- Arktika 2007
Arktika 2007 ( _ru. Российская полярная экспедиция "Арктика-2007") was a 2007 expedition in which
Russiaperformed the first ever crewed descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, as part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial claim, one of many territorial claims in the Arctic, [ [http://www.oxfordenergy.org/pdfs/comment_0807-3.pdf The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons] , by Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007] made possible, in part, because of Arctic shrinkage. As well as dropping a titaniumtube containing the Russian flag, the submersibles collected specimens of Arctic flora and fauna and apparently recorded videoof the dives. The "North Pole-35" (abbreviated as "NP-35") manned drifting ice station was established.
January 10 2008three of expedition members who performed the descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, Anatoly Sagalevich, Yevgeny Chernyaevand Artur Chilingarovwere awarded titles Hero of the Russian Federation"for courage and heroism showed in extremal conditions and successful completion of High-Latitude Arctic Deep-Water Expedition." [ [http://www.kremlin.ru/text/docs/2008/01/156144.shtml Президент России | Указ «О награждении государственными наградами Российской Федерации» ] ]
The expedition, part of the Russian program for the 2007–2008
International Polar Year, used the " Akademik Fedorov" research ship, with both MIR submersibles on board and the nuclear icebreaker Rossiya ("Russia") led it through the Arctic ice. The ships had two Mi-8 helicopters and geological probe devices, and Il-18 aircraft with gravimetric devices. Its aim was to investigate the structure and evolution of the Earth's crust in the Arctic regions neighbouring Eurasia, such as the regions of Mendeleev Ridge, Alpha Ridgeand Lomonosov Ridge, to discover whether they are linked with the Siberian shelf. [ru icon [http://ipyrus.aari.ru/таблица%20заявок.doc Applications table] at the website of the Russian International Polar Yearprogram] [ [http://www.ipyeaso.aari.ru/images/june_path_update.jpgIPY ACTIVITIES - Russian plans for Arctic Ocean Activities in summer 2007 (map)] at AARI]
The "Akademik Fedorov" left
Saint Petersburgon July 10 2007for the expedition. Off Baltiysk, it took aboard the two MIR Deep Submergence Vehicles from the " Akademik Mstislav Keldysh". [ru icon http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=129584&tid=47512&date=23.07.2007] On July 22the vessel arrived at Murmansk, and sailed for the North Pole three days later, behind the nuclear icebreaker "Russia".http://www.ipyeaso.aari.ru/news.html] After five hours, the "Akademik Fedorov" began drifting in the Barents Sea because an electric motor controlling its propellor failed. [ [http://www.rzd-partner.com/news/2007/07/26/308241.html Akademik Fyodorov Ship Engine Breakdown Removed — News — RZD-Partner Portal ] ] The "Russia", 20 hours ahead by that time, turned to help. [ru icon http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=131861&tid=47512&date=23.07.2007] Nine hours later the crew of "Akademik Fedorov" repaired the motor and the ship continued its voyage, staying close to the "Russia".ru icon http://www.aari.ru/main.php?id=1&sub=0] On July 27The icebreaker landed a group of marine biologists on the Kheysaisland, the site of Russia's "Krenkel" observatory to conduct research for the International Polar Year.
First stage: high-latitude deep-water Arctic expedition
July 29the "Akademik Fedorov" approached a large ice-hole, surrounded by thick ice at coord|82|29|N|64|28|E, 47 miles north of Franz Josef Land. There, the submersibles, each with one person on board, performed test dives. Anatoly Sagalevich took the MIR-1 down at 9:36 Moscow Timeand Yevgeny Chernyaev followed at the controls of MIR-2 at 10:00. At 10:32 MIR-1 reached the seabed at a depth of 1311 metres, and by 11:10 MIR-2 also was at the ocean bottom. Both surfaced at 14:20. [ru icon [http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=132444&cid=1&date=29.07.2007 MIR vehicles submerged in high latitudes of the Arctic] . ] [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2007/BUSINESS/07/29/russia.northpole.reut/index.html Russia races to North Pole seabed] . " CNN"]
North Pole descent
Descents were carried out on
August 2, 2007in both MIR Deep Submergence Vehicles. The MIR-1's crew consisted of pilot Anatoly Sagalevich(head of the Oceanology Institute), Russian polar explorer Arthur Chilingarovand businessman Vladimir Gruzdev. The MIR-2's crew comprised pilot Yevgeny Chernyaev of Russia, Australian adventurer Mike McDowell, and Swede Frederik Paulsen Jr., head of Ferring Pharmaceuticals). [ru icon [http://itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=11765658&PageNum=0 Russia submarines successfully end 1st travel to Arctic floor] , ITAR-TASS, August 2, 2007]
MIR-1 began its dive at 9:28
Moscow Timeand at 12:08 reached the seabed4,261 metres (14,061 feet) below the North Pole. MIR-2 began its dive at 9:47 and at 12:35 reached the seabed 4,302 metres (14,196 feet) down. At 12:35 the bathyscaphes were 500 metres (1,650 feet) apart and MIR-1 moved near MIR-2. At 13:46 both submersibles began to ascend, with MIR-1 surfacing at 18:08 and MIR-2 at 19:15. [ru icon [http://www.inauka.ru/news/article76799.html Unique Arctic Experiment by Russian Scientists Ended] ]
On the seabed, 4,261 metres below the Polar ice, MIR-1 planted a one metre tall titanium Russian flag, made at
Kaliningrad's "Fakel" 'design bureau.'ru icon http://www.rg.ru/2007/08/03/arktika1.html] It also left a time capsule, containing a message for future generations and a flag of the pro-President Vladimir Putin United Russiaparty. [ru icon [http://www.edinros.ru/news.html?id=122356 Arctic Triumph of Chilingarov Expedition] at the website of United Russia] Soiland water samples of the seabed were taken during the mission.
=Controversy over TV
Russian state broadcaster Rossiya had enhanced footage of the Arktika expedition with sequences taken by MIR submersibles for the 1997 film "Titanic", as an illustration of the submarines in action, in which the Finnish-built bathyscaphes had explored the wrecked liner on the Atlantic seabed, London’s "
Daily Telegraph" reported on August 11. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/08/11/wrussia111.xml/ "Russian arctic images “from Titanic", "Daily Telegraph", London, 11 August 2007] .Retrieved on 2007-08-12.] The same images were rebroadcast by Reuters, which mistook them as actual footage of part of the expedition.
A Finnish 13-year-old, Waltteri Seretin, of
Kemi, 450 miles (724,2 kilometres) north of Helsinki, had recognized the submersibles used in the voyage to the bottom of the sea as appearing in sequences director James Cameron's Oscar-winning drama. [ [http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/finnish-teen-sinks-russian-tvs-titanic-polar-ploy/2007/08/11/1186530667954.html/ "Finnish teen sinks Russian TV's titanic polar ploy", The Age, Melbourne, Australia, 12 August 2007] . Retrieved on 2007-08-12.] International news agency Reutershad on August 10admitted it had wrongly captioned video it took from Russia’s Rossiya Television and which it had disseminated worldwide, London’s "Guardian" reported. [http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,,2146373,00.html "Reuters gets that sinking feeling", "The Guardian", London, 10 August 2007] .Retrieved on 2007-09-19. "Reuters has admitted that it took the images from Russian state television channel RTR and wrongly captioned them as file footage originating from the Arctic.
RTR had also used the footage to illustrate stories about the North Pole expedition, but it is thought as library footage, and it never claimed it was actually of the flag-planting.'] The agency, the daily reported, had admitted: it had “mistakenly identified this file footage as originating from the Arctic, and not the North Atlantic where the footage was shot. This footage was taken during the search for the Titanic and copyright is held by Rossiya." [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/russia/article/0,,2146629,00.html "Revealed: why those Russian submarine heroics might have looked a little familiar , The Guardian, London, August 11] .Retrieved on 2007-09-19. Rossiya had refused to comment on its 'polar' images.]
Finish of the first stage
On its way back to
Franz Josef Landto collect marine biologists, the "Akademik Fedorov" on August 4met the French Tara expedition. The ship's MI-8 helicopter landed near the yacht, which had been drifting for eleven months, Rossiya's "Vesti" reported. The Russian expedition, led by Arthur Chilingarov, had supplied the Tara expedition with food [ru icon [http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=133278 Russian polar explorers supplied fruit to the crew of the French yacht] ] Tara's schooner Agnès B had set out a year earlier to drift with the Arctic ice for two years, measuring the retreat of the Polar ice cap, its log shows. The Russians had asked to 'visit...on their return from the Pole, we accepted their request', the log reads' [ [http://www.taraexpeditions.org/en/visit-of-the-russian-deep-sea-high-latitude-expedition.php?id_page=277 "Visit of the Russian Deep Sea High Latitude Expedition" 5 August 2007] .retrieved on 2007-08-12.] 'A group of a dozen officials and journalists' brought 'gifts of fresh fruit and vegetables and a few bottles of wine...we found the meeting somewhat surreal'. The French expedition had 9 tonnes of food and was growing its own — ‘...salad...is what we have grown...most [to date] . Corn salad grows very well’, even at those latitudes [but] ‘...it seems a bit premature to consider [us] a self sufficient Arctic base food wise', the Agnès B's Bruno Vienne told hydroponics advisers "Les Jardins Suspendus" [ [http://www.taraexpeditions.org/en/daily-life/a-garden-onboard/a-garden-onboard-tara.php?id_page=155 "Daily Life: A Garden Onboard Tara", Tara Expeditions, Paris, undated] .Retrieved on 2007-08-12.]
The first stage of the Arktika 2007 expedition ended on
August 7 2007, when both MIR submersibles were transferred from " Akademik Fedorov" aboard " Akademik Mstislav Keldysh", met in Nagurskaya Bay, which is situated in the Cambridge Channelof Franz Josef Land. [ru icon [http://www.aari.nw.ru/news/text/20070915_mpg.pdf 2007/08 International Polar Year News Bulletin (issue 5—6, July—August 2007)] ]
econd stage: sailing eastwards
"Akademik Fedorov" then sailed towards the "Ice Base", a group of nine
polar explorers led by A.A.Visnevsky landed on June 7 2007from the nuclear icebreaker "Russia" at the point coord|80|57|N|168|53|E The corresponding ice floe was a candidate for the "NP-35" establishment, but since then its area greatly reduced and became inappropriate for this. Sailing through the northern part of the Kara Sea "Akademik Fedorov" reached the northern part of Laptev Sea, then returned, passed by Schmidt Islandand sailed southwards towards Shokalsky Straitof Severnaya Zemlya. 26 oceanographic stations were carried out and Mi-8flights were performed from the research vessel to Schmidt Island for ornithologyresearch and to north-eastern islands of Franz Joseph Land for glaciology, geologyand ornithology research. Ornithology research was also conducted on Severnaya Zemlya islands. In particular, a significant part of the ivory gullrange was observed and six new colonies of these birds found. [ [http://www.aari.nw.ru/news/news.php News Release] by AARIfor August 20, 2007]
August 17"Akademik Fedorov" passed Shokalsky Strait and six days later collected the "Ice Base". [ [http://www.aari.nw.ru/news/news.php News Release] by AARIfor August 23, 2007] On August 28the research vessel anchored by the Tiksi roadsteadto perform the rotation of expedition members and left for New Siberian Islandsnext day. "Akademik Fedorov" skirted them around from the north, carrying out oceanographic stations and a Mi-8 flight to Bennett Islandwas performed for geology probe and pollution probe. [ [http://www.aari.nw.ru/news/news.php News Release] by AARIfor August 29, 2007]
September 5"Akademik Fedorov" met nuclear icebreaker"Russia" and started a search for an ice floe suitable for "NP-35" manned drifting ice station establishment, beginning the third stage of "Arktika 2007" expedition. [ [http://www.aari.nw.ru/news/news.php News Release] by AARIfor September 6, 2007]
Third stage: drifting ice station "NP-35" establishment
The search for appropriate ice floe for the establishment of the "North Pole-35" (abbreviated as "NP-35") manned drifting ice station lasted until
September 18, when one with an area of 16 square kilometers was found. Some 300 tons of cargo was disembarked from the vessel to ensure long functioning of the station. "NP-35" started operations on September 21 2007at the point coord|81|26|N|103|30|E, when flags of Russiaand Saint Petersburgwere raised there. 22 scientists, led by A.A.Visnevsky are working on the ice floe. The station is believed to work for a year, drifting towards the Fram Strait. [ [http://www.aari.nw.ru/docs/press_release/20070921_sp35.html September 21, 2007 Press-Release] by AARI]
September 22"Akademik Fedorov" left for Murmanskand reached its home port, Saint Petersburg, on October 3, finishing the high latitude Arctic expedition Arktika 2007. Arthur Chilingarovsent a government telegram to congratulate expedition members on behalf of State Duma. [ [http://www.aari.nw.ru/news/pics/071004.jpgGovernment Telegram from Arthur Chilingarov] ]
There was concern in the other four countries bordering the Arctic [http://www.oxfordenergy.org/pdfs/comment_0807-3.pdf] (
Canada, Norway, Denmarkand the United States) that Russia might claim the Arctic based on its charting of the seabed. [cite web|title=Arctic Sovereignty: Drawing a line in the water|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/cdnmilitary/arctic.html|publisher=CBC News|quote=that's what Russia is doing by systematically charting the reach of its Lomonosov underwater shelf] Former Canadian Foreign Minister Peter MacKaysaid: "This isn't the 15th century. You can't go around the world and just plant flags and say 'We're claiming this territory'." [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6927395.stm Russia plants flag under N Pole] . BBC News.] United States Department of Statespokesman Tom Casey stated that planting the flag "doesn't have any legal standing or effect on this claim." [ [http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,22182520-401,00.html Russian claim over North Pole sparks cold war] ]
In reply, the Russian Foreign Minister
Sergey Lavrovtold reporters: "The aim of this expedition is not to stake Russia's claim but to show that our shelf reaches to the North Pole." [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/08/02/arctic.sub.reut/index.html?eref=rss_world Russia plants flag on Arctic floor] . CNN News.] He also confirmed that Arctic territory issues "can be tackled solely on the basis of international law, the International Convention on the Law of the Sea and in the framework of the mechanisms that have in accordance with it been created for determining the borders of states which have a continental shelf." [cite news | first=Sergey | last=Lavrov | title=Transcript of Remarks and Replies to Media Questions by Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov Following His Participation in the 14th Session of the ASEAN Regional Forum on Security, Manila, Philippines, August 2, 2007| url=http://www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/432751A496F921E9C325732C004BE119 | publisher= Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia| date= 2007-08-03| accessdate=2007-08-04] In another interview Sergey Lavrov said: "I was amazed by my Canadian counterpart’s statement that we are planting flags around. We’re not throwing flags around. We just do what other discoverers did. The purpose of the expedition is not to stake whatever rights of Russia, but to prove that our shelf extends to the North Pole". [ [http://www.kommersant.com/p792832/Arctic_ocean_bed_causes_upsurge_of_Russia-West_competiton/ Cold War Goes North - Kommersant Moscow ] ]
Lindsay Parson, (head of the Law of the Sea Group at
Southampton's National Oceanography Centrein the UK) stated that Denmark(via Greenland) and Canadawould have equally good chances of claiming the territory on these grounds — which both nations have stated they will do — as the Lomonosov Ridgeextends from Russia across the Arctic to Greenland and northern Canada. [ [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/08/da431318-92ed-493c-8797-9c2c38cd6344.html Russia: Polar Expedition Means 'Very Little' For Territorial Claims - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY ] ] Denmark claimed that the 1,500 kilometre (1,200 mile) Lomonosov Ridgewas its property, the BBC's World Serviceradio reported early on August 12. Danish science minister Helge Sander told reporters: "The preliminary investigations done so far are very promising. There are things suggesting that Denmark could be given the North Pole." [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/08/12/wpole112.xml "Denmark joins race to claim North Pole", Sunday Telegraph, London, 12 August 2007] .Retrieved on 2007-08-12.]
Analysis of expedition results
In mid-September 2007, Russia's Natural Resources Ministry issued a statement:cquote|Preliminary results of an analysis of the earth crust model examined by the Arktika 2007 expedition, obtained on September 20, have confirmed that the crust structure of the Lomonosov Ridge corresponds to the world analogues of the continental crust, and it is therefore part of the Russian Federation's adjacent continental shelf.
Energy policy of Russia
Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations
*ru icon [http://www.aari.nw.ru/news/pics/070925.html Arktika 2007 Expedition Map]
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