Bromoform


Bromoform
Bromoform
Identifiers
CAS number 75-25-2 YesY
PubChem 5558
ChemSpider 13838404 YesY
UNII TUT9J99IMU YesY
EC number 200-854-6
DrugBank DB03054
KEGG C14707 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:38682 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL345248 YesY
RTECS number PB5600000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula CHBr3
Molar mass 252.73 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless to yellow liquid with a sweet odor
Density 2.889 g/cm3 at 15 °C
Melting point

8.0 °C

Boiling point

149.1 °C

Solubility in water 3.2 g/l at 30 °C
log P 2.38
Vapor pressure 660 Pa at 20 °C
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Toxic (T), Dangerous for the environment (N), Carc. Cat. 3
R-phrases R23, R36, R38, R51, R53
S-phrases S28, S45, S61
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
3
0
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
0.5 ppm
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Bromoform (CHBr3) is a pale yellowish liquid with a sweet odor similar to chloroform, a halomethane or haloform. Its refractive index is 1.595 (20°C, D). Bromoform is produced naturally by phytoplankton and seaweeds in the ocean and this is thought to be the predominant source to the environment.[1] However, locally significant amounts of bromoform enter the environment formed as disinfection byproducts known as the trihalomethanes when chlorine is added to drinking water to kill bacteria. It is somewhat soluble in water and readily evaporates into the air. Bromoform is a confirmed animal carcinogen; (ACGIH 2004). Carcinogen category: 3B; (DFG 2004).

Bromoform is one of the trihalomethane closely related with fluoroform, chloroform, and iodoform. It is the main trihalomethane produced in salt swimming pools with some public swimming pools found to contain up to 1.3PPM bromoform.[2] Occupational skin exposure limits are set at 0.1PPM.

Bromoform can be absorbed into the body by inhalation and through the skin. The substance is irritating to the respiratory tract, the eyes, and the skin, and may cause effects on the central nervous system and liver, resulting in impaired functions. It is soluble in about 800 parts water and is miscible with alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, petroleum ether, acetone, and oils. Its LD50 is 7.2 mmol/kg in mice, or 1.8g/kg.

The substance may be hazardous to the environment and special attention should be given to aquatic organisms. It is strongly advised not to let the chemical enter into the environment because it persists in the environment.

It can be prepared by the haloform reaction using acetone and sodium hypobromite, by the electrolysis of potassium bromide in ethanol, or by treating chloroform with aluminum bromide.

Uses

A bottle of bromoform with some in the adjacent beaker

Only small quantities of bromoform are currently produced industrially in the United States. In the past, it was used as a solvent, sedative and flame retardant, but now it is mainly used as a laboratory reagent.

Due to bromoform's relatively high density, it is commonly used for the separation of minerals. In one application of the technique, two samples can be separated by bromoform in a test tube or equivalent glassware. The top layer, which contains the lighter minerals, can be removed from the bottom layer, which contains the heavier minerals.

This ability of bromoform to support the weight of some solids is explained by the laws of buoyancy. A solid will float in a liquid if its density is less than that of the liquid. Likewise, a solid will sink if its density is more than that of the liquid. If a liquid is to be used to separate minerals according to their densities, it should have a density that is in between that of the minerals. Bromoform has a high density compared to that of other liquids, and so it is ideal for this application. If the density of bromoform is slightly too high, then it can be brought down by mixing it with a small amount of fully miscible liquid of lesser density.

References

  1. ^ Palmer C J and Reason C J (2009), Relationships of surface bromoform concentrations with mixed layer depth and salinity in the tropical oceans (2009), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB2014.
  2. ^ Beech AJ et al (1980) Nitrates, Chlorates and Trihalomethanes in Swimming Pool Water. Am J Public Health, 70(1), 79-82

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • bromoform — BROMOFÓRM s.n. Lichid incolor, volatil, dulceag, preparat pe bază de brom şi folosit pentru calmarea tusei, a spasmelor şi a convulsiilor. – Din fr. bromoforme. Trimis de valeriu, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  bromofórm s. n. Trimis de siveco,… …   Dicționar Român

  • Bromoform — Bro mo*form, n. [Bromine + formyl.] (Chem.) A colorless liquid, {CHBr3}, having an agreeable odor and sweetish taste. It is produced by the simultaneous action of bromine and caustic potash upon wood spirit, alcohol, or acetone, as also by… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bromoform — Bromoform, C2HBr3, eine dem Chloroform ähnliche Verbindung von Brom mit Formyl, dem Radical der Ameisensäure; bildet eine flüchtige wasserhelle ölartige Flüssigkeit von angenehmem Geruch u. süßlichem Geschmack, sein spec. Gewicht ist 2,13; man… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bromoform — (Tribrommethan, Formylbromid) CHBr3 entsteht bei Behandlung von Alkohol oder Aceton mit Brom und Alkalilauge oder Kalk, von Bromal mit Alkalien, bei Elektrolyse einer alkoholhaltigen Lösung von Bromkalium; farblose Flüssigkeit, spez. Gew. 2,833,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bromoform — Bromoform, s. Chloroform …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • bromoform — brȍmoform m DEFINICIJA kem. tribrommetan, CHBr3, bezbojna tekućina anestetskih svojstava kao kloroform, dobiva se djelovanjem broma i natrijeve lužine na alkohol ili aceton, služi u sintezi lijekova ETIMOLOGIJA v. brom + v. {{(kloro)form>> …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Bromoform — Strukturformel Allgemeines Name Bromoform Andere Namen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • bromoform — bromoformas statusas T sritis chemija formulė CHBr₃ atitikmenys: angl. bromoform rus. бромоформ ryšiai: sinonimas – tribrommetanas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • bromoform — /broh meuh fawrm /, n. Chem. a colorless, heavy liquid, CHBr3, used chiefly as an intermediate in organic synthesis. [1870 75; BROMO + (CHLORO)FORM] * * * …   Universalium

  • bromoform — noun The haloform CHBr that is the bromine analogue of chloroform. Syn: tribromomethane …   Wiktionary


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