- A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman in 2007
Background information Birth name A. S. Dileep Kumar Also known as A. R. Rahman, A. R. R. Born 6 January 1966  Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Genres Pop, classical music, sufi music, pop rock, soft rock, dance, world music Occupations Singer-songwriter, composer, record producer, music director, arranger, entrepreneur, philanthropist Instruments Vocals, guitar, percussion, drums Years active 1980–present Labels K. M. Musiq Associated acts Nemesis Avenue, SuperHeavy Website arrahman.com
Allah Rakha Rahman (Tamil: அல்லா ரக்கா ரஹ்மான்; born 6 January 1966 as A. S. Dileep Kumar) is an Indian composer, singer-songwriter, record producer, musician, and philanthropist. Described as the world's most prominent and prolific film composer by Time, his works are notable for integrating eastern classical music with electronic music sounds, world music genres and traditional orchestral arrangements. He has won two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, four National Film Awards, fourteen Filmfare Awards, thirteen Filmfare Awards South in addition to numerous other awards and nominations. His extensive body of work for film and the stage earned him the nickname “the Mozart of Madras” and several Tamil commentators and fans have coined him the nickname Isai Puyal (Tamil: இசைப் புயல்; English: Music Storm). In 2009, Time placed Rahman in its list of World's Most Influential People. The UK based World Music magazine Songlines named him one of 'Tomorrow's World Music Icons' in August 2011.
Having set up his own in-house studio called Panchathan Record Inn at Chennai, arguably one of Asia’s most sophisticated and high-tech studios, Rahman's film scoring career began in the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's various film industries, international cinema and theatre, Rahman has sold more than 300 million records worldwide of his film scores and soundtracks as of 2009 for over 100 film scores worldwide, making him one of the world's all-time top selling recording artists. In a notable career spanning two decades, Rahman has garnered particular acclaim for redefining contemporary Indian film music and thus contributing to the success of several films. Rahman is currently one of the highest paid composers of the motion picture industry. He has also become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist, donating and raising money for beneficial causes and supporting charities.
A. R. Rahman was born in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India to a musically affluent Mudaliar Tamil family. His father R. K. Shekhar, was a film music composer and conductor for Tamil as well as Malayalam films. Rahman used to assist his father during recordings and play keyboard for the songs. Rahman lost his father at the age of 9 and his family had to rent out his father's musical equipment as their source of income. Rahman was raised by his mother Kareema (born Kashturi). During these formative years, Rahman served as a keyboard player and an arranger in bands such as "Roots", with childhood friend and percussionist Sivamani, John Anthony, Suresh Peters, JoJo and Raja. Rahman is the founder of the Chennai-based rock group, "Nemesis Avenue". He mastered various music instruments like Keyboard, Piano, Synthesizer, Harmonium and Guitar. His curiosity in Synthesizer in particular, increased because, he says, it was the "ideal combination of music and technology".
He began early training in music under Master Dhanraj. At the age of 11, he started playing musical instruments in the orchestra of Malayalam composer and a close friend of Rahman's father, M. K. Arjunan. Soon he started working with other composers such as M. S. Viswanathan, Ilaiyaraaja, Ramesh Naidu, Raj-Koti and also accompanied Zakir Hussain, Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan and L. Shankar on world tours and obtained a scholarship with Trinity College, London, board of the Trinity College of Music. Studying in Chennai, he graduated with graded examinations and a diploma in Western classical music via the college. He was introduced to Qadiri Islam when his younger sister fell severely ill in 1984. Subsequently, Rahman along with other members of his family converted to Islam in 1989, when he was 23 years old. He changed his name from A. S. Dileep Kumar to Allah Rakha Rahman i.e. A. R. Rahman.
Film scoring and soundtracks
When he was nine, Rahman accidentally played a tune on piano during his father's recording for a film, which R. K. Shekhar later developed into a complete song, "Vellithen Kinnam Pol", for the Malayalam film Penpada. This track credited to his father, was sung by Jayachandran and penned by Bharanikkavu Sivakumar. His film career began in 1992, when he started Panchathan Record Inn, a music recording and mixing studio attached to the backyard of his house. Over time it would become the most advanced recording studio in India, and arguably one of Asia’s most sophisticated and high-tech studios. He initially composed scores for documentaries, jingles for advertisements and Indian Television channels and other projects. In 1987 Rahman, then still known as Dileep got his first opportunity to compose jingles for new range of watches being launched by Allwyn. In 1992, he was approached by film director Mani Ratnam to compose the score and soundtrack for Ratnam's Tamil film Roja. The debut led Rahman to receive the Rajat Kamal (Silver Lotus) award for Best Music Director at the National Film Awards, an unprecedented win for a first-time film composer. Rahman has since been awarded the Silver Lotus three more times for Minsara Kanavu (Electric Dreams, Tamil) in 1997, Lagaan (Tax, Hindi) in 2002, Kannathil Muthamittal (A Peck on the Cheek, Tamil) in 2003, the most ever by any composer.
Roja's score met with high sales and acclaim in both its original and dubbed versions, led by the theme song "Chinna Chinna Aasai" bringing about a marked change in film music at the time. Rahman followed this with successful scores for Tamil–language films of the Chennai film industry including Ratnam's politically charged Bombay, the urbanite Kadhalan, Thiruda Thiruda and S. Shankar's debut film Gentleman, spurred by the popular dance song "Chikku Bukku Rayile". Rahman worked with director Bharathiraaja's Kizhakku Cheemayile and Karuththamma, producing successful Tamil rural folk inspired scores and delivered the grand saxophonic score for K. Balachander's Duet. The 1995 film Indira and the romantic comedies Mr. Romeo and Love Birds all gained him considerable notice. His fanbase in Japan increased with Muthu 's success there. His soundtracks gained him recognition in the Tamil Nadu film industry and around the world for his stylistic versatility incorporating Western classical, Carnatic and Tamil traditional/folk music traditions, jazz, reggae and rock music. The soundtrack of Bombay sold 12 million copies worldwide. The "Bombay Theme"—from Ratnam's Bombay—would later reappear in his score of Deepa Mehta's Fire and various compilations and media around the world. Rangeela, directed by Ram Gopal Varma, marked Rahman's debut for Hindi-language films made in the Mumbai film industry. Many successful scores for films including Dil Se and the percussive Taal followed. Sufi mysticism would inspire the track "Chaiyya Chaiyya" from the former, as well as the composition "Zikr" from his score for the film Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero for which he created large symphonic orchestral and choral arrangements. His score for the Chennai production Minsaara Kanavu garnered Rahman his second National Film Award for Best Music Direction in 1997, and a South FilmFare Award for Best Music Direction in a Tamil film, breaking a record with six consecutive wins in the latter category. Rahman would go onto win the award a further three consecutive times. Musical cues in scores for Sangamam and Iruvar employed Carnatic vocals and instruments such as the veena with leads of rock guitar and jazz. In the 2000s Rahman created hit scores for Rajiv Menon's Kandukondain Kandukondain, Alaipayuthey, Ashutosh Gowariker's Swades and Rang De Basanti. He composed songs with Hindustani motifs for Water (2005). By the end of 2003, Rahman had sold more than 150 million records of his film scores and soundtracks for over 50 film scores worldwide.
Rahman has worked with Indian poets and lyricists such as Javed Akhtar, Gulzar, Vairamuthu and Vaali. He has consistently produced commercially successful soundtracks when collaborating with particular film directors such as Mani Ratnam who he has worked with since Roja, and the director S. Shankar in the films Gentleman, Kadhalan, Indian, Jeans, Mudhalvan, Nayak, Boys, Sivaji and Enthiran.
In 2005, Rahman extended his Panchathan Record Inn studio by establishing AM Studios in Kodambakkam, Chennai, thereby creating the most cutting-edge studio in Asia. In 2006, Rahman launched his own music label, KM Music. Its first release was his score to the film Sillunu Oru Kaadhal. Rahman scored the Mandarin language picture Warriors of Heaven and Earth in 2003 after researching and utilizing Chinese and Japanese classical music, and won the Just Plain Folks Music Award For Best Music Album for his score of the 2006 film Varalaru (God Father). He co-scored the Shekhar Kapur project and his first British film, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, in 2007. He garnered an Asian Film Award nomination for Best Composer at the Hong Kong International Film Festival for his Jodhaa Akbar score. His compositions have been sampled for other scores within India, and appeared in such films as Inside Man, Lord of War, Divine Intervention and The Accidental Husband. In 2008, Rahman scored his first Hollywood picture, the comedy Couples Retreat released the next year, which won him the BMI London Award for Best Score. Rahman scored the film Slumdog Millionaire in 2008, for which he won a Golden Globe and two Academy Awards, becoming the first Asian to do so. The songs "Jai Ho" and "O…Saya" from the soundtrack of this film met with commercial success internationally. In 2010, Rahman composed scores for the romance film Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, blockbuster sci-fi romance film Enthiran and Danny Boyle's 127 Hours. Rahman started off the year 2011 by scoring Imtiaz Ali's musical film Rockstar. The soundtrack became a phenomenal success and earned Rahman immense critical praise.
Rahman has been involved in several projects aside from film. Vande Mataram, an album of his original compositions released on India's 50th anniversary of independence in 1997, enjoyed great commercial success. Vande Mataram is the largest selling Indian non-film album to date. He followed it up with an album for the Bharat Bala–directed video Jana Gana Mana, a conglomeration of performances by many leading exponents and artists of Indian classical music. Rahman has written jingles for ads and composed several orchestrations for athletic events, television and internet media publications, documentaries and short films.
In 1999, Rahman partnered with choreographers Shobana and Prabhu Deva and a Tamil cinema dancing troupe to perform with Michael Jackson in Munich, Germany at his "Michael Jackson and Friends" concert. In 2002, he composed the music for his maiden stage production, Bombay Dreams, commissioned by musical theatre composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. Finnish folk music band Värttinä collaborated with Rahman to write the music for The Lord of the Rings theatre production and in 2004, Rahman composed the piece "Raga's Dance" for Vanessa-Mae's album Choreography.
Since 2004, Rahman has performed three successful world tours to audiences in Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, Dubai, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States and India. He has been collaborating with Karen David for her upcoming studio album. A two-disc soundtrack, Introducing A. R. Rahman (2006) featuring 25 of his pieces from Tamil film scores was released in May 2006, and his non-film album, Connections was released on 12 December 2008. Rahman also performed at the White House State dinner arranged by US President Barack Obama during the official visit of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on November 24, 2009. Rahman is one of over 70 artists who performed on "We Are the World 25 for Haiti", a charity single to raise emergency relief funds in the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In 2010, Rahman composed "Jai Jai Garvi Gujarat" in honor of the 50th anniversary of the formation of Gujarat State, "Semmozhiyaana Thamizh Mozhiyaam" as part of World Classical Tamil Conference 2010, and the official theme song of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, "Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto". Rahman organised his first world tour, named A. R. Rahman Jai Ho Concert: The Journey Home World Tour, in 2010. The ongoing tour was kicked off on June 11 at the Nassau Coliseum in New York and will span 16 major cities worldwide.
Some of his notable compositions were performed live by the London Philharmonic Orchestra in April 2010. In February 2011, Rahman collaborated with Michael Bolton for his new studio album Gems - The Duets Collection. Rahman reworked on his song "Sajna" from the 2009 American film Couples Retreat to create the track.
On 20 May 2011, English musician Mick Jagger announced the formation of a new supergroup, SuperHeavy, which includes Dave Stewart, Joss Stone, Damian Marley, and Rahman. The band's self-titled album is slated for release in September 2011. The album will see Mick Jagger singing in Rahman's composition "Satyameva Jayate", which translates to "the truth alone triumphs".
Music style and impact
Skilled in Carnatic music, Western classical, Hindustani music and the Qawwali style of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Rahman has been noted to write film songs that amalgamate elements of these music systems and other genres, layering instruments from differing music idioms in an improvisatory manner. Symphonic orchestral themes have accompanied his scores, occasionally employing leitmotif. In the 1980s, Rahman recorded and played arrangements on monophonic sound, synonymous with the era of his musical predecessors K. V. Mahadevan and Vishwanathan–Ramamoorthy. In later years his methodology changed as he experimented with the fusion of traditional instruments with new electronic sounds and technology.
Rahman's musical interests and outlook stem from his love of experimentation. Rahman's compositions, in the vein of past and contemporary Chennai film composers, bring out auteuristic uses of counterpoint, orchestration and the human voice, melding Indian pop music with unique timbre, forms and instrumentation. By virtue of these qualities, broad ranging lyrics and his syncretic style, the appeal of his music cuts across the spectrum of classes and cultures within Indian society.
His first soundtrack for Roja was listed in Time's "10 Best Soundtracks" of all time in 2005. Film critic Richard Corliss felt the "astonishing debut work parades Rahman's gift for alchemizing outside influences until they are totally Tamil, totally Rahman." Rahman's initial global reach is attributed to the South Asian diaspora. Described as one of the most innovative composers to ever work in the industry, his unique style and immense success transformed film music in the 1990s prompting several film producers to take film music more seriously. The music producer Ron Fair considers Rahman to be "one of the world's great living composers in any medium".
The director Baz Luhrmann notes
“ I had come to the music of A. R. Rahman through the emotional and haunting score of Bombay and the wit and celebration of Lagaan. But the more of AR's music I encountered the more I was to be amazed at the sheer diversity of styles: from swinging brass bands to triumphant anthems; from joyous pop to West-End musicals. Whatever the style, A. R. Rahman's music always possesses a profound sense of humanity and spirit, qualities that inspire me the most. ”
Rahman was the 1995 recipient of the Mauritius National Award and the Malaysian Award for contributions to music. He was nominated for a Laurence Olivier Award for his first West-End production. A four-time National Film Award winner and recipient of six Tamil Nadu State Film Awards, fourteen Filmfare Awards and thirteen Filmfare Awards South for his music and scores. He has been conferred Kalaimamani from the Government of Tamil Nadu for excellence in the field of music, special music achievement awards from the Government of Uttar Pradesh and Government of Madhya Pradesh and the Padma Shri from the Government of India. In 2006, he received an honorary award from Stanford University for contributions to global music. In 2007, Rahman was entered into the Limca Book of Records as "Indian of the Year for Contribution to Popular Music", and the Guinness World Records in 2010 as the original composer of "Maa Tujhe Salaam", from the album Vande Mataram - the song performed in the most number of languages worldwide (265). He is the 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award recipient from the Rotary Club of Madras. In 2009, for his score of Slumdog Millionaire, Rahman won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award, the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score, the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music, and two Academy Awards for Best Original Music Score and Best Original Song at the 81st Academy Awards. Rahman has received honorary doctorates from Middlesex University and Aligarh Muslim University. Later the year Rahman was conferred the honorary doctorate from Anna University in Chennai. He has also won two Grammy Awards, for Best Compilation Soundtrack Album and Best Song Written for a Visual Media. Rahman was awarded the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian honor, in 2010. Rahman's work for the film 127 Hours garnered him Golden Globe, BAFTA, and two Academy Award nominations for Best Original Music Score and Best Original Song in 2011. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Trinity College of Music, presented to him by Trinity College London.
He is married to Saira Banu and has three children, Khatija, Rahima, and Ameen. Ameen sings the track "NaNa" from Couples Retreat and his daughter Khatija the track "Pudhiya Manidha" from Enthiran. Rahman is the uncle of composer G. V. Prakash Kumar, who is the son of Rahman's elder sister, A. R. Reihana. Prakash Kumar's first work in film was singing on the Rahman composition "Chikku Bukku Rayile" from his score to the 1993 film Gentleman. A. R. Reihana debuted in film singing on the track "Vidai Kodu Engal Naadae" from Kannathil Muthamittal. She is a music director too. Rahman's younger sister Fathima is in charge of his Music conservatory in Chennai. The youngest Ishrath has her own music studio. A. R. Rahman is the co-brother of film actor Rahman.
An atheist through much of his childhood, in 1989 Rahman converted to Islam, the religion of his mother's family. After the early death of his father, his family went through hard times and Sufism had a great influence on his mother and slowly on his family. During the 81st Academy Awards ceremony, he paid tribute to his mother, saying "There is a Hindi dialogue, mere pass ma hai, which means 'even if I have got nothing I have my mother here'." He also began his own catchphrase, "Ella pughazhum iraivanukke", in Tamil which literally means "All praises dedicated to God". The phrase was popularized after Rahman uttered it prior to his speech at the 81st Academy Awards ceremony.
Rahman is involved in various charitable causes. In 2004, he was appointed as the Global Ambassador of the Stop TB Partnership, a project by WHO. He has shown support to charities including Save the Children, India, and worked with Yusuf Islam for his song "Indian Ocean". The song featured a-ha keyboard player Magne Furuholmen and drummer Travis, Neil Primrose. The proceeds of the song went towards helping orphans in Banda Aceh, that was affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. He produced the single "We Can Make It Better" by Don Asian alongside Mukhtar Sahota. In 2008, Rahman opened his KM Music Conservatory partnered with Audio Media Education facility to tutor and train aspiring musicians in vocals, instruments, music technology and sound design. The conservatory – with preeminent musicians on its panel and a newly founded symphony orchestra – is located near his studio in Kodambakkam, Chennai, offering courses at Beginners, Foundation and Diploma level. Violinist L. Subramaniam is on its board of advisors. Several of Rahman's proteges from the studio have gone onto score music for feature films. Rahman composed the theme music for a short film for The Banyan in 2006, in aid of destitute women in Chennai. In 2008, Rahman with noted percussionist Sivamani created a song titled "Jiya Se Jiya", inspired by the Free Hugs Campaign and promoted it through a video shot in various cities in India.
- List of films directed by Mani Ratnam featuring A. R. Rahman
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- ^ "Film fraternity hails Rahman, Pookutty for win". Indian Express. India. 23 February 2009. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/film-fraternity-hails-rahman-pookutty-for-win/427046/0. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
- ^ Wax, Emily (9 February 2009). "'Slumdog' Composer's Crescendo Of a Career.". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/18/AR2009021803790.html. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
- ^ a b c d Rangan, Baradwaj; Suhasini, Lalitha (2008). "AR Rahman: The Rolling Stone interview". Rolling Stone. http://baradwajrangan.wordpress.com/2008/06/07/ar-rahman-the-rolling-stone-interview/. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- ^ "റഹ്മാൻ: ചില കൗതുക വാർത്തകളിലൂടെ (Rahman : Some interesting facts)" (in Malayalam). Malayala Manorama. http://www.manoramaonline.com/advt/Music/Rahman_Special/interesting_facts.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ a b Eur, Andy Gregory. The International Who's Who in Popular Music 2002: A. R. Rahman. pp. 419–420
- ^ "An Interview with A.R. Rahman". Apple Inc.. http://www.apple.com/logicstudio/in-action/arrahman/. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- ^ "A R Rahman`s biography". 123musiq.com.. http://www.123musiq.com/ARRAHMANHITS.htm. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
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- ^ Culshaw, Peter (6 February 2009). "Interview with AR Rahman, the composer behind the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/4535090/Interview-with-AR-Rahman-the-composer-behind-the-Slumdog-Millionaire-soundtrack.html. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- ^ "Work of the magic and other musicians". Global Rhythm (New York: World Marketing Inc) 11 (7-12): 11. 1995. ISSN 1553-9814. OCLC 50137257. "His first assignment was to write the music for Ratman's film, Roja. Subsequent films that established AR Rahman as the genius of Tamil film music included Pudhiya Mugam with director Suresh Menon and Gentleman with Shankar."
- ^ John Shepherd (2005). Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world. 3-7. London, New York: Continuum. pp. 80–81. ISBN 0826463215 9780826463210 0826463223 9780826463227 0826474365 9780826474360. OCLC 444486924. "Music directors such as AR Rahman and Karthik Raja produce film scores that are more eclectic, incorporating rap, jazz, reggae, hard rock and fast dance beats ( as, for example, for Duet , Kadhalan  and Bombay )."
- ^ Purie, Aroon (1995). "A. R. Rahman: Music The New Wave". India Today (Living Media) 20 (1-6): 11. "For Chikkubukku raile. a Tamil hit song, he banked on an unknown voice, its lisp and anglicised delivery. Rahman likes working with untrained voices, saying a slight "defect in the singing adds a human touch"."
- ^ K. Naresh Kumar (1995). Indian cinema : ebbs and tides. 26-27. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 135. ISBN 8124103445 9788124103449. OCLC 33444588.
- ^ World Saxophone Congress. North American Saxophone Alliance (2001). The saxophone symposium : journal of the North American Saxophone Alliance. 26-27. Greenville: North American Saxophone Alliance. pp. 78–85. ISSN 0271-3705. OCLC 5190155. "The famous South Indian film music director AR Rahman invited [ Kadri Gopalnath ] to work on the music for a major South Indian film. Rahman, a new music director, writes music that brings a more cosmopolitan feel to Indian cinema, and he was open to..."
- ^ Purie, Aroon (1996). "Music love birds". India Today (Living Media) 21 (1-6): 195. ISSN 0254-8399. OCLC 2675526. "AR Rahman's latest offering is a heavy dose of synthesiser and percussion sprinkled with rap. "No Problem" by Apache Indian is the selling point."
- ^ Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7. http://books.google.com/?id=Sv7Uk0UcdM8C&pg=PA215&dq=A.+R.+Rehman+tamil. "Songs play as important a part in South Indian films and some South Indian music directors such as A. R. Rehman and Ilyaraja have an enthusiastic national and even international following"
- ^ Chaudhuri, S.. "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka". Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. p. 149. "Now the South is believed to excel the North in many respects, including its colour labs, state of the art digital technology and sound processing facilities (which have improved the dubbing of Tamil and other South Indian languages into Hindi since the 1970s"
- ^ Prasad, Ayappa (2003). "Films don't believe in borders". Screen. http://www.screenindia.com/old/fullstory.php?content_id=5670. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
- ^ Purie, Aroon (1995). "A. R. Rahman: Music The New Wave". India Today (Living Media) 20 (1-6): 11. "Now, two years later, AR Rahman looks like he is here to stay, with his digitalised sound based on pop-rock and reggae and fused with traditional Indian – mainly Carnatic – folk idioms. The supreme irony: he used to play keyboards in..."
- ^ Ramaswamy, V.. Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. p. 199
- ^ Chaudhuri, S.. "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka". Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. p. 149. "Southern filmmakers like Mani Ratnam, Ram Gopal Varma and Priyadarshan have altered the profile of Indian 'national' cinema. So too have southern specialists... cinematographers Santosh Sivan, P. C. Sreeram and music composer A. R. Rahman who formed a highly successful team with Ratnam and have all attained star status in their own right"
- ^ Brégeat, Raïssa (1995) (in French). Indomania: le cinéma indien des origines à nos jours. Paris: Cinémathèque française. p. 133. ISBN 2900596149 9782900596142. "AR Rahman (Roja, Bombay), entre autres, exigent aujourd'hui les cachets les plus gros jamais payés à un directeur musical"
- ^ a b Das Gupta, Surajeet; Sen, Soumik. "Composing a winning score". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/money/2002/sep/21bizsp.htm. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
- ^ Purie, Aroon (1995). "French Connection". India Today (Living Media) 20 (13-18): 156
- ^ Stafford, Roy. Understanding Audiences and the Film Industry. London: British Film Institute. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-84457-141-3
- ^ Arnold, Alison (2000). "Film music in the late Twentieth century". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. p. 540. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1. http://books.google.com/?id=ZOlNv8MAXIEC&pg=RA2-PA555&dq=A.+R.+Rahman+tamil+film+music. "The recent success of the Tamil film music director A. R. Rehman in achieving widespread popularity in the world of Hindi film music is now possibly opening doors to new South-North relationships and collaborations"
- ^ "The A R Rahman Chat". Rediff On The Net. Rediff. 17 August 1998. http://www.rediff.com/chat/rahmchat.htm. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
- ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. p. 6.
- ^ "Indian film composer for Rings". BBC. 21 October 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3211258.stm. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
- ^ Ganti, T.. Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. p. 112. "Rehman became a major star with his hit music in Roja followed by hit scores for Mani Ratnam's and Shankar's films in Tamil."
- ^ "Film Composer A.R. Rahman Selects Bag End Bass Speakers". Mix. 7 June 2006. http://mixonline.com/news/headline/bag-end-arrahman-060706/. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
- ^ Omkar, Ashanti (March 2008). "Interview with A. R. Rahman". The Score Magazine (Chennai) 1 (1)
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- ^ "A.R. Rahman Picks Up BMI Film Award in London". Broadcast Music Inc.. 2 November 2010. http://www.bmi.com/photos/entry/549749.
- ^ "Rockstar's rocking on". The Times of India. 9 November 2011. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/bollywood/news-interviews/Rockstars-rocking-on/articleshow/10278962.cms. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- ^ "A Song for India". India Today. 1 September 1997. http://www.india-today.com/itoday/01091997/vande.html. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Allen, John; Uck Lun Chun, Allen Chun, Ned Rossiter, Brian Shoesmith. Refashioning pop music in Asia. p. 67
- ^ "A. R. Rahman: Summary Biography". A. R. Rahman: A Biography. November 2002. http://members.tripod.com/gopalhome/arrbio.html. Retrieved 15 February 2007. "Particularly impressed with Vande Mataram, Jeremy Spencer, formerly of Fleetwood Mac stated that Rahman was the only Indian composer he knew about and liked"
- ^ Salma Khatib (22 September 2000). "Indi-pop: Down But Not Out". Screen India. http://www.screenindia.com/old/20000922/msw.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
- ^ "The Making of the Jana Gana Mana". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/broadband/2000/aug/29trans.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "A. R. Rahman: Summary Discography". A. R. Rahman: Complete Discography. November 2002. http://gopalhome.tripod.com/arrdisc.html. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Nydia Dias (17 August 2001). "A R Rahman joins hands with Michael Jackson". The Times of India. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2001-08-17/mumbai/27247947_1_r-rahman-michael-jackson-mj. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Madhur Tankha (24 August 2007). "Rahman to talk about his Bombay Dreams". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/24/stories/2007082460621100.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Mae goes the raga way". The Hindu. 20 November 2004. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2004/11/20/stories/2004112001930200.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Chander, Bhuvana (19 April 2006). "Tamil Cinema". Tamil Guardian. p. 15. http://www.tamilguardian.com/tg321/p15.pdf. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
- ^ Unterberger, Richie (2006). "Introducing A.R. Rahman: Original Soundtracks From the Musical Genius of Indian Cinema". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/album/r828157. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Listen, it’s got Connections". The Hindu. 10 January 2009. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2009/01/10/stories/2009011052390500.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Chris Richards (24 November 2009). "Indian composer A.R. Rahman to perform at state dinner". The Washington Post. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/postrock/2009/11/indian_composer_ar_rahman_to_p.html.
- ^ "Rahman part of historic remake of We are the World". The Indian Express. 4 February 2010. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/rahman-part-of-historic-remake-of-we-are-th/575626/. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Gujarat turns 50 in style". Times of India (India). 2 May 2010. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/NEWS/City/Ahmedabad/Gujarat-turns-50-in-style/articleshow/5882277.cms. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- ^ Ramya Kannan (16 May 2010). "I initially wondered how I was going to do it: A.R. Rahman". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2010/05/16/stories/2010051663121500.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Lasyapriya Sundaram (28 August 2010). "Rahman's CWG theme song finally released". IBN Live. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/rahmans-cwg-theme-song-finally-released/129800-3.html. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "A.R. Rahman Jai Ho Concert: The Journey Home World Tour". A. R. Rahman Official Website. A.R. Rahman.com. http://www.arrahmanlive.com/concert/abouttour.html. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- ^ Sarfraz Manzoor (2 April 2010). "A new level of recognition, legitimacy: Rahman". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2010/04/02/stories/2010040262521400.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Hollywood, Kollywood, Bollywood, it's all good". The New Paper. 17 March 17, 2011. http://www.tnp.sg/printfriendly/0,4139,273872,00.html. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ^ "Bolton collaborates with Rahman for new album". IBN Live. 10 May 2011. http://ibnlive.in.com/generalnewsfeed/news/bolton-collaborates-with-rahman-for-new-album/679136.html. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ^ "Rahman's Sajna in Michael Bolton's album". Sify. 10 May 2011. http://www.sify.com/movies/rahman-s-sajna-in-michael-bolton-s-album-news-bollywood-lfko4iifeeb.html. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ^ Greene, Andy (20 May 2011). "Mick Jagger Forms Supergroup with Dave Stewart, Joss Stone, A R Rahman and Damian Marley". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/mick-jagger-forms-supergroup-with-dave-stewart-joss-stone-and-damian-marley-20110520. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- ^ "Mick Jagger's SuperHeavy Supergroup to Drop Album in September". Billboard. 23 June 2011. http://www.billboard.com/news/mick-jagger-s-superheavy-supergroup-to-drop-1005248422.story. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- ^ Mick Jagger`s `SuperHeavy` album to release in September, Zeenews, http://zeenews.india.com/entertainment/articles/story90756.htm
- ^ Viswanathan, T.; Harper Allen, Matthew. Music in South India. p. 139
- ^ Slobin, Mark; Gregory Booth, Joseph Getter, B. Balasubrahmaniyan (2008). "Tamil Film Music: Sound and Significance". Global soundtracks: worlds of film music. USA: Wesleyan University Press. pp. 108, 125. ISBN 9780819568816 0819568813 9780819568823 0819568821.
- ^ Through innovations such as these, commentators herald Rahman's work as having "passed the relatively static makeup of Western ensembles such as jazz bands and symphony orchestras and the rigid formula of American pop songs." Todd Titon, Jeff; Linda Fujie, David Locke, David P. McAllester. "India/South India". Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples. pp. 202–205
- ^ Corliss, Richard (2005). "Best Soundtracks – ALL TIME 100 MOVIES – TIME". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/2005/100movies/0,23220,soundtracks,00.html. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- ^ Ganti, T.. Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. p. 112. "Rehman is an innovative and phenomenally successful contemporary Tamil and Hindi composer whose style transformed film music in the 1990s...he is considered a genius in the Bombay film industry, and in terms of how much control and autonomy he is allowed over his compositions and working style, he holds tremendous power over film producers and directors"
- ^ Smith, Ethan (27 February 2009). "'Slumdog' Remix: The Oscar-winning song 'Jai Ho' is reworked with help from a Pussycat Doll". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123568984902087603.html. Retrieved 1 March 2009
- ^ "Baz Luhrrman comments on A. R. Rahman". Charindaa. 2005. http://www.charindaa.org/news.html. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
- ^ "The golden boy of Indian music A R Rahman turns 44". The Times of India. Times Now. 6 January 2010. http://www.timesnow.tv/articleshow/4335762.cms.
- ^ "Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan, Padma Shri awardees". The Hindu. 26 January 2000. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2000/01/27/stories/02270005.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Prakash, B.S. (6 July 2006). "Stanford University honours A R Rahman". Rediff. Rediff.com. http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/jul/06bsp.htm. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
- ^ "Limca Book of records felicitates A.R. Rahman". Radioandmusic.com. http://www.radioandmusic.com/content/editorial/news/limca-book-records-felicitates-ar-rahman. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ AR Rahman Guinness World Record. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3B7DcMMGr-I. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "A R Rahman Honored". Indiaglitz. 4 June 2008. http://www.indiaglitz.com/channels/tamil/gallery/events/15580.html. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "66th Annual Golden Globe Awards". IMDB. http://www.imdb.com/features/rto/2009/globes. Retrieved 12 December 2008.
- ^ "Rahman to be awarded an Honorary Degree in July". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 1 April 2009. http://www.hindu.com/holnus/009200904010921.htm. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- ^ "Rahman to be conferred honorary doctorate by AMU". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 26 May 2009. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/009200905261962.htm. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- ^ "Rahman to be awarded honorary doctorate". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 3 March 2009. http://www.hindu.com/holnus/009200903030131.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "India's A.R. Rahman strikes Grammys gold". Agence France-Presse. 2010. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hGgeRMlZ8ASQ9a-5v5AnbvmL0K9Q. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- ^ "Padma Bhushan for Rahman, Aamir; Segal gets Padma Vibhushan". Press Trust of India (Hindustan Times). http://www.hindustantimes.com/Padma-Bhushan-for-Rahman-Aamir-Segal-gets-Padma-Vibhushan/Article1-501814.aspx. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- ^ "127 Hours gets AR Rahman 2 Oscar nominations". Daily News and Analysis (India). 25 January 2011. http://www.dnaindia.com/entertainment/report_127-hours-gets-ar-rahman-2-oscar-nominations_1499034. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- ^ "Rahman gets BAFTA nomination for 127 Hours". Hindustan Times (India: Indo-Asian News Service). 18 January 2011. http://www.hindustantimes.com/Rahman-gets-BAFTA-nomination-for-127-Hours/Article1-651823.aspx. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- ^ "The 68th Annual Golden Globe Award". Golden Globe Award. 14 December 2010. http://www.goldenglobes.org/blog/2010/12/the-68th-annual-golden-globe-awards-nominations/. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- ^ Ashanti Omkar, A. R. Rahman (January 13, 2010). A.R Rahman interview 2010 part 1 - Vinnaithandi Varuvaayaa (VTV) - Thai Pongal special (Web interview). London: Thamarai.com.
- ^ I miss him terribly when he's away. Hindustan Times. 28 October 2007.
- ^ Vickey Lalwani. "AR Rahman’s son sings for Hollywood". The Times of India. India: The Times Group. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/bollywood/news-interviews/AR-Rahmans-son-sings-for-Hollywood/articleshow/4832755.cms. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "A R Rahman’s daughter sings song in Yanthram". Indiaglitz. http://www.indiaglitz.com/channels/telugu/article/58995.html. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ Kamala Bhatt. "I knew Rahman would go international: Reihana". NDTV. http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/Ndtv-Show-Special-story.aspx?ID=5&storyid=NEWEN20090084532. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "A passion for music". Chennai: The Hindu. 28 January 2008. http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/28/stories/2008012859311100.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ K. Janani. (10 May 2011). "Musical family of A R Rahman". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ^ "Actor Rahman's profile". actorrahman.com. http://www.actorrahman.com. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ AR Rahman talks about his Conversion to Islam. Chennai: YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEaMVY-TnvQ. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Rahman wins two Oscars". Business Line (Chennai: The Hindu). 23 February 2009. http://www.hinduonnet.com/businessline/blnus/14231902.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Front Page : Great composer, greater human feted". Chennai: The Hindu. 24 February 2009. http://www.hindu.com/2009/02/24/stories/2009022460281200.htm. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- ^ Williamson, Nigel (17 November 2006). "The Billboard Q and A: Yusuf Islam". Interview with Yusuf Islam; Return to Music. Billboard. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080306082826/http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/feature/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003409809. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "LA Phil presents Hollywood Bowl: About the Performer: AR Rahman". Hollywood Bowl Official Website. http://www.hollywoodbowl.com/music/artist_detail.cfm?id=2648. Retrieved June 2006.
- ^ "Rahman's music conservatory in June". Screen. http://www.screenindia.com/news/Rahmans-music-conservatory-in-June/285836/. Retrieved November 2008.
- ^ "Briefly Tamil Cinema". Tamil Guardian. 19 April 2006. http://www.tamilguardian.com/print.asp?articleid=602. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
- ^ Sudhish Kamath (31 January 2006). "Netru, Indru, Nalai is back with a bang". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2006/01/31/stories/2006013102720200.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Rahman advocates free hugs for peace". Daily News and Analysis. 15 December 2008. http://www.dnaindia.com/entertainment/report_rahman-advocates-free-hugs-for-peace_1214284. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- Allen, John; Uck Lun Chun, Allen Chun, Ned Rossiter, Brian Shoesmith (2004). Refashioning pop music in Asia. USA: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-1401-8.
- Arnold, Alison (2000). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1.
- Brégeat, Raïssa (1995) (in French). Indomania: le cinéma indien des origines à nos jours. Paris: Cinémathèque française. p. 133. ISBN 2900596149 9782900596142.
- "Cinemaya 1998". Cinemaya (New Delhi) (39–41): 9. 1998. ISSN 0970-8782. OCLC 19234070.
- Chaudhuri, Shohini (2005). "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka". Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1799-X.
- Cowie, Peter (1994). "Variety International Film Guide 1995". Variety (London/Hollywood): 204. ISBN 0600585166 9780600585169. OCLC 221419104.
- "Cinemaya 1998". Cinemaya (New Delhi) (39–41): 9. 1998. ISSN 0970-8782. OCLC 19234070.
- Eur, Andy Gregory (2002). "A. R. Rahman". The International Who's Who in Popular Music 2002. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-161-2.
- Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28854-1.
- Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Michigan: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5379-5.
- Shepherd, John (2005). Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world. 3-7. London, New York: Continuum. pp. 80–81. ISBN 0826463215 9780826463210 0826463223 9780826463227 0826474365 9780826474360. OCLC 444486924.
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- Todd Titon, Jeff (2009). "India/South India". Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples (5th ed.). USA: Schirmer Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780534595395 0534595391.
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- A. R. Rahman – Official website
- A. R. Rahman at Allmusic
- A. R. Rahman at Billboard.com
- A. R. Rahman at the Internet Movie Database
Awards for A. R. Rahman Academy Award for Best Original Score (2001–present) Complete list · (1934–1940) · (1941–1960) · (1961–1980) · (1981–2000) · (2001–2020) Academy Award for Best Original Song (2001–2010)
"If I Didn't Have You" • Music and lyrics: Randy Newman (2001) · "Lose Yourself" • Music: Eminem, Jeff Bass and Luis Resto • Lyrics: Eminem (2002) · "Into the West" • Music and lyrics: Fran Walsh, Howard Shore and Annie Lennox (2003) · "Al otro lado del río" • Music and lyrics: Jorge Drexler (2004) · "It's Hard out Here for a Pimp" • Music and lyrics: Jordan Houston, Cedric Coleman and Paul Beauregard (2005) · "I Need to Wake Up" • Music and lyrics: Melissa Etheridge (2006) · "Falling Slowly" • Music and lyrics: Glen Hansard and Markéta Irglová (2007) · "Jai Ho" • Music: A. R. Rahman • Lyrics: Gulzar (2008) · "The Weary Kind" • Music and lyrics: Ryan Bingham and T-Bone Burnett (2009) · "We Belong Together" • Music and lyrics: Randy Newman (2010)
Complete list · (1934–1940) · (1941–1950) · (1951–1960) · (1961–1970) · (1971–1980) · (1981–1990) · (1991–2000) · (2001–2010) BAFTA Award for Best Film Music (2000–2019)
Tan Dun (2000) · Craig Armstrong and Marius de Vries (2001) · Philip Glass (2002) · T-Bone Burnett and Gabriel Yared (2003) · Gustavo Santaolalla (2004) · John Williams (2005) · Gustavo Santaolalla (2006) · Christopher Gunning (2007) · A. R. Rahman (2008) · Michael Giacchino (2009) · Alexandre Desplat (2010)
Complete list · (1968–1979) · (1980–1999) · (2000–2019) Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score (1990–2009)
The Sheltering Sky - Richard Horowitz, Ryuichi Sakamoto (1990) · Beauty and the Beast - Alan Menken (1991) · Aladdin - Alan Menken (1992) · Heaven & Earth - Kitarō (1993) · The Lion King - Hans Zimmer (1994) · A Walk in the Clouds - Maurice Jarre (1995) · The English Patient - Gabriel Yared (1996) · Titanic - James Horner (1997) · The Truman Show - Burkhard Dallwitz, Philip Glass (1998) · The Legend of 1900 - Ennio Morricone (1999) · Gladiator - Lisa Gerrard, Hans Zimmer (2000) · Moulin Rouge! - Craig Armstrong (2001) · Frida - Elliot Goldenthal (2002) · The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King - Howard Shore (2003) · The Aviator - Howard Shore (2004) · Memoirs of a Geisha - John Williams (2005) · The Painted Veil - Alexandre Desplat (2006) · Atonement - Dario Marianelli (2007) · Slumdog Millionaire - A. R. Rahman (2008) · Up- Michael Giacchino (2009)
Complete List · (1947–1969) · (1970–1989) · (1990–2009) · (2010–2029) National Film Award for Best Music Direction 1968–1980 1981–2000
Satyajit Ray (1981) · Khayyam (1982) · Ramesh Naidu (1983) · Ilaiyaraaja (1984) · Jaidev (1985) · Ilaiyaraaja (1986) · M. Balamuralikrishna (1987) · Vanraj Bhatia (1988) · Ilaiyaraaja (1989) · Sher Chowdhary (1990) · Hridayanath Mangeshkar (1991) · Rajat Dholakia (1992) · A. R. Rahman (1993) · Johnson (1994) · Ravi (Bombay) and Johnson (1995) · Hamsalekha (1996) · A. R. Rahman (1997) · M. M. Keeravani (1998) · Vishal Bhardwaj (1999) · Ismail Darbar (2000)
2001–present Filmfare Award for Music Director 1954–1960 1961–1980
Shankar Jaikishan (1961) · Ravi (1962) · Shankar Jaikishan (1963) · Roshan (1964) · Laxmikant-Pyarelal (1965) · Ravi (1966) · Shankar Jaikishan (1967) · Laxmikant-Pyarelal (1968) · Shankar Jaikishan (1969) · Laxmikant-Pyarelal (1970) · Shankar Jaikishan (1971) · Shankar Jaikishan (1972) · Shankar Jaikishan (1973) · S. D. Burman (1974) · Kalyanji Anandji (1975) · Rajesh Roshan (1976) · Khayyam (1977) · Laxmikant-Pyarelal (1978) · Laxmikant-Pyarelal (1979) · Laxmikant-Pyarelal (1980)
Laxmikant-Pyarelal (1981) · Khayyam (1982) · R. D. Burman (1983) · R. D. Burman (1984) · Bappi Lahiri (1985) · Ravindra Jain (1986) · No Award (1987) · No Award (1988) · Anand-Milind (1989) · Raam Laxman (1990) · Nadeem-Shravan (1991) · Nadeem-Shravan (1992) · Nadeem-Shravan (1993) · Anu Malik (1994) · R. D. Burman (1995) · A. R. Rahman (1996) · Nadeem-Shravan (1997) · Uttam Singh (1998) · A. R. Rahman (1999) · A. R. Rahman (2000)
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