sultzman, Histories, First Nations.] "Les Oniassoutlea", dialect variation Oniassontke, shown on the map are otherwise Black Minqua (Dutch for modern Mingo) and Honniasontkeronon whom were one of several elements of Honniasont. Honniasontkeronon "infested the country above the rapids of the Ohio River" as the Seneca told La Salle in 1669. [Short title, "The Wilderness Trail", Hanna Pp. 119] . They were reported to be hereditary enemies to the Nation of Fire and kindred Chaouanons. The
Kentucky Riverwas called the Cuttawa River and the Big Sandy was called the Totteroy River, ancient Eastern Siouan territory. Earliest regional authors called these western trail branches as Catawba Trail. Honniasont is an Iroquian word meaning "wearing something around the neck", quoting L. Sultzman. These were sub-tribes of the Erie in the 17th century also known as Natio di Chat, "du Chat" (French) and ancient eastern Siouan. [Geographic Overview of First Nations Histories, Location List of the Native Tribes of the US and Canada, Lee Sultzman, First Nations Histories (revised 10.11.06) http://www.dickshovel.com/erie.html (April 29, 2008)] Mingoe, "Before the formation of the League, the Mingos were merely the Iroquoian-speaking peoples of the Ohio Valley and it tributaries in what is now West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, and eastern Ohio," quoting Doctor Thomas McElwain. [Dr. Thomas McElwain is on the faculty of the University of Stockholm in the Department of Comparative Religion. He is originally from West Virginia and is one of the few native speakers of West Virginia Mingo.] Unyææshæötká' was, or now is of few, the language of the West Virginia Mingo. Uyata'kéá' means the Cherokees (the "cave" kind, implying steep hollow). At the base of Seneca Rocks, two separate fort villages contained some 15 to 20 large (20 x 40 feet) homes. The Mann site (46LG5) proved to be a major Fort Ancient (Merriwether et al. 1995) A.D. 1450~1550 trade village occupied at Logan County. It laid up the Mud River a distant below the strange rock wall sites above Paint Creek watershed divide. The Shattera's (Swanton's Toteras element of Tutelo) village is shown at Williamson according to a letter written to the Lord of Trade, New York, dated April 13th, 1699. E.B. O'Callaghan M.D. also cited this source in his "Colonial History of the State of New York", published at Albany in 1856. There is uncertainty as which stream they migrated at first to Salem, Virginia, either their Big Sandy or the Great Kanawha rivers. ["On The Historic Location of the Tutelo and The Mohetan In The Ohio Valley" by James B. Griffin] The Williamson Shatteras neighbour at the south western Ohio villages, the Mosopelea, settled on the Cumberland Riversome time before 1673. They spoke a Siouandialect similar to Biloxi and Tutelo, secondarily to Dakota.
Canada" (place of villages Laurentian dialect) Jesuit's visited the Greenbrier Valley a little more than two decades earlier than Arthur. This valley is the lower half of the Allegheny Mountain's Great Indian Warpathwhich connects to the Seneca Trailat the gap near Shavers Fork. This is not far from the old village Mingo Flats of Monongahela National Forest. "In the beginning, Mingo or Mingwe was used to symbolize people of the spring ..."Spring People". These "Spring People" were Iroquois and others from affiliated tribes (Shawnee) that would in the spring of the year return like migrating birds to their homes in the north," to quote Sam Rogers, WVU County Extension Agent. [ Logan County West Virginia, "The History of Logan County", by Sam Rogers, (deceased) West Virginia University Extension Service. Also, "What's in a Name?" Article by Sam Rogers, Logan Banner '95 (News paper)] A Mingo statue stands along the highway for their honor as first settled highland inhabitants of the Snowshoe Mountainarea.
The "Talligewi" (Delaware name, Heckewelder) have been said to be ancient Alleghenian. The Rickohockans (recorded in 1658) were similar to the ancient Talligewi (Hewitt). Chief
Cornstalk's Kentuck Shawnese parent's ( Chalahgawtha) arrived on the upper Potomac tributaries about 1692 with the Sauvanoos from the south east colonies. (Darlington) Plantationer's letters mentioning this great "People of the South" caravan passed through the Carolinias moving north by French invitation according to a Britannica 1988 article. The French suggested the Sauvanoos resettled the Forks of Ohio region. Darlington shows the town-cabins on the western side of Pennsylvania's Allegheny Mountains. The Shawnee abandoned their villages on the Cacapon Valley in 1725. The French had made a better offer to provide carpenters to build towns and teachers to school the children on the Sciota Valley in Ohio. Many Sauvanoos of the 1690s carvan groups moved into Ohio at the out-break of the French and Indian War. The Shawnee and other groups were reported as acquiring wives and replacing deceased relatives from neighbors in the 18th century, assimilation. Only but, a few decades before these 1690s arrival, some of the latest Fort Ancients are in the Kanawhan Region of the western valleys of the Alleghenian. These palisaded fort farmers were supposed to have been destroyed at least a decade and much more for most sites before Woods explorations according to early writers. [Mason County, WV - An Archaeological Treasure by Darla Spencer, RPA, is Secretary/Treasurer of the West Virginia Archeological Society and member of the Council for West Virginia Archaeology. Photos and descriptions: http://www.pointpleasantwv.org/MasonCoHistory/ARCH/Arch_10.htm ] The Tomahitans also lived in palisaded forts with raised platforms from which to shoot arrows at the enemy from the walls and friends to the Kanawha County, West Virginia location of the Monetons. To rebut, the Tomahitans accepted other tribe's members as subordinates-- remember.
The map, above, shows the Calicuas before 1710. This is the general area of the Moneton and the unidentified tribe. Earlier scholars identified Calicuas as an element of ancient "
Cherokee", still, the map may mean the Monongahela culture, within bounds of the same region, if Arthur went to the Monongahela tribuaries. Western Virginia " Cherokee" were reported at Cherokee Falls [Wonderful West Virginia articles "Allegeny" and Wonderfull W.Va. Sept.1973, Pp.30, "Valley Falls Of Old", Walter Balderson] (today's Valley Falls) in 1705. [Quoting from C. Gist journal 1753, November, "Thursday 15.—We set out, and at night encamped at George's Creek (near Fairfax Stone), about eight miles, where a messenger came with letters from my son, who was just returned from his people at the Cherokees, and lay sick at the mouth of Conegocheague (next major stream below Col Cresap's Fort Cumberland, upper Potomack River, Allegany Mountains.) --CHRISTOPHER GIST'S JOURNALS WITH HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES AND BIOGRAPHIES OF HIS CONTEMPORARIES BY WILLIAM M. DARLINGTON [1815-1889] PITTSBURGH, J. R. WELDIN & CO., 1893] [In June, 1757, Captain Hamilton addressed Capt. Potter FORT LYTTLETON. Page 555-561. See Mr. Darlington's Map. There was a company of Cherokee Indians in King's pay, being at Fort Lyttleton, and Capt. Hamilton sent some of them to search along the foot of the Allegheny mountains to see if there were any signs of Indians on that route, and these Indians came upon Capt. Mercer, unable to rise; they gave him food, and he told them of the other; they took the captain's track and found him and brought him to Fort Lyttleton, carrying him on a bier of their own making. They took fourteen scalps on this expedition. Governor Morris directs E. Salter, April tenth, 1756: "When you get to Fort Lyttleton you will take upon oath what proofs you can of the certainty of Indian Isaacs having taken the scalp of Captain Jacobs, that he may be entitled to the reward."-- CLARENCE M. BUSCH. STATE PRINTER OF PENNSYLVANIA. 1896.
The report: http://www.usgwarchives.org/pa/1pa/1picts/frontierforts/frontierforts.htm] Indian trader Charles Poke's trading post dates from 1731 with the Calicuas of Cherokee Falls still in the region from the previous century. ["The Monetons are regarded to have been a distant branch of the Cherokees. They had a natural antipathy for the Shawnees, who were located on both sides of the Ohio in the vicinity of the mouth of the Scioto River. After terminating their visit with the Monetons the Cherokees went out of their direct path of return for a few days' swing to the westward to take a "clap" at their ancient and formidable enemy, the Shawnees." Chapter: "The Discovery of Kentucky" Pp. 125, "Register of Kentucky State Historical Society", By Kentucky Historical Society Published by The Society, 1922, Item notes: v.20 (1922) index:v.1-20 Original from Harvard University Digitized Jan 23, 2008
Note, the term "Shawnoes" appears later in 18th Century, later derives Shawnee.] The Cherokee appeared in the Southern Appalachian region about A.D. 1300, towards the end of the
Pisgah Phase(A.D. 1000~1500), assimilating with these there. During Qualla Phase(ca. A.D.1500 to Historic), the Cheorkeeas a Nation became a considerable force south and west of the Cumberland Mountainsby the 18th century. ["the historic Overhill Cherokee, has a date range beginning at A.D. 1600 and continuing until A.D. 1838 or removal (Davis 1990:56)...Dickens (1976) suggests that the relationship between the Overhill phase culture and the Dallas phase culture involves a complex process of cultural hybridization. The later Dallas phase villages were significantly different from the earlier villages and they are much more like Overhill phase sites. They were larger, they do not have palisades or platform mounds, public and domestic structures were different and individual households are more widely dispersed in the villages."--Middle Tennessee Chapter 12: The Late Mississippian Period (AD 1350-1500) - Draft By Michaelyn Harle, Shannon D. Koerner, and Bobby R. Braly] The Historical Cherokee Nationrecognized the "Ayrate" meaning geographically "low" (lands) and "Ottare" meaning geographically "mountainous" (lands) elements of Southern Appalachian Mountainsand Kentucky["History of American Indians" by Adair Pp. 239~241.] .
Shawnee Chief "Wanduchale's Old Town" was opposite the
Little Kanawha River, his 1st village in the early 1750s. His clan continued through Ohio. French carpenters were sent to build 28 homes of Jesuit Mohawks, this 1747 Canawagha village was located at today's village of Kanaugha, Ohio, its namesake, opposite the mouth of the Great Kanawha. ["The Edmond Atkin Report and Plan of 1755", republished by W.J.Jacobs.] These split later in the century due to politics, a few remained. The more humble mixed people's village of "Old Town" was about five miles up-stream on the flat above the flood plain on the West Virginia side of the Ohio River. This location is an archaeological site often called the "Armory Site" by arrow-head retailers today. Another old village was located at the head land flat of Robinson Creek and Falling Cliff Creek, inland. Cheregree the reconnoitre Indian map of about 1755 shows the upper Shawnee village on the east side at the mouth of the Great Kanawha River, again, about five miles below the local "mixed people's" "Old Town" village in Mason County, West Virginia. J. Le Tort's Trading House, today's Letart Falls, dates from 1739 adjacent the Ohio River's "Big Bend" islands and once water falls. His family was Shawnee-Delaware mix and clan included a Powhattanfamily and others from the east. His clientele was mostly a mix of Colonial and Native American trappers, some from the Iroquois-Shawnee "Kiskamoneto" village near today's Belleville Locks and Dam, above the river's banks in the state of Ohio. There is a large Adena Burial Mound located on the terrace or bottom land which is a small state park today along the highway below Forked Run Lake in Meigs County, Ohio. These mixed villages were not considered a threat of the French and Indian War (" Seven Years War").
By practice, the lawful permit holding associates had shipped goods in trade to the eastern Colonies. Major Lewis, during the "Big Sandy Expedition", found the Shawnee had removed themselves from the mouth of the Great Kanawha during this "Virginia Christian Cherokee" & Colonist mixed campain in 1756. In 1742, John Peter Salley passed by and did not report any occupations on the Kanawha River. Some Cherokee migrated to Kentucky and some settled among the Lower Shawnee while others acculturated with the Virginia Fur Traders as mentioned in the notes below. [THE DISCOVERY, SETTLEMENT And present State of KENTUCKE"(Page 100-103)--1784 Mr John Filson (1747-1788)] The latter chose to associate with the General Managers exampled by C. Gist, Major Lewis and a number of other Virginia investor's frontier agents joining or otherwise evolving to the "Fireside Cabin Culture" and resulting in
employment. Including these reasons, Archaeologists have not found any "Classic" Cherokee Nation sites north-east the Kanawhan region. [The Piscataways (Conoys) are not mentioned by Smith, and Mooney thinks it likely that the names of Piscataway was "a collective term for several small tribes west of Patuxent, including, probably, the Moyaones (Conoy)" referred to by Captain Smith. The word, Conoy, occur later rather than earlier, an element of Piscataway.] Indian Removalwas not a popular idea in western West Virginia by their local employers, and later, new arriving settlers.
The earliest location of the Calicuas and kindred Chalaque is seen as two provinces of "Cherokee Country" of
Cumberland Plateauand southern section of the Allegheny Plateauaccording to the Narrative (1540-41) of De Soto's expedition. What would be West Virginia Calicuas is found on Ortelius' issue in 1570 and again in 1642 by Blaeuw's map. The next map by Merian was issued about 1650 showing the Calicuas also on the general area of West Virginia.
Another mysterious name of early
Colonial Virginia's questions of it's western mountains are the Messawomecks. The name seems to be only a generalization simpliest stated. This name appears on many following variations of the Captain John Smith's original map. The Atlas Minor Gerardi Mercatoris was first published in 1628 by Jansson prints. It is the first regional map of the Virginias to include a body of water beyond the Allegheny Mountainsnot necessarily meaning the Pacific Ocean. Variations also show villages along the south east shores, including the name, again, in smaller print along the Allegheny Mountain's west slopes. One copy has the body of water as a short river with no beginning or end. The period's atlas is based on NOVA VIRGINIAE TABVLA by Petrus Kaerius Coelavit (Burden #223) [Off sight image of NOVA VIRGINIAE TABVLA by Petrus Kaerius Coelavit (Burden #223) http://www.mapsofpa.com/17thcentury/1630smith.jpg.] It was published in many atlas editions until the 17th mid-century. [Historical Maps of Pennsylvania, showing images of the region and state from the 16th to the 21st century. http://www.mapsofpa.com/home.htm ] Étienne Brûléand a dozen Huron were sent to meet with the Susquehanna by instructions of Champlainin 1617 to join them in war against the Iroquois League. Because Brûlé could not write, Champlain reported his path as going through New York which was not Susquehanna lands. Historians figure he saw the Delmarva Peninsulaon the east side of the Chesapeake Bayas Champlain reports he met Dutchmen or Englishmen. Geography from his Lake Simcoestarting point suggest that he did not see the Susquehanna's on the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia region. The Spanish had a few outposts scattered in New England. One of these forts on the Pennsylvania and New York border was near the Allegheny Mountainsand built by 1588. It is not so very distant from Dutch trapper's Albany, by 1634. Elements of the "Tobacco People" are reported south of Lake Erieand Lake Ontario. It is conjectural to say how far south they extended during this time frame. They are reported to be similar to the Neutrals whom the Jesuits reported as taken in refugees. The "Anacostan Naturalls" are mentioned several times by the Baltimores as coming to trade. Captain Henry Fleetarrived on the Potomac Riverafter 1623. Later, William Claiborne, Sir John Wolstenholme, Clobery & Company and the Baltimores established a trading post at Kent Island (1631) on the upper Chesapeake Bay. They hired Fleet familiar with "Anacostia Valley Naturalls" as a guide and interpreter. Leonard Calvert’s letter to Sir Richard Lechford, dated May 30, 1634, "The nation we trade withal at this time a-year is called the Massawomeckes. This nation cometh seven, eight, and ten days journey to us—these are those from whom Kircke had formerly all his trade of beaver." ["THE VIRGINIA INDIAN TRADE TO 1673" by Morrison, A. J. Citation: William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine series 2, 1 (October 1921): 217-36. Dinsmore Documentation (May 27, 2008)] Captain Smith wrote of the Susquehannock, "They can make neere 600 able and mighty men, and are pallisadoed in their Townes to defend them from the Massawomekes their mortall enimies." Captain Smith also mentions the "Canoos Makers" boating off the northwestern rivers of the upper Chesapeake Bay. These canoes were wicker framed and not that regions more common dugout nor pirogue. In his book, "History Of The Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania," (Harrisburg, 1876) state librarian of Pennsylvania, William H. Egle may have correctly figured that the Massawomeke is the tribe later known by the name of Mohawk, the later Virginian's element Canawagh mix by 1721.
Like the other mysterious protohistoric people of the region, identifying the Massawomecks is a best educated guess due to lack of solid documentation. Although, the state's universities studies also include Jesuit writings before 1650 from the
Récollets(A.D.1615) and other extrapolations from the period with field science. The Powhatancalled the Iroquois the Massawomeck (Sultzman). Virginia's Native Americans said of these, "People beyond the Mountains." [Editor's Note: "In August, 1675, Governor Andros went to Albany and had a conference with the “most warrlike Indyans neare a hundred miles beyound Albany which Indyans (and Associates to about four hundred miles further) applyed, declaring their former Allyance, and now submitted in an Extraordinary manner.” Two years later Andros sent two “Christians” to the Seneca to request them to send representatives to a conference at Albany. In the same year Wentworth Greenhalgh made a tour of inspection to all the Iroquois villages. Again in the late fall of 1677 Andros dispatched two white interpreters into the west to protest against the raids of the Iroquois and “far Indians” on the southern colonies. These messengers were stalled at Onondagaby the rigor of winter. Such incidents as these, while they reveal an interest in what lay beyond Albany, scarcely show a virile push westward of trading operations." "Documents relative to the colonial history of New York" (O’Callaghan, ed.)]
Johann Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder(1743-1823) was the Moravian missionary who lived with the Ohio Delaware and some associated tribes on the Muskingum Riverin the late 18th century. He came to believe the "Kanawhans" were identical to Conoy tribe and believed the Kanawha River was named after them. Heckewelder based this on many conversations with his congregation of Algonquian ethnonyms through the years. To quote Hodge, "Although Brinton calls this "a loose guess," the names Conoy, Ganawese, etc., seem to be forms of Kanawha. The application of the same name to the Piscatawaytribe of Maryland, and to the river, is difficult to explain by any other theory than that the former once lived on the banks of the Kanawha." Anthropologist James Mooney wrote that it is likely the Piscataway Nation was "a collective term for several small tribes west of Patuxent, including, probably, the Moyaones referred to by Captain Smith" in context of the later term, "Conoy".
Baron Graffenried, in 1711 during
Queen Anne's Warwhich ended with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), made a friendship treaty with the "Canawest" on the Potomac Riverabout fifty miles up-stream from present Washington, D.C.. It was about this time the Haudenosaunee began organizing villages inland the Mid-Atlantic region resulting an acculturation of tribes by language and heritage. This was an attempt at segregationof subject tribes on as near as possible to the orginal or traditional tribal territorial land. For encroaching colonial settlement, this concept was politcally supported by both French and English authority with the idea of "policing" local uprisings. The Iroquois assigned Canawest, Nanticokeand Conestogalands at "Conejoholo" on the Susquehanna River. The village of "Canoog" was several leagues canoe trip above "Fort Susquehanoag" according to a number of early maps. It was by 1742 the "Canawest" of the Iroquois' acculturation period was pronounced "Conoy" by the English colonists. [Conoy, Handbook of American Indians, 1906, Frederick W. Hodge] Quoting Hodge, "At that time they (Conoy) numbered only about 150, and, with their associate the Nanticokeand Mahican, were dependent on the Iroquois", namely the Mohawk known as "Keepers of the Western Door", otherwise the Ohio country which includes the Upper Ohio Valley tributaries. Concerning Kanawha Valley settlers, the word "Conoy" is a derivative in the Nineteenth Century as said by some local West Virginian "acquaintances" with western Virginia "Shawnee" (Le Tort's clan), "Cherokee" and "Mohawk" mixed by then. Captain Hanson, among others of few documented, called these mixed people "Canawaghs" in the latter Eighteenth Century. "Ka(h)nawha" derives from the region's Iroquois dialects meaning "water way" or "Canoe Way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. The grammar of the "hard H" sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languagesdeveloped West Virginia.
See also Mohawk language (Dialects)
W.Va. fort builder points
The points of Fort Ancient and Monongahela culture are unique and easily identified by beginner "
arrow head" hunters. These are the slim little black flinttriangle shapes for our area, not the more narrow-- spinning kind of the historic era. A lot of these sites and farmer's crop fields have also the slight longer, yet still having rather triangular shape showing generational style changes, relative age. A similar "Mississippian" Period Madison point will probably be late for the Kanawhan region for most sites. The transition period, Madison, with serrated edges are advanced bow and arrows leading into the state's two farmer fort building cultures. The expert collector can distinguish these, especially on the lower Ohio River where the cherts are more common and here showing a visit in trade or acculturation at the village. Some, especially the pretty translucents down the Ohio Valley, can have a notch at the base's edge for hafting. Material, method and location found, tells the scientist a great deal about the village. Stray projectiles of another region's material can possibly mean an attack if not a friendly visit.
The fort farmer's points were meant to come off embedding within and suffered not in flight to the spin. Therefore, they do not have stems nor notches of other culture's narrower notched styles. The more bulky kind and most having stem, most notched, are for
atlatlsaplings or spear and are often archaicor more likely mound builder's points (Adena or Hopewellian) along the river bottoms and water shed flats. The folk's atlatl was sapling of the creek bank that grows outward and soon up provides a little elbow to rest the shaft tail. These are the most basic common denominators in this element of (their) stone industry one looks for in a possible relative culture village site of the lawful scientist. Any grave is a sacred place though and by law, any grave marked or not is unlawful to disturb in West Virginia. One calls the sheriff if one stumbles onto a suspected human remains at ones private property digging for "arrow heads" which is lawful. He in turn will notify the proper people for you in this state. Both fort cultures also used a pike otherwise spearfor both fort guarding and hunting larger game, but, more to walking staff. Long saplings of giggingwas common up creeks. These had no stone point, but, either a bone barb or not, otherwise, having a single somewhat less half of a right angle slit that open wider when successfully accomplished in purpose. Although, small game was the staple along with Mussel, frogand creek-mouth fish(April spawning catfish), shifting between seasons waiting on warble flyto leave.
Bone industry, hooks & awls are inclusive, but, beyond stone industry scope, save smoking pipes, art, mortar and hammer and so on. ["They throw petun (tobacco) into the fire, and if, for example, they are addressing Heaven, they say 'Aronhiaté, onné aonstaniouas taitenr', 'Heaven, here is what I offer you in sacrifice, have mercy on me, help me!' or if it be to ask for health, 'taenguiaens', 'cure me'. (Jesuit Relations, primary source)] The
chertor flint and stone locations are generally known by local collectors to region as is the styles. invasion. [The Catawba Trail (east side), CLARENCE M. BUSCH. THE FRONTIER FORTS OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 1896. Pages 399-436. http://www.usgwarchives.org/pa/1pa/1picts/frontierforts/ff33.html (June 19, 2008)] "Some things are better left to mystery", said the elders of some five decades ago. These three paragraphs are based on old local tellings of the elders of the Kanawhan Region descent.
The identification of the Monetons and the Unidentified People is a best educated guess work. There is no consensus. Arthur had to
sign language(long trappers language) with the unidentfied people, having been around VirginiaSiouan and Algonquian Powhatanwhom surrounded the greater region of Fort Henry (today's Petersburg, Virginia& Richmond, Virginiaregion). Yuchi and Catawba are the Eastern Woodland's unique languages. He spent about a year with the Yuchi. He was sent to establish trade with the known Cherokee. It becomes apparent that the unidentfied people were one of the northern Iroquois dialects of which Arthur never met before, Huronian Iroquois dialects. These Ohio Riverpeople knew nothing of firearms, therefore did not have direct fur trade connections. They were most likely Mingoor kindred Erie [Dr. Smith's 1720 map shows the Erie on the upper Ohio Valley.] who also speaks a Huronian-like Iroquois dialect. Mingo have always been identified with West Virginia's highest peaks in the heart of the state. This group has two statues standing in West Virginia for their honor. Last observation, if the unidentfied people were the Chaouenons, he could easily have spoken their " lingua franca" of the Algonquian languagesdialect of the Fur Trade, Shawnee. [ Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society At Their Thirty-first Annual Meeting, Held at Worcester, October 23, 1843, with the Address of Hon. John Davis. By American Antiquarian Society, John Davis, American Antiquarian Society
http://books.google.com/books?id=TcQLAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA142&ots=wix-XyfVO8&dq=Matisgamea&pg=PA142&ci=174,194,726,1236&source=bookclip] As for the Moneton, the Tomahitans King, himself, clearly calls them the derivative "Great Water People". There are dozens of phrases in the various dialects that could be translated to "Great Water People". As so, the scholars discuss.
Ebooks by Google:
"Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico" By Frederick Webb Hodge http://books.google.com/books?id=zEcSAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA2&lpg=PA1&ots#PPP11,M1
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