Kurdish grammar


Kurdish grammar

This article deals with the grammar of the Kurdish language.

Alphabet

The Latin-based Kurdish alphabet employs 31 characters, 8 vowels and 23 consonants. Lengthened short vowels (E, I, U) are represented using a circumflex (e.g. Ê, Î, Û). See Kurdish alphabet for more information.

The Arabic-Based Kurdish alphabet has 33 letters.

Kurmanji

Personal

Kurmanji Kurdish uses two types of personal pronouns.

Ez forms are used as subjects in the present and future tenses. They are also used as subjects in past tenses when the verb is a intransitive one. They are used as objects in past tenses when employed with a transitive verb. The "min form" is used with any proposition or postposition. They are also employed as objects in present and future tenses, but as subjects of the transitive verbs in past tenses.

orani

Sorani Kurdish is written with the Arabic alphabet, it has 8 vowels:î [i] , û [u] , i [I] , u [ʊ] , e [e] , o [o] , a [æ] ,â [ɑ] .

Nouns

A Kurdish noun in the absolute state,i.e. without any ending of any kind, gives a generic sense of the noun. It isalso the “lexical” form of the noun, i.e. the form in which a noun is given ina vocabulary list or dictionary. The absolute state is normally used for thegeneric sense, as in قاوه رهشه "qâwa rasha"(coffee is black).

ee also

*Kurdish language

Notes

References

* W. M. Thackston (2006) "Kurmanji Kurdish: A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings"
*Sorani Kurdish— A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings W. M. Thackston

External links

* [http://www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk/~siamakr/Kurdish/grammar.html Kurdish grammar]
* [http://www.institutkurde.org/en/library/online/grammar_of_the_kurmanji/ Kurmanji grammar]
* [http://www.kurdishacademy.org/english/grammar/north/content.html Kurdish grammar course]


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