- Late Modernism
Late Modernism encompasses the overall production of most recent art made between the aftermath of
World War IIand the early years of the 21st century. The terminology often points to similarities between late modernism and post-modernism although there are differences. The predominant term for art produced since the 1950s is Contemporary Art. Not all art labelled as contemporary art is modernist or post-modern, and the broader term encompasses both artists who continue to work in modern and late modernist traditions, as well as artists who reject modernism for post-modernism or other reasons. Arthur Dantoargues explicitly in "After the End of Art" that contemporaneity was the broader term, and that postmodern objects represent a subsector of the contemporary movement which replaced modernity and modernism, while other notable critics: Hilton Kramer, ["The Citadel of Modernism Falls to Deconstructionists," - 1992 critical essay, The Triumph of Modernism, 2006, Hilton Kramer, pp218-221.] Robert C. Morgan, Kirk Varnedoe, ["Man of his words: Pepe Karmel on Kirk Varnedoe - Passages" - Critical Essay Artforum, Nov, 2003 by Pepe Karmel] , Jean-François Lyotardand others have argued that postmodern objects are at best relative to modernist works.
The jargon which encompasses the two terms "Late Modernism" and "
Postmodern art" is used to denote what may be considered as the ultimate phase of modern art, as artat the end of modernismor as certain tendencies of contemporary art. There are those who argue against a division into modern and postmodernperiods. Not all critics agree that the stage called modernism is over or even near the end. There is no agreement that all art after modernism is post-modern. Contemporary Artis the more-widely used term to denote work since roughly 1960, though it has many other uses as well. Nor is post-modern art universally separated from modernism, with many critics seeing it as merely another phase in Modern artor as another form of late Modernism.
As with all uses of the term post-modern there are critics of its application, however, at this point, these critics are in the minority. ["The Citadel of Modernism Falls to Deconstructionists," - 1992 critical essay, The Triumph of Modernism, 2006,
Hilton Kramer, pp218-221.] This is not to say that the phase of art denoted by post-modernism is accepted, merely that the need for a term to describe movements in art after the peak of Abstract Expressionismis well established. [ [http://www.sharecom.ca/greenberg/postmodernism.html Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism] , seventh paragraph of the essay. URL accessed on June 15, 2006] However although the concept of change has come to consensus, and whether it is a post-modernist change, or a late modernist period, is undetermined, the consensus is that a profound change in the perception of works of art has occurred and a new era has been emerging on the world stage since at least the 1960s.
Differences between Late Modernism and Post Modernism
Late modernism describes movements which both arise from, and react against, trends in
modernismand reject some aspect of modernism, while fully developing the conceptual potentiality of the modernist enterprise. [The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), "Part I, "Modernist Myths," pp.8-171] In some descriptions post-modernism as a period in art is completed, where as in others it is a continuing movement in Contemporary art. In art, the specific traits of modernism which are cited are generally formal purity, medium specificity, art for art's sake, the possibility of authenticity in art, the importance or even possibility of universal truth in art, and the importance of an avant-garde and originality. This last point is one of particular controversy in art, where many institutions argue that being visionary, forward looking, cutting edge and progressive are crucial to the mission of art in the present, and that postmodern therefore, represents a contradiction of the value of "art of our times".
One compact definition offered is that while post-modernism acts in rejection of modernism's grand narratives of artistic direction, and to eradicate the boundaries between high and low forms of art, to disrupt genre and its conventions with collision, collage and fragmentation. Post-modern art is seen as believing that all stances are unstable and insincere, and therefore irony, parody and humor are the only positions which cannot be overturned by critique or later events.
Many of these traits are present in modern movements in art, particularly the rejection of the separation between high and low forms of art. However, these traits are considered fundamental to post-modern art, as opposed to merely present in one degree or another. One of the most important points of difference, however, between post-modernism, and modernism, as movements in art, is modernism's ultimately progressive stance that new works be more "forward looking" and advanced, where as post-modern movements generally reject the notion that there can be advancement or progress in art per se, and thus one of the projects of art must be the overturning of the "myth of the
avant-garde". This relates to the negation of what post-structuralist philosophers call " metanarratives". Rosalind Krausswas one of the important annunciators of the view that avant-gardism was over, and that the new artistic era existed in a post-liberal and post-progress normalcy. [The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), "Part I, "Modernist Myths," pp.8-171, Part II, "Toward Post-Modernism," pp. 196-291.] An example of this viewpoint is explained by Robert Hughes in "The Shock of the New" ["The Shock of the New" Robert Hughes, Publisher: Knopf; Revised edition (August 13, 1991),] in his chapter "The Future That Was":
QuoteAs with all uses of the term postmodern there are critics of its application.
Where did this new academy begin? At its origins the "avant-garde" myth had held the artist to be a precursor; the significant work is the one that prepares the future. The cult of the precursor ended by cluttering the landscape with absurd prophetic claims. The idea of a cultural "avant-garde" was unimaginable before 1800. It was fostered by the rise of
liberalism. Where the taste of religious or secular courts determined patronage, "subversive" innovation was not esteemed as a sign of artistic quality. Nor was the artist's autonomy, that would come with the Romantics.
Robert Hughes|"The Shock of the New" [citation
last=Hughes | first=Robert | author-link=Robert Hughes (critic) | year=1991 | date=August 13, 1991 | chapter=The Future That Was | title=The Shock of the New | publisher=Knopf | edition=Revised]
Kirk Varnedoe, for instance, stated that there is no such thing as postmodernism, and that the possibilities of modernism have not yet been exhausted. [William R. Everdell, "The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-century Thought", University of Chicago Press, 1997, p4. ISBN 0226224805 ] These critics are currently in the minority. ["The Citadel of Modernism Falls to Deconstructionists," - 1992 critical essay, The Triumph of Modernism, 2006, Hilton Kramer, pp218-221.] Hilton Kramerdescribes postmodernism as "a creation of modernism at the end of its tether." [Quoted in Oliver Bennett, "Cultural Pessimism: Narratives of Decline in the Postmodern World", Edinburgh University Press, 2001, p131. ISBN 0748609369 ] Jean-François Lyotard, in Frederic Jameson's analysis, does not hold that there is a postmodern stage radically different from the period of high modernism; instead, postmodern discontent with this or that high modernist style is part of the experimentation of high modernism, giving birth to new modernisms. [Frederic Jameson, "Foreword" to Jean-François Lyotard, "The Postmodern Condition", Manchester University Press, 1997, pxvi. ISBN 0719014506]
Radical movements in Modern Art
Radical movements in Modernism, radical movements in Modern art, and radical trends regarded as influential and potentially as precursors to late modernism and postmodernism emerged around
World War Iand particularly in its aftermath. With the introduction of the use of industrial artifacts in art, movements such as Cubism, Dadaand Surrealismas well as techniques such as collageand artforms such as cinema and the rise of reproductionas a means of creating artworks. Both Pablo Picassothe Modernistand Marcel Duchampthe rebel created important and influential works from found objects.
Fauvism, Cubism, Dada, Surrealism as the precedent
In the early 20th century, following
Henri Matisseand Andre Derain's impact as Fauvist painters and Pablo Picassoand Georges Braque's monumental innovations and the worldwide success of Cubismand the emboldening of the avant-garde, Marcel Duchampexhibited a urinal as a sculpture. His point was to have people look at the urinal as if it were a work of art, because he said it was a work of art. He referred to his work as "Readymades." The "Fountain", was a urinal signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, that shocked the art world in 1917. This and Duchamp's other works are generally labelled as Dada.
Dadaism can be viewed as part of the modernist propensity to challenge established styles and forms, along with
Surrealism, Futurismand Abstract Expressionism. [Simon Malpas, "The Postmodern", Routledge, 2005. p17. ISBN 0415280648 ] From a chronological point of view Dada is located solidly within modernism, however a number of critics have held that it anticipates postmodernism, while others, such as Ihab Hassanand Steven Connor, consider it a possible changeover point between modernism and postmodernism. [Mark A. Pegrum, "Challenging Modernity: Dada Between Modern and Postmodern", Berghahn Books, 2000, pp2-3. ISBN 1571811303 ] Fauvismand Henri Matissein particular became an important influence on both Abstract Expressionismand Color Field painting, important milestones of Late Modernism. "The Dance" is commonly recognized as "a key point of Matisse's career and in the development of modern painting". [Russell T. Clement. "Four French Symbolists". Greenwood Press, 1996. Page 114.] With its large expanse of blue, simplicity of design and emphasis on pure feeling the painting was enormously influential to American artists who viewed it at MoMAin New York City.
High art and culture
The ignition point for the definition of modernism as a movement was the austere rejection of popular culture as
kitschby important post-war artists and taste-makers, most notably Clement Greenbergwith his essay " Avant-Garde and Kitsch", first published in " Partisan Review" in 1939. [" [http://www.sharecom.ca/greenberg/kitsch.html Avant-Garde and Kitsch] "] During the 1940s and 1950s Greenberg proved to be an articulate and powerful art critic. In particular his writing on American Abstract expressionism, and 20th century European modernism persuasively made the case for High art and culture. In 1961 "Art and Culture", Beacon Press, a highly influential collection of essays by Clement Greenbergwas first published. Greenberg is primarily thought of as a formalist art criticand many of his most important essays are crucial to the understanding of Modern arthistory, and the history of Modernismand Late Modernism. [ [http://www.sharecom.ca/greenberg/postmodernism.html Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism] , URL accessed on June 15, 2006]
Jackson Pollock, Abstract expressionism
During the late 1940s Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all
Contemporary artthat followed him. To some extent Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubismand constructed sculpture, Pollock redefined the way art gets made at the mid-century point. Pollock's move - away from easel painting and conventionality - was a liberating signal to his contemporaneous artists and to all that came after. Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process - working on the floor, unstretched raw canvas, from all four sides, using artist materials, industrial materials, imagery, non-imagery, throwing linear skeins of paint, dripping, drawing, staining, brushing, essentially blasted artmaking beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionismin general expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities that artists had available for the creation of new works of art. In a sense the innovations of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardtand others opened the floodgates to the diversity and scope of all the art that followed them.
Neo-Dada, Collage, Assemblage
Abstract expressionismwas the emergence of combined manufactured items - with artist materials, moving away from previous conventions of painting and sculpture. This trend in art is exemplified by the work of Robert Rauschenberg, whose "combines" in the 1950s were forerunners of Pop Art and Installation art, and made use of the assemblage of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photography. Leo Steinberguses the term postmodernism in 1969 to describe Rauschenberg's "flatbed" picture plane, containing a range of cultural images and artifacts that had not been compatible with the pictorial field of premodernist and modernist painting. [Douglas Crimp in Hal Foster (ed), "Postmodern Culture", Pluto Press, 1985 (first published as "The Anti-Aesthetic", 1983). p44. ISBN 0745300030 ] Craig Owensgoes further, identifying the significance of Rauschenberg's work not as a representation of, in Steinberg's view, "the shift from nature to culture", but as a demonstration of the impossibility of accepting their opposition. [Craig Owens, "Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power, and Culture", London and Berkeley: University of California Press (1992), pp74-75.] Steven Bestand Douglas Kellneridentify Rauschenberg and Jasper Johnsas part of the transitional phase, influenced by Marcel Duchamp, between modernism and postmodernism. Both used images of ordinary objects, or the objects themselves, in their work, while retaining the abstraction and painterly gestures of high modernism. [Steven Best, Douglas Kellner, "The Postmodern Turn", Guilford Press, 1997, p174. ISBN 1572302216 ]
Abstract painting and sculpture in the 1960s and 1970s
In abstract painting and sculpture during the 1950s and 1960s
Geometric abstractionemerged as an important direction in the works of many sculptors and painters. In painting Color field painting, Minimalism, Hard-edge paintingand Lyrical Abstraction[Ratcliff, Carter. The New Informalists, Art News, v. 68, n. 8, December 1969, p.72.] constituted radical new directions. [ Barbara Rose. "American Painting. Part Two: The Twentieth Century". Published by Skira - Rizzoli, New York, 1969] [ Walter Darby Bannard. "Notes on American Painting of the Sixties." "Artforum", January 1970, vol. 8, no. 5, pp.40-45.] Helen Frankenthaler, Morris Louis, Frank Stella, Ellsworth Kelly, David Smith, Sir Anthony Caro, Mark di Suvero, Gene Davis, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Isaac Witkin, Anne Truitt, Kenneth Snelson, Al Held, Ronald Davis, [Michael Fried. "Ronald Davis: Surface and Illusion." Artforum, vol. 5, no. 8. April, 1967. pp. 37-41, Cover Illus.: Six-Ninths Blue, 1966] Howard Hodgkin, Larry Poons, Brice Marden, Robert Mangold, Walter Darby Bannard, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Charles Hinman, Sam Gilliam, Peter Reginato, were some of the artists whose works characterized abstract painting and sculpture in the 1960s. [Aldrich, Larry. Young Lyrical Painters, Art in America, v.57, n6, November-December 1969, pp.104-113.] Lyrical Abstractionshares similarities with Color Field Paintingand Abstract Expressionismespecially in the freewheeling usage of paint - texture and surface. Direct drawing, calligraphic use of line, the effects of brushed, splattered, stained, squeegeed, poured, and splashed paint superficially resemble the effects seen in Abstract Expressionismand Color Field Painting. However the styles are markedly different. Setting it apart from Abstract Expressionismand Action Paintingof the 1940s and 1950s is the approach to composition and drama. As seen in Action Paintingthere is an emphasis on brushstrokes, high compositional drama, dynamic compositional tension. While in Lyrical Abstraction there is a sense of compositional randomness, all over composition, low key and relaxed compositional drama and an emphasis on process, repetition, and an all over sensibility.During the 1960s and 1970s artists as powerful and influential as Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb, Phillip Guston, Lee Krasner, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Richard Diebenkorn, Josef Albers, Elmer Bischoff, Agnes Martin, Al Held, Sam Francis, Ellsworth Kelly, Morris Louis, Helen Frankenthaler, Gene Davis, Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Joan Mitchell, Friedel Dzubas, and younger artists like Brice Marden, Robert Mangold, Sam Gilliam, Sean Scully, Elizabeth Murray, Larry Poons, Walter Darby Bannard, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Ronald Davis, Dan Christensen, Joan Snyder, Ross Bleckner, Archie Rand, Richard Saba, Susan Crile, and dozens of others continued to produce vital and influential paintings.
Minimalism and post-minimalism
By the early 1960s
Minimalismemerged as an abstract movement in art (with roots in geometric abstractionvia Malevich, the Bauhausand Mondrian). Important artists who emerged as pioneers of Minimalisminclude Frank Stella, Larry Bell, Ad Reinhardt, Agnes Martin, Barnett Newman, Donald Judd, Tony Smith, Carl Andre, Robert Smithson, Sol Lewitt, Dan Flavin, Robert Mangold, Robert Morris, and Ronald Bladenamong others. These artists also frequently employed shaped canvases, as in the example by Richard Tuttleshown at right. Minimal artrejected the idea of relational, and subjective painting, the complexity of Abstract expressionistsurfaces, and the emotional zeitgeist and polemics present in the arena of Action painting. Minimalismargued that extreme simplicity could capture all of the sublime representation needed in art. Associated with painters such as Frank Stella, minimalism in painting and sculpture, as opposed to other areas, is a late modernist movement and depending on the context can be construed as a precursor to the post modern movement.
Hal Foster, in his essay "The Crux of Minimalism", examines the extent to which Donald Judd and Robert Morris both acknowledge and exceed Greenbergian modernism in their published definitions of minimalism. [Hal Foster, "The Return of the Real: The Avant-garde at the End of the Century", MIT Press, 1996, pp44-53. ISBN 0262561077] He argues that minimalism is not a "dead end" of modernism, but a "paradigm shift toward postmodern practices that continue to be elaborated today."
In the late 1960s the term
Post-minimalismwas coined by Robert Pincus-Wittento describe minimalist derived art which had content and contextual overtones which minimalism rejected, and was applied to the work of Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serraand new work by former minimalists Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, Sol Lewitt, and Barry Le Va, and others. ["Movers and Shakers, New York", "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, " Art+Auction", March 2007, V.XXXNo7.] Rosalind Kraussargues that by 1968 artists such as Morris, LeWitt, Smithson and Serra had "entered a situation the logical conditions of which can no longer be described as modernist."The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), "Sculpture in the Expanded Field" pp.287] The expansion of the category of sculpture to include land artand architecture, "brought about the shift into postmodernism." [The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), "Sculpture in the Expanded Field" (1979). pp.290]
Donald Judd, Dan Flavin, Carl Andre, Agnes Martin, John McCrackenand others continued to produce their late modernistpaintings and sculpture for the remainder of their careers.
By the late 1960s however,
Process Artemerged as a revolutionary concept and movement that encompassed painting and sculpture, via Lyrical Abstractionand the Postminimalistmovement, and in early Conceptual Art. Eva Hesse, Robert Smithson, Walter De Maria, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serra, Nancy Graves, Jannis Kounellis, Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, Mel Bochner, Hannah Wilke, Lynda Benglis, Robert Morris, Sol Lewitt, Barry Le Va, Michael Heizer, Lawrence Weiner, Joseph Kosuth, and Alan Saret, were some of the Process artists that emerged during the 1960s. Process art as inspired by Pollock enabled artists to experiment with and make use of a diverse encyclopedia of style, content, material, placement, sense of time, scale, size, and plastic and real space. [Source: http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/glossary_Process_art.html (accessed: Thursday, March 15, 2007)]
The term "Pop Art" was used by
Lawrence Allowayto describe paintings that celebrated consumerismof the post World War IIera. [Topics in American Art since 1945, " Pop Artthe words", p.119-122, by Lawrence Alloway, copyright 1975 by W.W.Norton and Company, NYC ISBN 0-393-04401-7] This movement rejected Abstract expressionismand its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior, in favor of art which depicted, and often celebrated material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass production age. The early works of David Hockneyand the works of Richard Hamilton, John McHale, and Eduardo Paolozziwere considered seminal examples in the movement. While later American examples include the bulk of the careers of Andy Warholand Roy Lichtensteinand his use of Benday dots, a technique used in commercial reproduction. There is a clear connection between the radical works of Duchamp, the rebellious Dadaist - with a sense of humor; and Pop Artists like Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtensteinand the others.
Pop Artand Minimalismbegan as modernist movements, a shift in the paradigm and a philosophical split between formalism and anti-formalism in the early 1970s caused those movements to be viewed by some as precursors, or transitioning to postmodern art. Other modern movements cited as influential to postmodern art are Conceptual art, Dadaand Surrealismand the use of techniques such as assemblage, montage, collage, bricolageand art forms which used recording or reproduction as the basis for artworks. There are differing opinions as to the whether Pop Artis a Late modernist movement or is Postmodern. Thomas McEvilly, agreeing with Dave Hickey, says that postmodernism in the visual arts began with the first exhibitions of pop art in 1962, "though it took about twenty years before postmodernism became a dominant attitude in the visual arts." Thomas McEvilly in Richard Roth, Jean Dubuffet, Susan King, "Beauty Is Nowhere: Ethical Issues in Art and Design", Routledge, 1998. p29. ISBN 9057013118 ] Frederic Jameson, too, considers pop art to be postmodern. [Frederick Jameson in Hal Foster, "Postmodern Culture", Pluto Press, 1985 (first published as "The Anti-Aesthetic", 1983). p111. ISBN 0745300030 ]
One way that Pop art is postmodern is that it breaks down what
Andreas Huyssencalls the "Great Divide" between high art and popular culture. [Simon Malpas, "The Postmodern", Routledge, 2005. p20. ISBN 0415280648] Postmodernism emerges out of a "generational refusal of the categorical certainties of high modernism." [Stuart Sim, "The Routledge Companion to Postmodernism", Routledge, 2001. p148. ISBN 0415243076 ] Although to presuppose that Modernismstands for "high art" only, and is in any way certain as to what constitutes "high" art is to profoundly and basically misunderstand modernism.
Performance art, and Happenings
160pxDuring the late 1950s and 1960s artists with a wide range of interests began to push the boundaries of
Contemporary art. Yves Kleinin France, and Carolee Schneemann, Yayoi Kusama, Charlotte Moorman, and Yoko Onoin New York Citywere pioneers of performance based works of art. Groups like The Living Theaterwith Julian Beckand Judith Malinacollaborated with sculptors and painters creating environments; radically changing the relationship between audience and performer especially in their piece "Paradise Now". The Judson Dance Theaterlocated at the Judson Memorial Church, New York, and the Judson dancers, notably Yvonne Rainer, Trisha Brown, Elaine Summers, Sally Gross, Simonne Forti, Deborah Hay, Lucinda Childs, Steve Paxtonand others collaborated with artists Robert Morris, Robert Whitman, John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and engineers like Billy Klüver. These performances were often designed to be the creation of a new art form, combining sculpture, dance, and music or sound, often with audience participation. The works were characterized by the reductive philosophies of minimalism, and the spontaneous improvisation, and expressivity of Abstract expressionism.
During the same period - the late 1950s through the mid 1960s various
avant-gardeartists created Happenings. Happenings were mysterious and often spontaneous and unscripted gatherings of artists and their friends and relatives in varied specified locations. Often incorporating exercises in absurdity, physical exercise, costumes, spontaneous nudity, and various random and seemingly disconnected acts. Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Red Grooms, and Robert Whitmanamong others were notable creators of Happenings.
Fluxus was named and loosely organized in 1962 by
George Maciunas(1931-78), a Lithuanian-born American artist. Fluxus traces its beginnings to John Cage's 1957 to 1959 Experimental Composition classes at the New School for Social Researchin New York City. Many of his students were artists working in other media with little or no background in music. Cage's students included Fluxus founding members Jackson Mac Low, Al Hansen, George Brechtand Dick Higgins.
Fluxus encouraged a do it yourself aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like
Dadabefore it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-artsensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. Fluxus artists preferred to work with whatever materials were at hand, and either created their own work or collaborated in the creation process with their colleagues. Andreas Huyssencriticises attempts to claim Fluxus for postmodernism as, "either the master-code of postmodernism or the ultimately unrepresentable art movement – as it were, postmodernism's sublime." [Andreas Huyssen, "Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia", Routledge, 1995. p192. ISBN 0415909341] Instead he sees Fluxus as a major Neo-Dadaist phenomena within the avant-garde tradition. It did not represent a major advance in the development of artistic strategies, though it did express a rebellion against, "the administered culture of the 1950s, in which a moderate, domesticated modernism served as ideological prop to the Cold War." [Andreas Huyssen, "Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia", Routledge, 1995. p196. ISBN 0415909341]
High and Low
As a kind of response to
Clement Greenberg's " Avant-Garde and Kitsch" [ Clement Greenberg, "Art and Culture," Beacon Press, 1961] in 1990 Kirk Varnedoeand Adam Gopnikcurated "High and Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture", at New York's Museum of Modern Art. The exhibition attempted to elucidate the extent that artists and high culture drew on and from popular culture. Although universally panned at the time as the only event that could bring Douglas Crimp and Hilton Kramer together in a chorus of scorn. ["Kirk Varnedoe, 1946-2003" - Front Page - Obituary - Art in America, Oct, 2003 by Marcia E. Vetrocq] The exhibition is remembered today as a benchmark of the conflict between late modernism and postmodernism.
Movements associated with Postmodern art
Conceptual artbecame an important development in Contemporary art in the late 1960s, It delivered an influential critique on the status quo. Late modernism expanded and contracted during the late 1960s and for some, Conceptual art made a complete break with modernism. Sometimes it is labelled as postmodern because it is expressly involved in deconstructionof what makes a work of art, "art". Conceptual art, because it is often designed to confront, offend or attack notions held by many of the people who view it, is regarded with particular controversy. Duchamp can be seen as a precursor to conceptual art. Thus, because "Fountain" was exhibited, it was a sculpture. Marcel Duchampfamously gave up "art" in favor of chess. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Duchamp] Avant-garde composer David Tudorcreated a piece, "Reunion" (1968), written jointly with Lowell Cross that features a chess game, where each move triggers a lighting effect or projection. At the premiere, the game was played between John Cageand Marcel Duchamp. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Tudor] Some other famous examples being John Cage's 4' 33" which is four minutes and thirty three seconds of silence and Rauschenberg's "Erased De KooningDrawing". Many conceptual works take the position that art is created by the viewer viewing an object or act as art, not from the intrinsic qualities of the work itself.
An important series of movements in art which have consistently been described as postmodern involved
installation artand creation of artifacts that are conceptual in nature. One example being the signs of Jenny Holtzerwhich use the devices of art to convey specific messages, such as "Protect Me From What I Want". Installation Art has been important in determining the spaces selected for museums of contemporary art in order to be able to hold the large works which are composed of vast collages of manufactured and found objects. These installations and collages are often electrified, with moving parts and lights.
They are often designed to create environmental effects, as
Christo and Jeanne-Claude's "Iron Curtain" which was a row of barrels intended to create a traffic jam.
Another trend in art which has been associated with the term postmodern is the use of a number of different media together.
Intermedia, a term coined by Dick Higginsand meant to convey new artforms along the lines of Fluxus, Concrete Poetry, Found objects, Performance art, and Computer art. Higgins was the publisher of the Something Else Press, a Concrete poet, married to artist Alison Knowlesand an admirer of Marcel Duchamp. Ihab Hassanincludes, "Intermedia, the fusion of forms, the confusion of realms," in his list of the characteristics of postmodern art. [Ihab Hassan in Lawrence E. Cahoone, "From Modernism to Postmodernism: An Anthology", Blackwell Publishing, 2003. p13. ISBN 0631232133 ] One of the most common forms of "multi-media art" is the use of video-tape and CRT monitors, termed Video art. While the theory of combining multiple arts into one art is quite old, and has been revived periodically, the postmodern manifestation is often in combination with performance art, where the dramatic subtext is removed, and what is left is the specific statements of the artist in question or the conceptual statement of their action.
Appropriation art and Neo-conceptual art
In his 1980 essay "The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Postmodernism,"
Craig Owensidentifies the re-emergence of an allegoricalimpulse as characteristic of postmodern art. This impulse can be seen in the appropriation artof artists such as Sherrie Levineand Robert Longobecause, "Allegorical imagery is appropriated imagery." [Craig Owens, "Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power, and Culture", London and Berkeley: University of California Press (1992), p54] Appropriation art debunks modernist notions of artistic genius and originality and is more ambivalent and contradictory than modern art, simultaneously installing and subverting ideologies, "being both critical and complicit." [Steven Best and Douglas Kellner, "The Postmodern Turn", Guilford Press, 1997. p186. ISBN 1572302216 ]
The return to the traditional art forms of sculpture and painting in the late 1970s and early 1980s seen in the work of Neo-expressionist artists such as
Georg Baselitzand Julian Schnabelhas been described as a postmodern tendency, [Tim Woods, "Beginning Postmodernism", Manchester University Press, 1999. p125. ISBN 0719052114 ] and one of the first coherent movements to emerge in the postmodern era. [Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, "Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective", Thomson Wadsworth, 2006, p842. ISBN 0495004804 ] Its strong links with the commercial art market has raised questions, however, both about its status as a postmodern movement and the definition of postmodernism itself. Hal Foster states that neo-expressionism was complicit with the conservative cultural politics of the Reagan-Bush era in the U.S.Hal Foster, "The Return of the Real: The Avant-garde at the End of the Century", MIT Press, 1996, p36. ISBN 0262561077] Felix Guattaridisregards the "large promotional operations dubbed 'neo-expressionism' in Germany," (an example of a "fad that maintains itself by means of publicity") as a too easy way for him "to demonstrate that postmodernism is nothing but the last gasp of modernism." These critiques of neo-expressionism reveal that money and public relations really sustained contemporary art world credibility in America during the same period that conceptual and feminist art practices were systematically reevaluating modern art. [Erika Doss, "Twentieth-Century American Art", Oxford University Press, 2002, p210. ISBN 0192842390 ]
Critiques on the institutions of art (principally museums and galleries) are made in the work of
Marcel Broodthaers, Daniel Burenand Hans Haacke.
Abstract Painting and Sculpture in the 21st century
At the beginning of the 21st century contemporary painting, contemporary sculpture and contemporary art in general continues in several contiguous modes, characterized by the idea of pluralism. The "crisis" in painting, sculpture and current art and current
art criticismtoday is brought about by pluralism. There is no consensus, nor need there be, as to a representative style of the age. There is an "anything goes" attitude that prevails; an "everything going on", and consequently "nothing going on" syndrome; this creates an aesthetic traffic jam with no firm and clear direction and with every lane on the artistic superhighwayfilled to capacity. Consequently magnificent and important works of art continue to be made albeit in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments, the marketplace being left to judge merit. Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Appropriation, Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Monochrome painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermediapainting, Assemblagepainting, Digital painting, Postmodernpainting, Neo-Dadapainting, Shaped canvaspainting, environmental mural painting, traditional figurepainting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, are a few continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century.
History of painting
Classificatory disputes about art
Notes and references
* "The Triumph of Modernism": The Art World, 1985-2005,
Hilton Kramer, 2006, ISBN 0 1-56663-708
* "Pictures of Nothing: Abstract Art since Pollock" (A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts),
Kirk Varnedoe, 2003
* "Art of the Postmodern Era": From the Late 1960s to the Early 1990s, Irving Sandler
* "Postmodernism (Movements in Modern Art)" Eleanor Heartney
* "Sculpture in the Age of Doubt" Thomas McEvilley 1999
* "The Originality of the
Avant-Gardeand Other ModernistMyths," 1988, Rosalind Krauss
* "Art and Culture", Beacon Press, 1961,
Clement GreenbergISBN 0-8070-6681-8
* [http://www.beyondbooks.com/art11/index.asp History of Painting]
* [http://www.all-art.org History of Art: From Paleolithic Age to Contemporary Art]
* [http://www.artchive.com/artchive/V/van_eyck.html Robert Hughes from Artchive]
KandinskyConcerning the Spiritual in Art, accessed online May 28 2007
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