- HDTV blur
HDTV blur is a common term used to describe a number of different artifacts on consumer modern high-definition television sets:
The following factors are generally the primary or secondary causes of
HDTVblur; in some cases more than one of these factors may be in play at the studio or receiver end of the transmission chain.
response timeon LCD displays (blur in the color response of the active pixel)
* Slower camera
shutter speeds common in Hollywood production films (blur in the HDVcontent of the film)
* Blur from eye tracking fast moving objects on
sample-and-holdLCD, Plasma, or Microdisplay. [ [http://www.poynton.com/PDFs/Motion_portrayal.pdf Charles Poynton is an authority on artifacts related to HDTV, and discusses motion artifacts succinctly and specifically] ]
resampling(blur due to resizing image to fit the native resolution of the HDTV)
* Blur due to and/or motion-speed irregularities in framerate conversions from film to video
* Computer generated
motion blurintroduced by video games[ [http://www.projectoffset.com Computer Game Engine that makes use of Motion Blur Effects] ]
It is common for observers to confuse or misunderstand the source of blurring on HDTV sets. There are so many different possible causes, many of them being possible simultaneously.
Pixel response times need to be below 16.67 milliseconds in order to fully represent the bandwidth of color changes necessary for
60 Hzvideo. But achieving faster than 16.67 does not eliminate motion blur because of the least understood of all of these blur effects is that due to eye tracking.
LCDs often have a greater motion blur effect because the pixel in an LCD remains lit unlike the CRT phosphors that merely strobe for a very brief period of time. Reducing the time an LCD is lit has been shown to reduce motion blur due to eye tracking by decreasing the time period the backlit pixels are on. [ [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6057..213F Publishing from February 2006 from Sharp discussing LED flashing to reduce temporal retinal blur effects with decreasing on-time duty cycle for the backlight.] ] However, an instant strobe is required to completely eliminate the retinal blurring. [ [http://www.r2d.com.tw/index.php?lang=en&page=mprt&menu=service&q=q002#q002 How human eyes sense the motion blur on moving object of LCD panel?] ] [ [http://www.r2d.com.tw/index.php?lang=en&page=mprt&menu=service&q=q003#q003 Three methods of classic MPRT measurement equipments.] ] [ [http://orderedwords.net/badgers/Correlation%20between%20Perceived%20Motion%20Blur%20and%20MPRTMeasurement.pdf Another PDF describing MPRT] ]
Philipscreated Aptura also known as ClearLCD to strobe the backlight in order to reduce the sample time and thus the retinal blurring due to sample-and-hold. [ [http://www.lighting.philips.com/gl_en/news/content_homepage/PS4-13PhilipsclearLCD_5.pdf Philips brochure advertising Aptura backlighting that reduces retinal blurring significantly] ] [ [http://www.hometheatermag.com/lcds/1206philips42pf/ Review of a philips Aptura set that discusses Aptura briefly] ]
Samsungdeveloped "LED Motion Plus" strobed backlighting and is available on the "Samsung 81 Series" LCD screens as of August 2007. [ [http://www.abtelectronics.com/images/products/PDF_Files/Samsung_81_Series_om.pdf User manual for Samsung 81 Series TVs with LED Motion Plus technology] ]
BenQdeveloped SPD (Simulated Pulse Drive) also more commonly known as "black frame insertion" and they claim that their images are as stable and clear as CRT's. [ [http://benq.com/products/LCD/?product=997 BenQ described "black frame insertion" on FP241VW monitor release in 2006] ] [ [http://benq.com/products/LCD/?product=1270 BenQ describes "Simulated Pulse Drive" which seems to be the same technology but renamed for their newer monitor line announced December 2007] ] This is conceptually similar to a strobing backlight.
100 Hz +
Some displays cut the amount of blur while adding to the latency by inserting in-between frames. For instance some LCD TVs supplement the standard 50/60 Hz signal by interpolating an extra frame between every pair of frames in the signal so the display runs at 100 Hz or 120 Hz depending on which country you live in. PAL/SECAM countries adopt 100 Hz and NTSC countries typically adopt 120 Hz. [ [http://www.jvc.com/press/index.jsp?item=513&pageID=1 JVC Makes first 120 Hz set to cut retinal blur in half] ] It's notable that this solution is adequate for movies (which must have blur to begin with to solve double imaging problems with higher shutter speeds on film) but not for video games, which require less than 1 frame or 16.66 ms of latency for optimal playability. Fact|date=August 2007 [ [http://games.gearlive.com/index.php/playfeed/article/resolving-hdtv-lag-in-games-06142215 Resolving latency issues in HDTV video games] ] One possible advantage of a 100 Hz + display is superior conversion of the standard 24frame/s film speed. Usually movies and other film sources in NTSC are converted for home viewing using what is called which uses 4 frames from the original to create 5 (interlaced) frames in the output. As a result shows odd frames for 49.98 milliseconds and even frames for 33.33 milliseconds. At 120 Hz 5:5 from 24frame/s video is possible [ [http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6111610-claims.html Patent for 5:5 pulldown] ] meaning all frames are on screen for the same 41.65 milliseconds. This eliminates the jerky effect associated with 3:2 pulldown called . However, to use 5:5 pulldown instead of the normal 3:2 pulldown requires either support for 24 frame/s output like 1080p/24 from the DVD/HD DVD/Blu-ray Disc player or the use of reverse telecine to remove the standard 3:2 pulldown. Some TVs (particularly plasma models) do 3:3 pulldown at 72 Hz or 4:4 at 96 Hz. [ [http://www.pioneerelectronics.ca/pna/plasma/whyplasma/article/page/0,,32171715_293250188,00.html Sets that support 3:3 pulldown at 72 Hz or 4:4 at 96 Hz] ] (for specific models, see [http://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showthread.php?t=997138 list of displays that support pulldown at multiples of the original frame rate] .) PAL countries speed the 24 fps film speed by 4% to obtain 25 fps, therefore movies in the PAL format are completely free of Telecine judder effects. As a result, 100 Hz televisions do not suffer from telecine judder as 120 Hz models do.
JVCcalls their 100 Hz + technology "Clear Motion Drive" and "Clear Motion Drive II 100/120HZ". [ [http://www.jvc-asia.com/main/lcd_asia/feat2.html JVC | LCD Televisions ] ]
LGcalls their 100 Hz + technology "TruMotion".
Mitsubishicalls their 100 Hz + technology "Smooth120Hz™". [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0018C7FSO#Smooth_120Hz_Film_Motion Description of Smooth120HZ] ]
Samsungcalls their 100 Hz + technology AMP "Auto Motion Plus®". [ [http://www.samsung.com/au/news/newsRead.do?news_group=productnews&news_type=consumerproduct&news_ctgry=tv&news_seq=6452&search_keyword=&from_dt=&to_dt= SAMSUNG Launches Premium 100Hz F8 LCD Television SAMSUNG ] ]
Sonycalls their 100 Hz + technology "Motionflow™". [ [http://www.sony.com.au/articles/article.jsp?articleId=4016&categoryId=21611 Article 4016 ] ]
Toshibacalls their 100 Hz + technology "Clear Frame". [ [http://www.bigpicturebigsound.com/Toshiba-46LX177-HDTV-1347.shtml Toshiba REGZA 46LX177 Cinema Series 46-inch LCD HDTV with 120 Hz Processing: Review by Chris Boylan on BigPictureBigSound ] ]
What they are all doing is the equivalent of "in-betweening" in animation, where the key frames are drawn by the source video and the computer interpolates the frames in between the key frames. If video frame 1 has a man with his hand at waist level and video frame 2 has the same man with his hand a little bit above waist level, then the video processor interpolates a frame between them with the man having his hand half way between the two positions, just as the frame sequence would have looked if it had been captured at 100 + frames-per-second rather than 50/60 fields-per-second. The catch is, the original video frames are still blurred compared to what a true 100 + Fps rate would look like. The in between frames are also synthetic, so there is no guarantee they would actually match what you would have seen at a true 100 Hz + Fps. Basically, all this depends on how good the computer algorithms are at synthetic generation of frames. Despite these issues, the above techniques make a huge visible difference to blur and picture motion, a difference that can easily be noticed by anyone with such a television.
Laser TVis reported to eliminate double imaging and motion artifacts by strobing the image similar to the way that a CRT works. [ [http://www.es.com/products/displays/ESLaser/architecture.asp Evans and Southerland use column scanning laser to eliminate motion blur on their high-end laser projection system] ] Laser TVis generally not yet available, and the results are not confirmed to solve the problem, but claims have been made on television broadcasts such as KRON 4 News' Coverage of Laser TV from October 2006. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DS6wsJRGqnQ KRON 4 News in Bay Area covers coherent and novalux joint venture laser television project] ]
Telecinetechnical description also known as judder.
* [http://www.hdtvmagazine.com/articles/2008/01/lcd_specs_playing_with_your_eyes.php Article in HDTV Magazine that does a good job of covering motion blur on LCD panels]
* [http://www.iitk.ac.in/asid06/proceedings/papers/TC1_1-I.pdf Link describing cause of motion blur from sample and hold techniques and reduction using LED backlighting]
* [http://www.techmind.org/lcd/ Techmind.org: LCD technology and tests]
* [http://hometheater.about.com/od/televisionbasics/qt/framevsrefresh.htm | 1080p and framerates explained]
* [http://www.xyhd.tv/2007/09/how-to/how-a-32-pull-down-cadence-works-when-converting-film-to-video-telecine/ Methods for 3:2 Pull Down]
* [http://benq.com/products/LCD/?product=839 BenQ monitor that uses strobing to reduce sample-and-hold artifacts due to motion eye tracking]
* [http://hcpin.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/*checkout*/hcpin/doc/motion_stress.rar Windows application that demonstrates retinal blur due to sample and hold displays]
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