Long range penetration


Long range penetration

A Long-range penetration patrol, group, or force is a special forces military unit able to remain in and move long distances behind enemy lines far away from direct contact with friendly forces. For recent doctrine, see special reconnaissance.

History

Though the concept of long range penetration is as old as war itself, in the modern era it is recognised as starting with Major Ralph Alger Bagnold with his 1940 Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) in the Western Desert and Orde Wingate with his 1943 Chindits in Burma in World War II. The LRDG carried out operations of reconnaissance and sabotage far behind the enemy's lines in the Western Desert

Major Bagnold was an experienced desert explorer who had his LRDG trained in desert driving, navigation though using the sun and stars as well as a compass, and knowing their territory. They were supplied by all the equipment that their trucks could carry.

Brigadier Orde Wingate, a professional soldier with eccentric behaviour created and led guerilla units in Palestine and Ethiopia before being transferred to Burma in 1942. Wingate had ideas of deep penetration operations that could be made possible through improvements in the range of communication devices and airborne supply by long range aircraft. At the Quebec Conference in 1943, Wingate explained his ideas to Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and many other leaders. Wingate proposed creating strongholds in enemy territory that would be supplied by air and be as effective against the enemy as conventional troops.

Brigadier Wingate was given command of the 77th Indian Brigade that acquired the name of Chindit from a suggestion by Captain Aung Thin of the Burma Rifles. The name was a corruption of the mythical beast that guards Buddhist temples called 'Chinthé' or 'Chinthay'. The unit was supported by the United States Army Air Forces 1st Air Commando Group and carried out two major operations. The first was entering Burma on a 200 mile mission in February 1943 with 3,000 troops, with mules and some elephants for the carrying of supplies. Wingate thought the operation a success, but Field Marshall William Slim thought the operation a failure [Ogburn Jr, Charlton "The Marauders" (1956)]

Inspired by the Quebec Conference and keeping in mind General Joseph Stilwell's requests for American Infantry to support his Chinese troops in the China Burma India Theatre of World War II, General George Marshall sent a telegram to Stilwell notifiying him that America would organise their own Long Range Penetration Force made up of three groups, one from jungle warfare trained troops whose presence were no longer required in Panama, jungle warfare trained troops from Continental American army bases, and experienced jungle fighters from the South Pacific (Admiral Chester Nimitz's troops who had fought on Guadalcanal and in the Solomon Islands) and South West Pacific (General Douglas MacArthur's troops who had fought in New Guinea) Commands. The unit was renamed the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional) but more popularly known as Merrill's Marauders and carried out operations in Burma in 1944. [Ogburn Jr, Charlton "The Marauders" (1956)]

Post World War II

After World War II, long range operations were primarily performed by small units often of strength no greater than four men. Sabotage, surveillance and reconnaissance is carried out by the British Special Air Service (SAS),Australian Special Air Service Regiment, and the Special Air Service of New Zealand. Long Range operations were also carreid out by the Rhodesian Special Air Service and American Long Range Reconnaissance Patrols (LRRP) in the Vietnam War. The South African 32 Battalion performed long range penetraion operations in Angola after the Angolan Civil War. The Sri Lanka Army long range penetration units have also carried out successful long range operations during the Sri Lankan Civil War. [ [http://www.strategypage.com/dls/articles/200791921302.asp "www.strategypage.com"] ]

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Long Range — may refer to:*ER (Extended Range), a type of aircraft *Long Range (band), a techno band *Long range Wi Fi *Long range dependency *Long Range Mountains *Long Range Surveillance *Long range order *Long Range Aviation *Long range planning *Long… …   Wikipedia

  • Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (Sri Lanka) — Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (Deep Penetration Unit) Active Classified – Present Country Sri Lanka Allegiance Sri Lanka Army Type Special Forces (Blac …   Wikipedia

  • Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol — Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol, or LRRP (pronounced and sometimes spelled LuRP ), were special small four to six man teams utilized in the Vietnam War on highly dangerous special operations missions deep into enemy territory. HistoryThe first… …   Wikipedia

  • Long Range Aviation — ( ru. Дальняя Авиация, Dalnaya Aviatsiya , or ru. ДА, DA ) was the branch of the Soviet Air Force tasked with long range bombardment of strategic targets with nuclear weapons. During the Cold War, it was the counterpart to the Strategic Air… …   Wikipedia

  • range — /raynj/, n., adj., v., ranged, ranging. n. 1. the extent to which or the limits between which variation is possible: the range of steel prices; a wide range of styles. 2. the extent or scope of the operation or action of something: within range… …   Universalium

  • .22 Long Rifle — 22 redirects here. For other uses, see .22 (disambiguation). .22 Long rifle .22 Long Rifle – Subsonic Hollow point (left). Standard Velocity (center), Hyper Velocity Stinger Hollow point (right). T …   Wikipedia

  • Pocumtuck Range — Chaîne Pocumtuck Chaîne Pocumtuck Géographie Altitude 258 m, Pocumtuck Rock Massif …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arc Long Anglais — L’arc long anglais, également appelé longbow ou arc droit[1], est une évolution de l’arc gallois. Il s’agit d’un arc médiéval très puissant, d’environ 2 mètres de long, très utilisé par les Anglais, à la fois pour la chasse et la guerre. Son …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arc long Anglais — L’arc long anglais, également appelé longbow ou arc droit[1], est une évolution de l’arc gallois. Il s’agit d’un arc médiéval très puissant, d’environ 2 mètres de long, très utilisé par les Anglais, à la fois pour la chasse et la guerre. Son …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arc long anglais — L’arc long anglais, également appelé longbow ou arc droit[1], est une évolution de l’arc gallois. Il s’agit d’un arc médiéval très puissant, d’environ 2 mètres de long, très utilisé par les Anglais, à la fois pour la chasse et la guerre. Son …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.