Citicoline


Citicoline
Citicoline
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5'-O-[hydroxy({hydroxy[2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy]
phosphoryl}oxy)phosphoryl]cytidine
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status  ?
Identifiers
CAS number 987-78-0 33818-15-4
ATC code N06BX06
PubChem CID 13805
ChemSpider 16736209 YesY
UNII 536BQ2JVC7 YesY
KEGG D00057 YesY
Synonyms Cytidine diphosphate choline
Chemical data
Formula C14H27N4O11P2+
Mol. mass 489.332 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
 YesY(what is this?)  (verify)

Citicoline (INN), also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline) & cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine is a psychostimulant/nootropic. It is an intermediate in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from choline. Sold in over 70 countries under a variety of brand names: Ceraxon, Cognizin, NeurAxon, Somazina etc.

Studies suggest that CDP-choline supplements increase dopamine receptor densities,[1] and suggest that CDP-choline supplementation can ameliorate memory impairment caused by environmental conditions.[2] Preliminary research has found that citicoline supplements help improve focus and mental energy and may possibly be useful in the treatment of attention deficit disorder.[3][4] Citicoline has also been shown to elevate ACTH independent of CRH levels and to amplify the release of other HPA axis hormones such as LH, FSH, GH and TSH in response to hypothalamic releasing factors.[5] These effects on HPA hormone levels may be beneficial for some individuals but, may have undesirable effects in those with medical conditions featuring ACTH or cortisol hypersecretion including, but not limited to, PCOS, type II diabetes and major depressive disorder.[6][7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J (November 1991). "Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice". British Journal of Pharmacology 104 (3): 575–8. PMC 1908237. PMID 1839138. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1908237. 
  2. ^ Teather LA, Wurtman RJ (2005). "Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats". Learning & Memory 12 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1101/lm.83905. PMC 548494. PMID 15647594. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=548494. 
  3. ^ "Supplement naturally boosts ageing brain power". Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-02-25. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2008/02/24/1203788130776.html. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  4. ^ Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al. (November 2008). "Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy". NMR in Biomedicine 21 (10): 1066–75. doi:10.1002/nbm.1281. PMID 18816480. 
  5. ^ Cavun S, Savci V (October 2004). "CDP-choline increases plasma ACTH and potentiates the stimulated release of GH, TSH and LH: the cholinergic involvement". Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology 18 (5): 513–23. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2004.00272.x. PMID 15482372. 
  6. ^ Benson S, Arck PC, Tan S, et al. (June 2009). "Disturbed stress responses in women with polycystic ovary syndrome". Psychoneuroendocrinology 34 (5): 727–35. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.12.001. PMID 19150179. 
  7. ^ Florio P, Zatelli MC, Reis FM, degli Uberti EC, Petraglia F (2007). "Corticotropin releasing hormone: a diagnostic marker for behavioral and reproductive disorders?". Frontiers in Bioscience 12: 551–60. doi:10.2741/2081. PMID 17127316.