- Fan translation
Fan translation refers to the unofficial
translationof various forms of media by fans, usually into a language in which an official translated version is not available. These translations are distributed for free or at minimal cost. The rise of the Internethas enabled fan translators to collaborate and distribute their material more effectively, and has therefore led to a large increase in the amount of fan translated material. Fan translations almost always constitute copyright infringement.
Notable areas of fan translation include:
Fansub– translating and subtitling movies, television programs and other similar media. For many languages the most popular fan subtitling is of Hollywoodmovies and American TV dramas, while fansubs into English-language are largely of East Asian entertainment, particularly anime.
Fan translation of video games– this practice grew with the rise of video game consoleemulation in the late 1990s and still mainly focuses on older classic games. These translations are typically distributed as patches that modify the binary files of the original game into new binaries.
Scanlation– the distribution of fan translated comics, especially manga, as computer images which have been scanned and translated by fans. An alternative method of distributing fan-translated sequential art is to distribute only the translated text, requiring readers to purchase a copy of the work in the original language.
*Fan translation of written
fiction, particularly short stories but sometimes including full novels. [http://www.zonaeuropa.com/20070728_1.htm "Self-Organized Citizen Translations of Harry Potter 7"] , 26 July 2007 (English translation of original Chinese article from yWeekend)]
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