Stralsund


Stralsund

Infobox German Location
Art = Town
image_photo = Stralsund_Panorama.jpg
image_caption = Panorama image of Stralsund
imagesize = 290px
Wappen = Coat of arms of Stralsund.svg
lat_deg = 54 | lat_min = 18 | lat_sec=0
lon_deg = 13 | lon_min = 5 | lon_sec=0
Lageplan =
Lageplanbeschreibung =
Bundesland = Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Kreis = urban
Höhe = 13
Fläche = 38.97
Einwohner = 57613
Stand = 2006-12-31
PLZ = 18435, 18437, 18439
Vorwahl = 03831
Kfz = HST
Gemeindeschlüssel = 13 0 05 000
Gliederung =
Adresse = Alter Markt
18439 Stralsund
Website = [http://www.stralsund.de/ www.stralsund.de]
Bürgermeister = Harald Lastovka
Bürgermeistertitel = Oberbürgermeister
Partei = CDU
pop_ref = [ [http://www.statistik-mv.de/berichte/ Population data] ]
year = 1234

Stralsund (IPA2|ˈʃtʁaːlzʊnt) is a city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, situated at the southern coast of the Strelasund (a sound of the Baltic Sea separating the island of Rügen from the mainland). "Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "Stralsund" (city), 2007, webpage: [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9069881/Stralsund EB-Stralsund] .] Two bridges (the "Rügendamm" and since October 2007 the new Rügen bridge) and several ferry services connect Stralsund with the ports of Rügen.

The main industries of Stralsund are shipyards, fishing, and, to an increasing degree, tourism.

History

In medieval ages, the Stralsund area was part of the West Slavic duchy of Rügen, which was part of the Kingdom of Denmark since 1168. At that time, the Dänholm isle and a small fishing village, both at the site of the latter city, were named "Strale / Stralow", meaning "arrow". In the course of German Ostsiedlung, many German settlers, gentry and merchants were called into the duchy, and eventually populated the "Strale" site. Merchants from other countries as well as locals were attracted to the settlement and made up for one third of the city's population. The Danish navy using the isle as well. When the settlement had grown to town size, Duke Wizlaw I of Rügen granted Lübeck law to "our town Stralow" in 1234. In 1240, when the duke gave additional land to the city, he called it "Stralesund".

The success of the settlement challenged the powerful Free City of Lübeck, which burnt Stralsund down in 1249. Afterwards the town was rebuilt with a massive city wall having 11 town gates and 30 watchtowers. The "Neustadt", a town-like suburb, was merged to Stralsund by 1361. "Schadegard", a twin town to Stralsund also founded by Wizlaw I nearby, but was not granted German law, served as the dukes stronghold and enclosed a fort. It was given up and teared down by 1269 under the pressure of the Stralsund "Bürger".

In 1293 Stralsund became a member of the Hanseatic League. A total of 300 ships flying the flag of Stralsund cruised the Baltic Sea in the 14th century.

In the 17th century, Stralsund became a theatre in the Thirty Years' War. In 1628 Stralsund was besieged by Albrecht von Wallenstein until Swedish troops came to Stralsund's aid and forced the general to retreat. After the war, the 1648 Peace of Westphalia made Stralsund part of Swedish Pomerania. In the Great Northern War in 1715 Charles XII led the defence of Stralsund for a year against the united European armies. Stralsund remained under Swedish control until 1815, when it became a part of the Prussian Province of Pomerania.

From 1949 until German Reunification in 1990, Stralsund was part of the German Democratic Republic.Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar


State Party = GER
Type = Cultural
Criteria = ii, iv
ID = 1067
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 2002
Session = 26th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1067

Main sights

* The Brick Gothic historic centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
* The heart of the old town is the Old Market Square ("Alter Markt"), with the Gothic Town Hall (13th century). Behind the town hall stands the imposing "Nikolaikirche" (St. Nicholas' Church), built in 1270-1360. The square is surrounded by houses from different periods, including the Gothic "Wulflamhaus" (a 14th-century patrician house, today a restaurant), and the Baroque "Commandantenhaus", seat of the old Swedish command headquarters.
* The "Jakobikirche" (Saint James's Church), built in mid-14th century. It was destroyed several times, e.g. by Wallenstein and in World War II.
* The "Marienkirche" (Saint Mary's Church), built in 1383-1473 in Gothic style, is the largest church in Stralsund, and from 1625—1647 it was the world's tallest structure. Its octagonal tower (104 meters high) offers a magnificent view of Stralsund and the neighboring islands of Rügen and Hiddensee.
* The "Katharinenkloster" (Monastery of Saint Catherine), built in the 15th century, houses two museums: a museum of history, and an oceanography museum. The ancient refectory of the monastery is one of the most spectacular Gothic interiors in Germany. [http://www.zum.de/Faecher/G/BW/Landeskunde/w2/hanse/staedte/stralsund/lukath.jpg] , [http://www.stralsund-city.de/img/katharinen1.jpg] , [http://www.entdeckemv.de/region_darss/themen_orte/museen/kulturhist_hst/x_kulturhist2.jpg]
* The "Johanniskloster" (Franciscan monastery, 1254), is one of the oldest buildings in the town. [http://www.hansestadt-stralsund.de/ezimagecatalogue/catalogue/variations/84-400x500.jpg]

Transport

Stralsund is linked to the A20 motorway (towards Berlin and Hamburg), via the B96n dual-carriageway. Other major roads include the B105 (beginning in the town centre and continuing to Rostock) and the B96 (major road to Rügen) and the B194 to Grimmen.

When travelling by air, passengers usually do so via Rostock Laage Airport with connecting flights from Munich.

Gallery


Stralsund_as_seen_from_the_seaside.Image:Gründungsurkunde_der_Stadt_Stralsund.jpg|Founding_document_from_1234.Image:Stralsund_Marienkirche_2006.jpg|Marienkirche_(St._Mary

Notes

References

* "Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "Stralsund" (city), 2007, webpage: [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9069881/Stralsund EB-Stralsund] .

Notable residents

*Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769 - 1860)
*Adolf Heinrich Graf von Arnim-Boitzenburg (1803 - 1868)
*Hermann Burmeister (1807 - 1892)
*Joachim Nicolas Eggert (1779 - 1813)
*Wilhelm Ferdinand Erichson (1809 - 1848)
*Hans Henrik von Essen (1755 - 1824)
*Jürgen Heuser (* 23. März 1953)
*Eduard von Jachmann (1822 - 1887)
*Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten (1817 - 1908)
*Harry Kupfer (b. 1935)
*William Lindley (1808 - 1900)
*Helmut Losch (1947 - 2005)
*Ulrike Maisch (b. 1977)
*Hermann von Mallinckrodt (1821 - 1874)
*Angela Merkel (b. 1954), politician
*Silke Möller (b. 1960)
*Arnold Ruge (1802 - 1880)
*Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 - 1786)
*Ferdinand von Schill (1776 - 1809)
*Georg Friedrich Schömann (1793 - 1879)

*Friedrich Spielhagen (1829 - 1911), writer
*Leonhard Tietz(1849 - 1914), merchant
*Christian Ehrenfried Weigel (1748 - 1831)
*Georg Wertheim(1857 - 1939), merchant

External links

* [http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=54.306450,13.086090&spn=0.096861,0.234180&t=k&hl=en Satellite picture by Google Maps]
* [http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=56&story_id=28189&name=Short+breaks%3A+Stralsund Travel article about Stralsund from Expatica.com]
* [http://www.pausenberger.com/stralsund.html photographs from Stralsund]
* [http://www.germanplaces.com/germany/stralsund.html Stralsund World Heritage]


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