Buk missile system


Buk missile system

Infobox Weapon
name= 9K37 Buk
NATO reporting name:
SA-11 Gadfly, SA-17 Grizzly


caption= 9K37 Buk ready to fire
origin= flagcountry|Soviet Union
type= Medium range SAM system
is_ranged=
is_bladed=
is_explosive=
is_artillery=
is_vehicle=yes
is_missile=
is_UK=yes
service= 1979- present
used_by=See list of present and former operator
wars= See combat service
designer= Almaz-Antey:: Tikhomirov NIIP (lead designer): Lyulev Novator (SA missile designer): DNPP (missiles): UMZ (TELARs): MZiK (TELs) [cite news|first=|last=|authorlink=|coauthors=|title= Big Russian flotilla led by Admiral Kuznetsov carrier heads for Syrian port|url=http://www.debka.com/headline.php?hid=5526|work= DEBKAfile|publisher=|date=August 21, 2008 |accessdate=2008-08-22 ]
MMZ (GM chassis)
design_date=
manufacturer=
unit_cost=
production_date=
number=
variants= 9K37, 9K37M, 9K37M1, 9K37M1-2, 9K37M2, 9K37M3
spec_label=
weight=
length=
part_length=
width=
height=
diameter=
crew=
armour=
primary_armament=
secondary_armament=
engine=
engine_power=
pw_ratio=
transmission=
payload_capacity=
suspension=
clearance=
wingspan=
propellant=
fuel_capacity=
vehicle_range=
ceiling=
altitude=
boost=
speed=
guidance=
steering=
accuracy=
launch_platform=
transport=
The Buk missile system ( _ru. "Бук"; _en. beech) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union and Russian Federation and designed to engage maneuverable fixed wing aircraft, helicopters, cruise and ballistic missilesFact|date=September 2007.

The Buk missile system is the successor to the NIIP/Vympel 2K12 Kub (NATO reporting name SA-6 "Gainful")Fact|date=September 2007. The first version of Buk adopted into service carried the GRAU designation 9K37 and was identified in the west with the NATO reporting name SA-11 "Gadfly". Since its initial introduction into service the Buk missile system has been continually upgraded and refined with the latest incarnation carrying the designation 9K37M2 "Buk-M2"cite web |url=http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070417/63769254.html |title=Russia to exhibit Buk-M2 air defense system at LAAD 2007 |accessdate=2008-08-20 |work=RIA Novosti |date=17-04-2007 ] .

Development

Development of the 9K37 "Buk" was started on the January 17 1972 at the request of the Central Committee of the CPSUcite web|url=http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk.htm|title=Зенитный ракетный комплекс 9К37 "Бук" (SA-11 Gadfly)|accessdate=2008-08-20|work=Vestnik PVO (Russian)|date=17-11-2004] . The development team comprised many of the same institutions that had been responsible for the development of the previous 2K12 "Kub" (NATO reporting name SA-6 "Gainful"). These included the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP) as the lead designer and the Novator design bureau who were responsible for the development of the missile armament. In addition to the land based missile system a similar system was to be produced for the naval forces, the result being the 3K90 "Uragan" ( _ru. "Ураган"; _en. hurricane) which carries the NATO reporting name SA-N-12 "Gadfly")Fact|date=August 2008.

The Buk missile system was designed to surpass the 2K12 Kub in all parameters and its designers including its chief designer Ardalion Rastov visited Egypt in 1971 to see Kub in operationcite web|url=http://milparade.udm.ru/27/126.htm|title=Chief Designer Ardalion Rastov|accessdate=2008-08-23|work=Military Parade|date=1998-08-31] . As a result of this visit the developers came to the conclusion that each Buk transporter erector launcher (TEL) should have its own fire control radar rather than being reliant on one central radar for the whole system as in Kub. The result of this move from TEL to transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) was a system able to engage multiple targets from multiple directions at the same time.

During development in 1974 it was identified that although the Buk missile system is the successor to the Kub missile system both systems could share some interoperability, the result of this decision was the 9K37-1 Buk-1 system. The advantage of interoperability between Buk TELAR and Kub TEL was an increase in the number of fire control channels and available missiles for each system as well as a faster service entry for Buk system components. The Buk-1 was adopted into service in 1978 following completion of state trails while the complete Buk missile system was accepted into service in 1980 after state trails took place between 1977 and 1979.

No sooner than the 9K37 "Buk" had started to enter service than the next phase of its development was put into operation, in 1979 the Central Committee of the CPSU authorised the development of a modernised 9K37-1 which would become the 9K37M1 Buk-M1, adopted into service in 1983. The modernisation improved the performance of the systems radars, kill probability and resistance to electronic countermeasures (ECM). Additionally a non-cooperative threat classification system was installed, allowing targets to be classified without IFF via analysis of return radar signals. The export version of Buk-M1 missile system is known as "Gang" ( _ru. "Ганг"; _en. Ganges) Fact|date=August 2008.

Another modification to the Buk missile system was started in 1992 with work carried out between 1994 and 1997 to produce the 9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2, which was accepted into service in in 1998cite web|url=http://www.niip.ru/main.php?page=raz_land_bukm|title=Зенитный ракетный комплекс "Бук-М1-2"|accessdate=2008-08-23|work=OJSC NIIP (Russian)|date=2005] . This modification introduced a new missile, the 9M317 which offered improved kinematic performance over the previous 9M38. The new missile as well as a variety of other improvements allowed the system to intercept ballistic missiles and surface targets as well as offering improved performance and engagement envelope against more traditional targets like aircraft and helicopters.

The Buk-M1-2 modernisation was based on a previous far more advanced developmental system referred to as the 9K37M2 Buk-M2. This modernisation not only featured new missiles but also included a new third generation phased array fire control radar allowing engagement of up to four targets while tracking a further 24. A new radar system was also developed which carried a fire control radar on a 24 meter extending boom, improving performance against targets flying at low altitudecite web|url=http://www.niip.ru/main.php?page=raz_land_ural|title=Зенитный ракетный комплекс "Бук-М2Э"|accessdate=2008-08-23|work=OJSC NIIP (Russian)|date=2005] . This new generation of Buk missile systems was stalled due to the poor economic conditions after the fall of the Soviet Union, however the system was recently presented as a static display at 2007 MAKS Airshow. The export version of the Buk-M2 missile system Buk-M2E is also known as Ural ( _ru. Урал; _en. Ural) Fact|date=August 2008.

Description

Missiles and guidance

Infobox Weapon
name=9М38


caption=9M317 surface-to-air missile the Buk-M2 quadruple launcher.
origin=flag|Soviet Union
type= Surface-to-air missile
is_ranged=
is_bladed=
is_explosive=
is_artillery=
is_vehicle=
is_missile=yes
is_UK=yes
service=
used_by=
designer=
design_date=
manufacturer=
unit_cost=
production_date=
number=
variants= 9М38, 9М38M1, 9M317
spec_label= 9М38
weight= 690 kg
length= 5.55 m
part_length=
width=
height=
diameter= 0.4 m
crew=
filling= Frag-HE
filling_weight= 70 kg
detonation= Radar proximity fuse
yield=
armour=
primary_armament=
secondary_armament=
engine=
engine_power=
pw_ratio=
transmission=
payload_capacity=
suspension=
clearance=
wingspan=
propellant= solid propellant rocket
fuel_capacity=
vehicle_range= convert|30|km|mi
ceiling=
altitude= convert|14000|m|ft
boost=
speed= Mach 3
guidance= Semi-active radar homing
steering=
accuracy=
launch_platform= 9K37 Buk:9А310 TELAR:9А39 TEL:9А38 TELAR9K37M1 Buk-M1:9A310M1 TELAR9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2:9A310M1-2 TELAR:9A39M1 TEL:9A39M1-2 TEL9K37M2/9K317 Buk-M2:9A317 TELAR:9A316 TEL
transport=
Each missile is 5.55 m (18 feet) long, weighs 690 kg (1521 lb) and carries a relatively large 70 kg (154 lb) warhead which is triggered by a radar proximity fuze. Propulsion is via a solid fuel rocket.

The following kill probabilities are claimed:
*0.6-0.9 against aircraft
*0.4-0.7 against helicoptersFact|date=February 2008
*0.4 against cruise missilesThe battery requires 5 minutes to set up before it is ready for engagement and can be ready for transit again in 5 minutes. Reaction time, from target tracking to missile launch, is 22 seconds.

9М38 missile

Surface-to-air missile 9M38 utilized the two-mode solid fuel engine with total time in action about 15 seconds. Rejection of a direct-flow engine type was explained by its instability on a large angle of attack and by a larger air resistance on a passive trajectory section as well as by some technical difficulties. Those difficulties already wrecked the plans to create the missile for Kub.

Engine combustion chamber was reinforced by metall.

General scheme is normal X-winged. It's exterior design was similar to the American Tartar and Standard SA missile series. The design was conforming to the strict naval dimension limitations, allowing to adapt the 9M38 missile for the Soviet Navy M-22 SAM system.

In the forward compartment of the missile a semi-active homing radar head, autopilot equipment, power source and a war piece is located. Homing method choosed was proportional navigation.

For the purpose of reduction the centering dispersion while in flight the combustion chamber is located closely to the center of a missile and it includes a longer gas pipe.

Missile has a single stage without any detachable parts.

The design of 9M38 ensures it's delivery to the army in a transport container 9Ya266 (9Я266) in a ready-to-fire condition as well as it's readiness without any inspection or technical regulation works for at least 10 years of service.

Some elements of the missile were compartible with the Kub's ЗM9, for example it's forward compartement diameter (33cm), which was lesser than the backward compartement diameter.

Specifications of 9М38

* Weight - 685 kg including 70 kg warhead
* Length - 5.5m
* Wingspan - 0,86 m
* Diameter - 40cm

9M317 missile

Unified multifunctional missile 9M317 (export designation 9M317E) can be used to hit the modern and perspective aerodynamic, ballistic, above-water and radiocontrast above-land targets within anti-air defence complexes of land and naval forces.

It was designed by OJSC Dolgoprudny Scientific Production Plant (DNPP) and passed the full cycle of ground and flight testing of different complexes and weapon systems.

It's testing included targets - analogue of tactical ballistic missiles, strategic cruise missiles, antiship missiles, tactical, strategic and army aircrafts and helicopters.

Missile was first used with Buk-M1-2 system of the land forces and Shtil-1 system of naval forces.

Currently, several modernized versions are in development, including the 9M317M, it's export version 9M317ME and the active radar homing (ARH) missile project 9M317A with its export version 9M317MAE. They were scheduled for completion in two years since May 2007. [ru icon [http://www.oboronregistr.ru/DNPP/1-07/Doc8.doc Отчет ОАО «Долгопрудненское научно-производственное предприятие» об итогах работы в 2006 году] (Financing statement of the OJSC Dolgoprudny Scientific Production Plant about the balance of the work in 2006, Affirmed by the Board of Directors Protocol No. 14), May 23, 2007] The lead developer NIIP also reported about the 9M317A missile testing within Buk-M1-2 "OKR Vskhod" program in 2005. [ru icon [http://www.niip.ru/News/corp/docs/FinOtchet05.pdf Годовой отчет «ОАО НИИ Приборостроения им. В.В. Тихомирова» за 2005 год] (Annual statement of the OJSC Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design in 2005)]

pecifications of 9M317

* Weight - 715 kg
* Length - 5.55 m
* Caliber - 0,4 m
* Wingspan - 0,86 m
* Maximum target speed - 1200 m/s
* Maximum constructive allowable acceleration overload - 24

Missiles comparison

9К37 Buk hierarchy

* Upper level CP (PBU of the brigade) from the structure of ASU Polyana-D4
** 4 x zrdn (zenith-rocket division)
*** CP 9S470
*** SOTs 9S18 Kupol
** 3 x zrbat (zenith-rocket battery)
*** 2 x TELAR 9А310
*** 1 x TEL 9А39
** Technical service division
** Сommunication service platoon

2K12M4 Kub-M4 (9К37-1 Buk-1)

* 1 x SURN 1S91M3 (from the structure of 2K12M3 Kub-M3)
* 4 x TEL 2P25M3 (from the structure of 2K12M3 Kub-M3)
* 1 x TELAR 9A38 (from the structure of 9К37 Buk)

9К37M1 Buk-M1 (Ganges)

Technical service division

* 9V95M1E - mobile automatized control and test station vehicle based on a ZiL-131 with a trailer
* 9V883, 9V884, 9V894 - repair and technical service vehicles based on Ural-43203-1012
* 9V881E - technical service workshop based on Ural-43203-1012
* 9T229 - transporter vehicle for 8 missiles or 6 containers with missiles based on a KrAZ-255Б
* 9T31M - autocrane
* MTO-ATG-M1 - technical service workshop based on ZiL-131

9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2 (Ural)

A command post vehicle 9S470M1-2 may took control over 4 batteries, each has 1 TELAR 9A310M1-2 with 1 x TEL 9A39M1/9A39M1-2 or 2 batteries, each has 1 target acquisition radar 9S18М1-1 and 2 x TELs 9A39M1

Additionally, the TELAR 9A310M1-2 may took control over the Kub vehicles - just the TEL 2P25 or the SURN 1S91 with a TEL 2P25.

Technical service division

* Technical service vehicle MTO 9V881M1-2 with a trailer ZIP 9T456
* Technical service workshop MTO AGZ-M1
* Technical service and maintenance vehicles MRTO: MRTO-1 9V883M1, MRTO-2 9V884M1, MRTO-3 9V894M1
* transport vehicle (TM) 9T243 with a technological equipment set KTO 9T3184
* automated control and test mobile station AKIPS 9V95M1
* workshop vehicle for the missile maintenance 9T458
* unified compressor station UKS-400V
* mobile power plant PES-100-T/400-AKP1

9K37M2/9K317 Buk-M2

There was an experimental 9А320 TEL (with 8 missiles).

Some works were conducted to utilize a wheeled vehicles for Buk-M2-1 on a KrAZ-260 chassis, but they were not completed. Proposed structure of Buk-M2-1 was the 9S512 CP, 9S112-1 TAR, 9S36-1 TAR and 9А318 TEL with 8 missiles.ru icon [http://emba.ucoz.ru/publ/2-1-0-14 History of the testings on Emba firing range] ]

Related Weapons

It has been suggested that the Novator KS-172 AAM-L, an extremely-long range air-to-air missile and possible anti-satellite weapon, is a derivative of the 9M38.

Versions

* In May on the MILEX-2005 exposition in Minsk Belarus presented their own modification of 9K37 Buk called Buk-MB. [http://www.charter97.org/eng/news/2005/10/11/buk Army prepares to test upgraded BUK missile system] , Charter'97, 11.10.2005]
* The 3K90 M-22 Uragan' (Russian Ураган – "hurricane") is the naval version of the Buk and has the NATO reporting name SA-N-7. The export version of this system is known as "Shtil" (Russian Штиль – "still").
* 9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2 is a later redevelopment of 9К37M1 Buk-M1. The SA-17 Grizzly/SA-N-12 is the next generation Buk system (Buk-M2).
* 9K37M2 Buk-M2 (NATO codename: SA-17 Grizzly/SA-N-12) is a latter generation of Buk complex.
*The naval version of the 9K37M1-2 system has a NATO reporting name of SA-N-12. It was supposed to be installed on Soviet Ulyanovsk-class nuclear aircraft carriers, and has been retrofitted to the Sovremenny class destroyer.
*The HQ-16 (Hongqi-16) is a joint PROC/Russian project to upgrade the 9K37M1-2 system even further.
*The export version of the 9K37M1-2 system is called "Ural" (Russian Урал - "Urals")

Operators

;flag|Abkhazia;BLR : 12 batteriescite web |url=http://www8.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/yb/jlad/jlad0109.htm |title=Tikhomirov Instrument Research Institute 9K37 Buk (SA-11 'Gadfly') low to high-altitude surface-to-air missile system |accessdate=2008-08-04 |date=2008-03-20 |publisher=Jane's Information Group ] ;CYP: Cyprus operates 3 batteries;EGY Egyptian Air Defense Command (12 batteries);FIN : 3 batteries (9+9 firing units);GEO : 15 units [ [http://disarmament.un.org/UN_REGISTER.NSF UN Register of Conventional Arms 2007] ] ;RUS : 250;SYR : ;UKR :;IDN : Indonesia has shown interest in the system.Fact|date=August 2008

Former Operators

;USSR

Combat Service

Abkhaz authorities claimed that Buk air defense system was used to shoot down four Georgian drones at the beginning of May 2008. [http://www.geotimes.ge/index.php?m=home&newsid=10615 SA-11 'Gadfly' Used to Down Georgian Drones] - Abkhaz FM, Civil Georgia, 2008.05.06]

Russia has said that Georgian Buk and Tor missile systems were responsible for downing four Russian aircraft, 3 Su-25s fighters and 1 Tu-22 strategic bomber in the 2008 South Ossetia war [ [http://www.aviation.com/technology/080818-russia-georgia-air-war.html War Reveals Russia's Military Might and Weakness] ] [http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htada/articles/20080814.aspx Russia Takes A Beating Over Georgia] , StrategyWorld.com] U.S. officials have said Georgia's SA-11 Buk-1M was certainly the cause of the Tu-22M Backfire bomber's loss and contributed to the losses of the 3 Su-25s fighters. [ [http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_generic.jsp?channel=awst&id=news/aw081808p2.xml&headline=Georgian%20Military%20Folds%20Under%20Russian%20Attack] ] According to some analysts, the loss of four aircraft is suprising and a heavy toll for Russia given the small size of Georgia's military. [ [http://www.aviation.com/technology/080818-russia-georgia-air-war.html] ] [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSLK23804020080820?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=0] ] Some have also pointed out, that Russian electronic counter-measures systems were apparently unable to jam and suppress enemy SAMs in the conflict [ [http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20080909/116657490.html] ] and that Russia was, suprisingly, unable to come up with effective countermeasures against missile systems they had designed. [ [http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htada/articles/20080814.aspx] ]

References

ources

* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/missile/row/sa-11.htm SA-11 Gadfly] on Federation of American Scientists website
* [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/buk.htm SA-11 Gadfly] on Astronautix
* [http://www.wonderland.org.nz/rasa.htm Buk] on Wonderland.org.nz
* [http://milparade.udm.ru/29/066.htm Buk-M1-2 air defense missile system has no equals in terms of combat employment] , Yevgeny Pigin, Gennady Kaufman, Military Parade, 1998.
* [http://warfare.ru/?catid=264&linkid=1690 SA-11 Gadfly / 9K37M1 Buk-M1] at warfare.ru
* [http://www.enemyforces.com/missiles/buk.htm Buk SA-11 Gadfly. Prospects for Buk-M1-2 air defense missile system] at enemyforces.com

armada

* [http://www.armada.ch/02-4/complete_02-4.pdf Launch, Intercept, Destroy – Land-based Air Defence] (PDF, 460K)
* [http://www.armada.ch/04-2/complete_04-2.pdf Keeping the Skies Clear] (PDF, 2.5K)

Russian sources

Vestnik PVO

*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk.htm 9К37-1 Buk-1 (SA-11 Gadfly)]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_01.htm TELAR 9A38]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_1.htm 9К37 Buk (SA-11 Gadfly)]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_11.htm CP 9S470]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_12.htm SURN 9S18 Kupol (NATO classification - Tube Arm)]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_13.htm TELAR 9A310]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_14.htm TEL 9A39]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_2.htm Buk-M1 (export name - Gang)]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_3.htm Buk-M1-2 (export name - Ural)]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_4.htm Comparison table of technical specifications of Buk, Buk-M1, Buk-M1-2]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_5.htm Closing article for Buk]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/foto/foto_buk_finn.htm Photos of Buk-M1 in Finnish Army]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/naval/m22.htm M-22 Uragan (SA-N-7 Gadfly)]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/buk/buk_02.htm 9M38]
*ru icon [http://pvo.guns.ru/naval/m22_9m317.htm 9M317]


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