Tuberculin

Tuberculin

Tuberculin is the name given to extracts of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. Bovis," or "M. avium", used in skin testing in animals and humans to identify a tuberculosis infection [Tizard, I. R. (2004). "Veterinary immunology: an introduction, seventh edition." Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN-13: 978-0-7216-0136-6] . Several types of tuberculin have been used for this, of which purified protein derivative (PPD) is the most important. PPD is a poorly defined complex antigen mixture. Tests based upon PPD are relatively unspecific since many of its proteins are found in different mycobacterial species.

History

Tuberculin was discovered by German scientist and physician Robert Koch in 1890. The original tuberculin discovered by Koch was a glycerine extract of the tubercle bacilli and was developed as a remedy for tuberculosis, but it was ineffective in this role. Clemens von Pirquet discovered that patients who had previously received injections of horse serum or smallpox vaccine had quicker, more severe reactions to a second injection, and he coined the word "allergy" to describe this hypersensitivity reaction. Soon thereafter von Pirquet discovered the same type of reaction took place in those infected with tuberculosis, and he thus found the utility of what would become the tuberculin skin test. The test used in the United States at present is referred to as the Mantoux test. An alternative test called the Heaf test was used in the United Kingdom until 2005, although the UK now uses the Mantoux test in line with the rest of the world. Both of these tests use "Purified Protein Derivative", or "PPD", which is a tuberculin derivative.

ee also

* tuberculosis
* Heaf test
* Mantoux testTuberculin Skin Tests [http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Tuberculin-Skin-Tests]

References

Sources

* Tizard, I. R. (2004). "Veterinary immunology: an introduction, seventh edition." Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN-13: 978-0-7216-0136-6


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Tuberculin — Tu*ber cu*lin, n. [See {Tubercle}.] A fluid containing the products formed by the growth of the tubercle bacillus in a suitable culture medium. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tuberculin — [too bʉr′kyə lin, təbʉr′kyə lin] n. [< L tuberculum (see TUBERCLE) + IN1] a sterile liquid preparation made from the growth products or extracts of a tubercle bacillus culture and injected into the skin as a test for tuberculosis …   English World dictionary

  • tuberculin — 1. A glycerin broth culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evaporated to 110 volume at 100°C and filtered; introduced by Robert Koch for the treatment of tuberculosis but now used chiefly for diagnostic tests; originally known as Koch old t. (OT)… …   Medical dictionary

  • tuberculin — n. a sterile liquid from cultures of tubercle bacillus, used in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Phrases and idioms: tuberculin test a hypodermic injection of tuberculin to detect a tubercular infection. tuberculin tested (of milk)… …   Useful english dictionary

  • tuberculin — n. a protein extract from cultures of tubercle bacilli, used to test whether a person has suffered from or been in contact with tuberculosis. In the Mantoux test a quantity of tuberculin is injected beneath the skin and a patch of inflammation… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • tuberculin — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: circa 1890 a sterile liquid containing the growth products of or specific substances extracted from the tubercle bacillus and used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis especially in children… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • tuberculin — /too berr kyeuh lin, tyoo /, n. Med. a sterile liquid prepared from cultures of the tubercle bacillus, used in the diagnosis and, formerly, in the treatment of tuberculosis. [1890 95; < L tubercul(um) TUBERCLE + IN2] * * * …   Universalium

  • tuberculin — noun An antigen used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis …   Wiktionary

  • tuberculin — n. (Medicine) sterile extract from cultures of the tubercle bacillus used in the diagnosis of the disease tuberculosis (and formerly in its treatment) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • tuberculin — [tjʊ bə:kjʊlɪn] noun a sterile protein extract from cultures of tubercle bacillus, used to test for tuberculosis. Origin C19: from L. tuberculum (see tubercle) + in1 …   English new terms dictionary


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