Tzotzil

Tzotzil

The Tzotzil Maya of the central highlands of the Mexican state of Chiapas are an indigenous group, the direct descendants of the Classic Maya civilization. The Tzotzil language, like Tzeltal and Ch'ol, is descended from the proto-Ch'ol spoken in the late classic period at sites such as Palenque and Yaxchilan. Today, the largest Tzotzil municipalities are Chamula and Zinacantan, both studied at length by a project of Harvard University directed by cultural anthropologist Evon Z. Vogt.cite book
first=Michael D.
last=Coe
year=1999
title=The Maya
edition=Sixth edition
publisher=Thames & Hudson
location=New York
pages=pp. 134-136
id=ISBN 0-500-28066-5
]

The word "tzotzil" means “people of bat” (tzotz = bat in the Tzotzil language). [Laughlin 1975.]

The Tzotzil were for centuries exploited by Europeans as laborers on coffee and sugar plantations, particularly in the central valleys of the state.

With the collapse of coffee prices in the 1980s, sustainable employment has been hard for many people in the highlands to find. As both population and foreign tourism have risen, the sale of artisan goods has replaced other economic activities. Tzotziles usually sell their products in the nearby cities of San Cristobal de las Casas, Comitán, and Simojovel. Recently, and increasingly, many Maya from the highlands of Chiapas have found migration to other parts of Mexico, and illegal immigration to the United States a way to break away from subsistence farming and abysmal wages.

Issues surrounding social integration persist, especially with white people, mestizos, and westernized indigenous people (all called "ladinos"). Also, most of the enlistees in the guerrilla Zapatista Army of National Liberation are Tzotzil. Fact|date=April 2007. Other Tzotzil, such as those part of the pacifist group Las Abejas, support the goals of the Zapatistas but not their violent means.

Pre-Christian Tzotzil religion

*"The Tzotzil discern two souls in the human body. One, the "ch'ulel", transcends a human's life; the other, "wayjel", ties them to an animal outside their body ... . The "ch'ulel" ... when an individual dies ... goes back to its source, the Katibak, or the world of the dead in the center of the earth. It will remain there for the same length of time it had been in the human world, and it will return to reanimate another human being of the opposite sex in another "calpul". ... Then the "ch'ulel" becomes younger and younger, regressing through its age, marching inversely through the years it had lived, until it is converted into the newborn's soul". [Alfredo López Austin (translated by Ortiz de Montellano) : "Tamoanchan, Tlalocan". University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 146, citing Guiteras, pp. 131, 198-9]
*"The Winajel is in the Sun ... . ... Baptized infants and women who die in childbirth go directly to the Winajel. People who have been struck by lightning or who have drowned do not go to Katibak ... . Neither do murder victims". [Alfredo López Austin (translated by Ortiz de Montellano) : "Tamoanchan, Tlalocan". University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 147, citing Guiteras, pp.42-3]
*"According to the Tzotzil, the souls of animals and of trees ... go to the Katibak, ... and then they return .. to the face of the earth. Animals, like humans, are reborn as the same species, but as the opposite sex". [Alfredo López Austin (translated by Ortiz de Montellano) : "Tamoanchan, Tlalocan". University Press of Colorado, 1997. pp. 147-148, citing Guiteras, p. 249] "Animals and trees have a "ch'ulel" soul. The "wayhel" soul belongs only to human beings".
*"Each town has as a replication a sacred mountain. ... Manojel-Tojel, the creator god, ... caused humans to be born by leading them out of the caves of the original hills." [Alfredo López Austin (translated by Ortiz de Montellano) : "Tamoanchan, Tlalocan". University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 148, citing Guiteras, p. 237] According to myth, each one of the patron-gods "installed himself in a hill, by order of the gods of the four corners of the earth". [Alfredo López Austin (translated by Ortiz de Montellano) : "Tamoanchan, Tlalocan". University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 148, citing Vogt, p. 35] "The Tzotzil speak of an animistic union between the patron god and the hummingbird ... the "waylel". [Alfredo López Austin (translated by Ortiz de Montellano) : "Tamoanchan, Tlalocan". University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 149, citing Guiteras, p. 205]
*"Yahwal Balamil ... who lives inside the earth ... frees the water-filled clouds from inside the earth through caves. ... Yahwal Balamil rides a deer with serpent bridles ..., but he announces himself with ... the croaking of frogs". [Alfredo López Austin (translated by Ortiz de Montellano) : "Tamoanchan, Tlalocan". University Press of Colorado, 1997. p. 133, citing Vogt, pp. 35-6, 94-5] [a note for comparative religion : with the name of this god /YAHWAL/ compare, e.g., that of the "Seminole ... [http://www.northernearth.co.uk/intflorida2.htm god Yahola] " [Michael Heim : "Exploring Missouri Highways". Exploring America's Highways, 2007. p. 130] ] ; and that of the " [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Indigenous_peoples_of_North_America/Biographies#June_24.2C_2006 Creek god] named Yaholi." [Michael Heim : "Exploring Indiana Highways". Exploring America's Highways, 2007. p. 27] ]

Notes

References

*cite book | author=Laughlin, Robert M. | title=The great Tzotzil dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantán | location=Washington | publisher=Smithsonian Institution Press | year=1975
*cite book | author=Vogt, Evon Z. | title=Ofrendas para los dioses : análisis simbólico de rituales zinacantecos | location=México | publisher=Fondo de Cultura Económica | year=1983
*cite book | author=Guiteras-Holmes, Calixta | title=Los peligros del alma : visión del mundo de un tzotzil | location=México | publisher=Fondo de Cultura Económica | year=1965


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Tzotzil — Parlée aux  Mexique Région Chiapas Nombre de locuteurs 330 000 Classification par famille …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tzotzil — puede hacer referencia a: El idioma tzotzil, hablada principalmente en el estado mexicano de Chiapas, y de La etnia tzotzil, que también vive en Chiapas. Esta página de desambiguación cataloga artículos relacionados con el mismo título. Si… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tzotzil — Prozession in San Juan Chamula, dem kulturellen Zentrum der Tzotzil Die Tzotzil Maya sind ein indigenes Volk im mexikanischen Bundesstaat Chiapas, im Übergangsbereich von Nord nach Mittelamerika. Die Tzotzil Sprache, gesprochen von rund 350.000… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tzotzil — Mayan Indian group of central Chiapas state in southern Mexico. They live at high elevations where the climate is cool and precipitation is heavy during the rainy season. They raise sheep, primarily for wool, which they weave into ponchos for men …   Universalium

  • Tzotzil — Tzotzịl,   Volk der Maya im zentralen Chiapas, Südmexiko, vom Río Grijalva im Süden bis nahe an die Grenze zu Tabasco. Die etwa 230 200 Tzotzil gliedern sich in fünf Gruppen (Chamula u. a.); sie betreiben v. a. Feldbau mit Viehhaltung (Männer)… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Tzotzil — noun a Mayan language of Chiapas, Mexico …   Wiktionary

  • tzotzil — o chamula Grupo indígena maya de la zona central del estado de Chiapas, en el sur de México. Viven a gran altitud donde el clima es frío y las precipitaciones son abundantes durante la temporada de lluvias. Crían ovejas, principalmente por su… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • tzotzil — tzo·tzil …   English syllables

  • tzotzil, e —  adj. D un peuple amérindien du Mexique …   Le dictionnaire des mots absents des autres dictionnaires

  • tzotzil — …   Useful english dictionary


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