Electromagnetic forming

Electromagnetic forming
A pinched aluminium can, produced from a pulsed magnetic field created by rapidly discharging 2 kilojoules from a high voltage capacitor bank into a 3-turn coil of heavy gauge wire.

Electromagnetic forming (EM forming or magneforming) is a type of high velocity, cold forming process for electrically conductive metals, most commonly copper and aluminium. The workpiece is reshaped by high intensity pulsed magnetic fields that induce a current in the workpiece and a corresponding repulsive magnetic field, rapidly repelling portions of the workpiece. The workpiece can be reshaped without any contact from a tool, although in some instances the piece may be pressed against a die or former. The technique is sometimes called high velocity forming or electromagnetic pulse technology.



A rapidly changing magnetic field induces a circulating electrical current within a nearby conductor through electromagnetic induction. The induced current creates a corresponding magnetic field around the conductor (see Pinch (plasma physics)). Because of Lenz's Law, the magnetic fields created within the conductor and work coil strongly repel each other.

When the switch is closed, electrical energy stored in the capacitor bank (left) is discharged through the forming coil (orange) producing a rapidly changing magnetic field which induces a current to flow in the metallic workpiece (pink). The current flowing the workpiece produces a corresponding opposite magnetic field which rapidly repels the workpiece from the forming coil, reshaping the workpiece - in this case, compressing the diameter of the cylindrical tube. The reciprocal forces acting against the forming coil are resisted by the 'supportive coil casing (green).

In practice the metal workpiece to be fabricated is placed in proximity to a heavily constructed coil of wire (called the work coil). A huge pulse of current is forced through the work coil by rapidly discharging a high voltage capacitor bank using an ignitron or a spark gap (copper vapour thyratron) as a switch. This creates a rapidly oscillating, ultrastrong electromagnetic field around the work coil.

The high work coil current (typically tens or hundreds of thousands of amperes) creates ultrastrong magnetic forces that easily overcome the yield strength of the metal work piece, causing permanent deformation. The metal forming process occurs extremely quickly (typically tens of microseconds) and, because of the large forces, portions of the workpiece undergo high acceleration reaching velocities of up to 300 m/s.


The forming process is most often used to shrink or expand cylindrical tubing, but it can also form sheet metal by repelling the work piece onto a shaped die at a high velocity. High-quality joints can be formed, either by electromagnetic pulse crimping with a mechanical interlock or by electromagnetic pulse welding with a true metallurgical weld. Since the forming operation involves high acceleration and deceleration, mass of the work piece plays a critical role during the forming process. The process works best with good electrical conductors such as copper or aluminum, but it can be adapted to work with poorer conductors such as steel.

Comparison with Mechanical Forming

Electromagnetic forming has a number of advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional mechanical forming techniques.

Some of the advantages are;

  • Improved formability (the amount of stretch available without tearing)
  • Wrinkling can be greatly suppressed
  • Forming can be combined with joining and assembling with dissimilar components including glass, plastic, composites and other metals.
  • Close tolerances are possible as springback can be significantly reduced.
  • Single sided dies are sufficient which can reduce tooling costs
  • Lubricants are reduced or are unnecessary, so forming can be used in clean room conditions
  • Mechanical contact with the workpiece is not required, this avoids surface contamination and tooling marks. As a result, a surface finish can be applied to the workpiece before forming.

The principle disadvantages are;

  • Non conductive materials cannot be formed directly, but can be formed using a conductive drive plate
  • The high voltages and currents involved require careful safety considerations
  • Large sheet metal components cannot readily be formed, due to current limitations on the design of very large coils


External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Electromagnetic forming — Electromagnetic forming. См. Электромагнитное формоизменение. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • Electromagnetic pulse — Ebomb redirects here. For EBOM, see Engineering bill of materials. This article is about the general weapons effect. For other uses, see the more specific topic (for example, Electromagnetic forming) An electromagnetic pulse (sometimes… …   Wikipedia

  • Electromagnetic Diaphragm — An electromagnetic diaphragm is a form of capacitive sensor used on an electronic stethoscope. The diaphragm is coated with a conductive material. Behind the diaphragm, a conductive plate is positioned behind and parallel to the diaphragm, so… …   Wikipedia

  • Monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave — In general relativity, the monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave spacetime is the analog of the monochromatic plane waves known from Maxwell s theory. The precise definition of the solution is a bit complicated, but very instructive. Any exact …   Wikipedia

  • Электромагнитное формоизменение — Electromagnetic forming Электромагнитное формоизменение. Процесс формирования металла прямым приложением интенсивного кратковременного магнитного поля. Заготовка формируется без механического контакта прохождением импульса электрического тока… …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • Capacitor — This article is about the electronic component. For the physical phenomenon, see capacitance. For an overview of various kinds of capacitors, see types of capacitor. Capacitor Modern capacitors, by a cm ruler Type Passive …   Wikipedia

  • Pinch (plasma physics) — For other uses, see Pinch (disambiguation). Lightning bolts illustrating electromagnetically pinched plasma filaments …   Wikipedia

  • Die (manufacturing) — For the thread cutting tool, see Tap and die. A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create. Products made with… …   Wikipedia

  • Metalworking — Machining a bar of metal on a lathe. Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts… …   Wikipedia

  • Sheet metal — Sheets of stainless steel cover the Chrysler Building …   Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»