- Neopaganism in the United States
Neopaganism in the United States is represented by widely different movements and organizations. The largest Neopagan religion is Wicca, followed by Neodruidism. Both of these religions were introduced during the 1950s from Great Britain. Germanic Neopaganism and Kemetism appeared in the US in the early 1970s. Hellenic Neopaganism appeared in the 1990s.
The spread of Neopaganism in the United States started in the 1950s with the introduction of Neodruidism and Wicca from Great Britain. Germanic Neopaganism (or Heathenism) entered during the 1970s, developing into new denominations proper to the US, notably Theodism. In the same period the first Kemetic groups were formed, with the tradition itself originating in the US.
Wicca, introduced by Raymond Buckland in 1964, is the most known of the Neopagan movements. The 1980s and 1990s saw the emergence of a number of reconstructionist and other ethnic traditions. Hellenic Neopaganism (Dodekatheism), for example, has flourished since the 1990s, along with parallel developments in Greece.
Notable US Neopagan organizations:
- Feri Tradition (from ca. 1960)
- Feraferia (Hellenic-inspired goddess worship, established 1967 in southern California by Frederick M. Adams, as a continuation of his Fellowship of Hesperides founded 1957), based in Nevada City
- Church of All Worlds, formed 1962, formerly the largest of all the pagan movements, which centres on worship of the earth-mother goddess;
- Pagan Way, Chicago
- Circle Sanctuary, based in Wisconsin, the largest Neo-Pagan organization in the U.S. Its newsletter, Circle Network News, has some 15,000 subscribers (as of 1992).
- Council of Magickal Arts, Texas
- Mid-Atlantic Pagan Alliance (since 1999)
- Cherry Hill Seminary, Vermont (since 2001)
- Covenant of the Goddess (since 1975)
- Westernesste, former Nest of the Church of All Worlds, established 1996; separated in 2001, incorporated 2002 as a church. Synchretism, Mythopoeia, and Technopaganism are primary emphases along with polytheism and Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Headquartered in Santa Cruz, CA.
- Hellenic Neopaganism
- Germanic neopaganism:
- Ásatrú Folk Assembly (AFA, California based, since 1994, re-activation of Stephen McNallen's 1974-1986 Asatru Free Assembly, formerly Viking Brotherhood, 1971-1974 )
- The Troth (since 1987 )
- Ásatrú Alliance (AA, since 1988, Arizona based )
- Odinic Rite (ORV, "Vinland Regional Office", since 1997 Wisconsin based )
- Urglaawe (since 2007, Pennsylvania based ). Draws on Pennsylvania German folkways.
- Nondenominational Pagan groups
- Pagan Spirit Gathering (since 1980)
- Starwood Festival (since 1981)
- Heartland Pagan Festival (since 1986)
Wiccan churches and other Neopagan institutions are becoming more common in the US. However, estimates of their numbers vary widely. Most of the 1990s studies put the number of US Neopagans between 200,000 and 1 million (0.1% to 0.5% of the total population). A 2008 Pew Forum survey put "New Age" religious believers, including Neopagans, at about 1.2 million.
According to David Waldron (2005), roughly 10 million Wiccan-related books were sold in 2000 (up from 4.5 million in 1990), as reported by the American Booksellers Association. However this gives only a rough guide to the size of the Wiccan-related economy and he comments that the added complexity of determining the boundary between Wiccan or Neopagan products and New Age products makes determining the size of the movement from this rather problematic.
More conservative estimates include Helen Berger and Craig Hawkins in Exploring the World of Wicca, who guessed from 150,000 to 200,000. Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark and Aidan A. Kelly in New Age Almanac (1991, p. 340) estimate a total of about 300,000 people associated with the "overall movement" of Wicca, with "tens of thousands" of members active in between 1,000 and 5,000 covens. Conservative estimates arrive at about 50,000 Wiccans in the US (Religious Requirements & Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains, 1993) while Wiccan high estimates claim several million (Phyllis Curott, The Book of Shadows: A Modern Woman's Journey Into the Wisdom of Witchcraft and the Magic of the Goddess). The largest estimates posit 1 million Wiccans  , a fast growth compared to the 100.000/200.000 estimated in late 1990s and early 2000s.
Wicca was introduced to North America in 1964 by Raymond Buckland, an expatriate Briton who visited Gardner's Isle of Man coven to gain initiation. Interest in the USA spread quickly, and while many were initiated, many more non-initiates compiled their own rituals based on published sources or their own fancy. Another significant development was the creation by feminists in the late 1960s to 1970s of an eclectic movement known as Dianic Wicca, or feminist Dianic Witchcraft.
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs in an out-of-court settlement of 23 April 2007 with the family of Patrick Stewart allowed the pentacle as an "emblem of belief" on tombstones in military cemeteries.
Ásatrú in the United States begins in the early 1970s with Stephen McNallen's 1974-1986 Asatru Free Assembly, formerly Viking Brotherhood, 1971-1974.
In 1986, the "folkish vs. universalist" dispute regarding the stance of Ásatrú towards white supremacism escalated, resulting in the breakup of the Asatru Free Assembly. The "leftist" (universalist) branch reformed as The Troth, while the "rightist" (folkish) branch became the Ásatrú Alliance (AA). McNallen re-founded his own organisation as the Ásatrú Folk Assembly (AFA) in 1994.
In 1997, the Britain based Odinic Rite (OR) founded a US chapter (ORV). This means that folkish Asatru is represented by three major organizations in the US, viz. AA, AFA and OR. The three groups have attempted to collaborate within an International Asatru-Odinic Alliance from 1997 until 2002, when it dissolved again as a result of internal factional disputes.
Controversies mostly surround religious rights in US prisons and the US military. Prison inmates' right to practice minority religions was asserted in 2004 by the Supreme Court in Cutter v. Wilkinson.
- ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. "Neo-Paganism
- ^ Aidan A. Kelly, Notes on Gardnerian History, 1963-1990, Art Magickal Publications Los Angeles, California (1994) 
- ^ a b "Adherents.com". www.adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_466.html. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
- ^ http://religions.pewforum.org/reports
- ^ David Waldron. Witchcraft for Sale! Commodity vs. Community in the Neopagan Movement. Nova Religio. August 2005, Vol. 9, No. 1.
- ^ a b "Estimated 1 Million Wiccans in U.S. Today - Technology - redOrbit". www.redorbit.com. http://www.redorbit.com/news/technology/590803/estimated_1_million_wiccans_in_us_today/index.html. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
- ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". www.adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html#Neo-Paganism. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
- ^ USA Census: Self-Described Religious Identification of Adult Population: 1990 and 2001
- ^ Holzer, Hans (1972). The New Pagans. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. OCLC 281240.
- ^ Associated Press (2007-04-23). "Wiccans symbols allowed on grave markers in government cemeteries". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/04/23/america/NA-GEN-US-Wiccan-Soldier.php. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- ^ "Veterans Affairs Department Must Accommodate Wiccan Symbol On Memorial Markers At Government Cemeteries, Says Americans United" (Press release). Americans United (AU.org). 2006-06-08. http://www.au.org/site/News2?JServSessionIdr003=bg8nm5s6e1.app13a&abbr=pr&page=NewsArticle&id=8269&security=1002&news_iv_ctrl=1241. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- ^ "Available Emblems of Belief for Placement on Government Headstones and Markers". VA.gov. http://www.cem.va.gov/cem/hm/hmemb.asp. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- ^ Washington Post: Discrimination Against Pagans
- Berger, Helen A. (2005) Witchcraft and Magic: Contemporary North America. University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 081223877X, ISBN 978-0812238778
- Helen A. Berger, Evan A. Leach, Leigh S. Shaffer, Voices from the Pagan Census: A National Survey of Witches and Neo-Pagans in the United States, Studies in Comparative Religion (2003), ISBN 978-1570034886.
- Berger, Helen A. (1998) A Community of Witches: Contemporary Neo-Paganism and Witchcraft in the United States. University of South Carolina Press ISBN 1570032467, ISBN 978-1570032462
- Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today, Beacon Press, 1979; revised and updated 1987.
- Ellwood, Robert, Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America, 1973.
- Gottlieb, Annie, Do You Believe in Magic? The Second Coming of the Sixties Generation, Times Books, 1987.
- Robert S. Ellwood, Notes on a Neopagan Religious Group in America, History of Religions (1971).
- J. G. Melton, Encyclopedia of American Religions, 7th ed., Detroit (2002), ISBN 978-0787663841.
- G. Melton and I. Poggi, Magic, Witchcraft, and Paganism in America (1992).
- Pike, Sarah M. (2004) New Age and Neopagan Religions in America. Columbia University Press ISBN 0231124023, ISBN 978-0231124027
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