A pre-colonial couple belonging to the Datu or nobility caste as depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th Century.

Datu is the title for tribal chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs[1] in the Visayas[2] and Mindanao[3] Regions of the Philippines. Together with Lakan (Luzon), Apo in Central and Northern Luzon,[4] Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty, and are still currently used in the Philippines.[5] Depending upon the prestige of the sovereign prince, this title of Datu could be roughly equated to the European dukes, marquesses, counts, or barons.

The word datu was derived from the Malay word: Dato' or Datuk, which are royal titles of the Malay people. It came to be in use in the Philippines since the pre-colonial period through the migrations of Malays to what is now the Philippine Archipelago. During the 11th century several exiled datus of the collapsing empire of Srivijaya[6] led by Datu Puti made a mass migration to the central islands of the Philippines, fleeing from Rajah Makatunao of the island of Borneo. The Malays reached the island of Panay, which in ancient times was known as the island of "Aninipay". Purchasing the island from the Negrito chieftain Marikudo, they established a confederation of polities and named it the Confederation of Madyaas, centered in Aklan.

From Panay, they settled the surrounding islands of the Visayas, bringing along with them their culture, and social structure and system of government. This confederation reached its peak under Datu Padojinog. During his reign the confederations' hegemony extended over most of the islands of Visayas. Its people consistently made piratical attacks against Chinese imperial shipping.[7]

Proofs of Filipino royalty and nobility (Dugong Bughaw) has to be demonstrated only by blood descent, that is, one has to have Filipino blood in his veins, and has to be a descendant of ancient Filipino royal or noble families.



Datu in Filipino Muslim and Lumad Societies in Mindanao

The Spaniards took possession of most of Luzon and the Visayas, converting the lowland population to Christianity. But although Spain eventually established footholds in northern and eastern Mindanao and the Zamboanga peninsula, its armies failed to colonise the rest of Mindanao. This area was populated by Islamised peoples (‘Moros’ to the Spaniards) and by many non-Muslim indigenous groups, now known as Lumads.[8]

The Muslim Societies of Mindanao

In the traditional structure of Muslim Filipino societies, Sultans were the highest authority followed by the datus, with their rule being sanctioned by the Qur'an. Datus were supported by their tribes. In return for tribute and labor, the datu provided aid in emergencies and advocacy in disputes with other communities and warfare through the Agamat and Maratabat laws.

During the Spanish colonization of the Archipelago, the Datus of Muslim Principalities in Mindanao gave a very strong and effective resistance to the Christianization of that southern Island, and were able to successfully defend their identity and Islamic faith. However, they have surrendered their sovereignty to the United States of America some years after the fall of the Spanish dominion in the Philippine Islands, and have eventually become part of the Republic upon the Country's independence in 1946.

The Lumad Societies of Mindanao

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Lumads controlled an area which now covers 17 of Mindanao’s 24 provinces, but by the 1980 census they constituted less than 6% of the population of Mindanao and Sulu. Heavy migration to Mindanao of Visayans, spurred by government-sponsored resettlement programmes, turned the Lumads into minorities. The Bukidnon province population grew from 63,470 in 1948 to 194,368 in 1960 and 414,762 in 1970, with the proportion of indigenous Bukidnons falling from 64% to 33% to 14%.[8]

There are 18 Lumad ethnolinguistic groups: Ata, Bagobo, Banwaon, B’laan, Bukidnon, Dibabawon, Higaonon, Mamanwa, Mandaya, Manguwangan, Manobo, Mansaka, Subanon, Tagakaolo, Tasaday, T’boli, Teduray, and Ubo.[8]

The Lumad Datus, on their part, have involved themselves in protecting their homeland forests from illegal loggers during the past decades. Some have joined the New People's Army (NPA), a communist rebel group in the Country, for this cause of their people.[9] Others have resisted joining the Muslim and communist separatist movements.

A datu is still basic to the smooth functioning of the Lumad and Muslim Filipino societies today. They have continued to act as the community leaders in their respective tribes among a variety of Indigenous peoples in Mindanao. The Muslim tribes share with the Lumads and the Christians a homeland in Mindanao.[10]

Datu in Pre-colonial Principalities in the Visayas

In more affluent and powerful Barangays in Visayas, e.g., Panay,[11] Cebu and Leyte [12] (which were never conquered by Spain but were accomplished as vassals by means of pacts, peace treaties, and reciprocal alliances),[13] the "Datu" Class was at the top of a divinely sanctioned and stable social order in a "Sakop" (elsewhere referred to as Barangay). This social order was divided into three classes. The members of the Datu Class were compared by the Boxer Codex to the titled Lords (Señores de titulo) in Spain.[14] As Agalon or Amo (Lords),[15] the Datus enjoyed an ascribed right to respect, obedience, and support from their "Oripun" (Commoner) or followers belonging to the Third Order. These Datus had acquired rights to the same advantages from their legal "Timawa" or vassals (Second Order), who bind themselves to the Datu as his seafaring warriors. "Timawas" paid no tribute, and rendered no agricultural labor. They had a portion of the Datu's blood in their veins. The above-mentioned Boxer Codex calls these "Timawas": Knights and Hidalgos. The Spanish conquistador, Miguel de Loarca, described them as "free men, neither chiefs nor slaves". In the late 1600s, the Spanish Jesuit priest Fr. Francisco Ignatio Alcina, classified them as the third rank of nobility (nobleza).[16]

To maintain purity of bloodline, Datus marry only among their kind, often seeking high ranking brides in other Barangays, abducting them, or contracting brideprices in gold, slaves and jewelry. Meanwhile, the Datus keep their marriageable daughters secluded for protection and prestige.[17] These well-guarded and protected highborn women were called "Binokot", and the Datus of pure descent (four generations) were called "Potli nga Datu" or "Lubus nga Datu".[18]

Datu in Pre-colonial Principalities in the Tagalog Region

The different type of culture prevalent in Luzon gave a less stable and more complex social structure to the pre-colonial Tagalog barangays of Manila, Pampanga and Laguna. Enjoying a more extensive commence than those in Visayas, having the influence of Bornean political contacts, and engaging in farming wet rice for a living, the Tagalogs were described by the Spanish Augustinian Friar Martin de Rada as more traders than warriors.[19]

The more complex social structure of the Tagalogs was less stable during the arrival of the Spaniards because it was still in a process of differentiating. A Jesuit priest Francisco Colin made an attempt to give an approximate comparison of it with the Visayan social structure in the middle of the seventeenth century. The term Datu or Lakan, or Apo refers to the chief, but the noble class to which the Datu belonged or could come from was the Maginoo Class. One maybe born a Maginoo, but he could become a 'Datu by personal achievement. In the Visayas, if the Datu had the personality and economic means, he could retain and restrain competing peers, relatives, and offspring.[20]

The term Timawa came into use in the social structure of the Tagalogs within just twenty years after the coming of the Spaniards. The term, however, was being applied to former Alipin (Third Class) who have escaped bondage by payment, favor, or flight. The Tagalog Timawas did not have the military prominence of the Visayan Timawa. The warrior class in the Tagalog society was present only in Laguna, and they were called the Maharlika Class. At the early part of the Spanish regime, the number of their members who were coming to rent land from their Datus was increasing.[20]

Unlike the Visayan Datus, the Lakans and Apos of Luzon could call all non-Maginoo subjects to work in the Datu’s fields or do all sorts of other personal labor. In the Visayas, only the Oripuns were obliged to do that, and to pay tribute besides. The Tagalog who works in the Datu’s field did not pay him tribute, and could transfer their allegiance to another Datu.[20]

The Visayan Timawa neither paid tribute nor performed agricultural labor. In a sense, they were truly aristocrats. The Tagalog Maharlika did not only work in his Datu’s field, but could also be required to pay his own rent. Thus, all non-Maginoo formed a common economic class in some sense, though this class had no designation.[20]

Datu during the Spanish period

Costume of a family belonging to Principalía during the 19th century. Picture taken from the exhibit in Villa Escudero Museum in San Pablo Laguna, Philippines.

Upon the Christianization of most parts of the Philippine Archipelago, the Datus (king) of the pre-Hispanic kingdoms and principalities retained their right to govern their territory under the Spanish Empire. King Philip II of Spain, in a law signed June 11, 1594,[21] commanded the Spanish colonial officials in the Archipelago that these native royalties and nobilities be given the same respect, and privileges that they had enjoyed before their conversion. Later, the Filipino royals and nobles formed part of the exclusive, and elite ruling class, called the Principalía (Noble Class) of the Philippines.

With the recognition of the Spanish Monarchs came the privilege of being addressed as Don or Doña.[22] - a mark of esteem and distinction in Europe reserved for a person of noble or royal status during the colonial period. Other honors and high regard were also accorded to the Christianized Datus by the Spanish Empire. For example, the Gobernadorcillos (elected leader of the Cabezas de Barangay or the Christianized Datus) and Filipino officials of justice received the greatest consideration from the Spanish Crown officials. The colonial officials were under obligation to show them the honor corresponding to their respective duties. They were allowed to sit in the houses of the Spanish Provincial Governors, and in any other places. They were not left to remain standing. It was not permitted for Spanish Parish Priests to treat these Filipino nobles with less consideration.[23]

The Gobernadorcillos exercised the command of the towns. They were Port Captains in coastal towns.[24] Their office corresponds to that of the alcaldes and municipal judges of the Iberian Peninsula. They performed at once the functions of judges and even of notaries with defined powers.[25] They also had the rights and powers to elect assistants and several lieutenants and alguaciles, proportionate in number to the inhabitants of the town.[25]

By the end of the 16th century, any claim to Filipino royalty, nobility, or hidalguía had disappeared into a homogenized, hispanized and Christianized nobility - the Principalía.[26] The Principalía was larger and more influential than the pre-conquest Indigenous nobility. It helped create and perpetuate an oligarchic system in the Spanish colony for more than three hundred years.[27][28] The Spanish colonial government's prohibition for foreigners to own land in the Philippines contributed to the evolution of this form of oligarchy. In some provinces of the Philippines, many Spaniards and foreign merchants intermarried with the rich and landed Malayo-Polynesian local nobilities. From these unions, a new cultural group was formed, the Mestizo class.[29] Their descendants emerged later to became an influential part of the government, and the Principalía. .[30]

Recorded list of Datus in the Philippines

Datus of Pre-Hispanic Philippines (12th to 16th century)

The following category is a list of leaders who governed Mindanao, the Visayas and Luzon region.

  • Datu Daya - King of Daanbantayan, Cebu
  • Datu Dinagandan - King of Aklan in Panay in the 12th century
  • Datu Kalantiao - King of Aklan in the 14th century
  • Datu Padojinog - Governed the Visayas region with his wife Ribongsapaw. According to Visayan folk tradition, about 900 years ago between the 12th century to 13th century, ten noble Malay warriors were believed to have settled in the Philippines. They migrated from the kingdom of Borneo, escaping the wrath of a wicked ruler called Rajah Makatunao. They boarded on large boats and canoes and set out to sea to find a place where they can live in peace and harmony.
  • Datu Bangkaya - Settled and became King of Aklan after migrating from the kingdom of Borneo.

Datus in the Maragtas epic

  • Datu Kalantiaw III /Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw - enacted a body of laws, which is now called the Code of Kalantiaw in 1433.
  • Datu Puti - One of the 10 Bornean Datus to arrive in Iloilo before the Spanish colonization.
  • Datu Sumakwel - Leader of the 10 Bornean Datus. He settled in Antique.
  • Datu Bangkaya
  • Datu Paiburong
  • Datu Marikudo - the Ati (Aeta) Datu of Panay, from whom the 10 Bornean Datus purchased the lowlands of the Island, in exchange for a golden Salakot (Bulawan nga Saduk), and a long pearl necklace that could touch the ground (Manangyad).

Datus during the Spanish colonization

  • Rajah Colambu - King of Limasawa in 1521, brother of Rajah Siagu of Butuan. He befriended Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and guided him to Cebu on April 7, 1521.
  • Rajah Humabon - King of Cebu who became an ally of Ferdinand Magellan and the Spaniards. Rival of Datu Lapu-Lapu. In 1521, he and his wife were baptized as Christians and given Christian names Carlos and Juana after the Spanish royalty, King Carlos and Queen Juana.
  • Sultan Kudarat - Sultan of Maguindanao.
  • Lakan Dula or Lakandula - King of Tondo, one of the last princes of Manila.
  • Datu Lapu-Lapu - King of Mactan Island. He defeated the Spaniards on April 27, 1521.
  • Datu Sikatuna - King of Bohol in 1565. He made a blood compact with Spanish explorer, Miguel López de Legazpi.
  • Datu Pagbuaya - King of Bohol. He governed with his brother Datu Dailisan, a settlement along the shorelines between Mansasa, Tagbilaran and Dauis, which was abandoned years before the Spanish colonization due to Portuguese and Ternatean attacks. He founded Dapitan in the northern shore of Mindanao.
  • Datu Dailisan - King of Mansasa, Tagbilaran and Dauis and governed their kingdom along with his brother Datu Pagbuaya. His death during one of the Portuguese raids caused the abandonment of the settlement.
  • Datu Manooc - Christian name - Pedro Manuel Manooc, son of Datu Pagbuaya who converted to Christianity, defeated the Higaonon tribe in Iligan, Mindanao. He established one of the first Christian settlements in the country.
  • Datu Macabulos - King of Pampanga in 1571.
  • Rajah Siagu - King of the Manobo in 1521.
  • Apo Noan - Chieftain of Mandani (present day Mandaue) in 1521.
  • Apo Macarere - Famous Chieftain of the Tagbanua warrior tribe in Corong Island (Calis).
  • Rajah Sulaiman III - One of the last King of Manila, was defeated by Martín de Goiti, a Spanish soldier commissioned by López de Legazpi to Manila.
  • Rajah Tupas - King of Cebu, conquered by Miguel López de Legazpi.
  • Datu Urduja - Female Leader in Pangasinan.
  • Datu Zula - Chieftain of Mactan, Cebu. Rival of Lapu-lapu
  • Datu Kalun - Ruler of the Island of the Basilan and the Yakans in Mindanao, converted his line to Christianity
  • Datu Limbona - Ruler of Marawi City
  • Datu Bangkaya - King of Antique
  • unnamed Datu - King of Taytay Palawan. Mentioned by Pigafetta, chronicler of Magellan. The king, together with his wife were kidnapped by the remnant troops from Magellan's fleet after fleeing Cebu in order to secure provisions for their crossing to the Moluccas.

Present day Datus

The present day claimants of the title and rank of Datu are of three types. The two types are found in Mindanao, and the other one is in the Christianized parts of the Philippines. Their rights are protected by certain special law in the Country, known as "The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997".[31]

Present day Datus in Mindanao

1. Muslim Datus in Mindanao

In some indigenous Lumad and Muslim societies in Mindanao, titular Datus of ancient royal and noble families still exist. Some of them are active government officials of the Republic of the Philippines, while continuing their cultural and tribal roles as community leaders of their people. Some, although do not have official duties in the Republic, exercise some leadership roles in their tribes. Still others are claimants to these titles. Some of these present day Datus are:

  • Datu Pax S. Mangudadato - Present day datu and governor of Sultan Kudarat (2001–2004)
  • Datu Zaldy Ampatuan - Regional Governor, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mundanao
  • Datu Zamzamin Ampatuan - Undersecretary, "Department of Energy"
  • The Sultanate of Sulu has a succession of titular Sultans[32] during the past decades: Mohammad Jamalulul Kiram III (1984–1990);[33][34] Mohammad Akijal Atti (1990–1999), who was Raja Muda to Sultan Mohammad Jamalulul Kiram III before he assumed the title as titular Sultan;[35] and Ismael Kiram II (born 1999).[36][37] At present, there is also a branch of the ruling house of the Sultanate (Cf. Royal Sultanate of Sulu), which considers Raja Muda Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu as their head. Datu Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram was crowned in 1974 as Raja Muda, through an official Memorandum Order N. 427, issued by Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos.[38][39] He was crowned beside his father, Sultan Moh. Mahakuttah A. Kiram, the last Philippine Government recognised Sultan of Sulu.[40] Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram is the last Raja Muda of Sulu to receive official recognition from a Philippine President. There are also several claimants to the title of Sultan and the leadership of the Sultanate.[41][42]
  • The Sultanate of Maguindanao has an incumbent titular Sultan, Hajji Datu Amir bin Muhammad Baraguir - the 25th Sultan of Maguindanao.Son of Al-Marhum Sultan Hajji Datu Muhammad G.M. Baraguir,Llb. the 24th Sultan of Maguindanao[43]
  • The Maranaos have sixteen royal houses who rule the four principalities in what is referred to as the Confederation of Sultanates in Lanao.
2. Lumad Datus in Mindanao
  • Datu Benhur - Lumad leader of the Banuaon tribe[9]
  • Datu Viloso Suhat, also known as Datu Lipatuan - a tribal leader from the Tinananon Menuvo tribe in Arakan, North Cotabato, and the first Lumad to sit in a local legislative body in central Mindanao.[44]

Heirs of the Rank of Datu in Christianized Parts of the Philippines

In Christianized parts of the Philippines, the descendants of the Principalía are the rightful claimants of the ancient sovereign royal and noble ranks (and their corresponding rights and privileges) of the pre-conquest kingdoms, principalities, and barangays of their ancestors. These descendants of the ancient Filipino ruling class are now among the landed aristocracy, intellectual elite, merchants, and politicians in the contemporary Filipino society.

Present day Datus in Ancestral Domains under IPRA Law

  • Apo Dr. Pio Lledo - Tagbanua Tribal Chieftain of Calauit Is. Ancestral Domain[45]
  • Apo Rodolfo Aguilar - Tagbanua Paramount Tribal Chieftain of Coron Is. Ancestral Domain[46]

The Datu class in Southern tribes of the Tagbanua people in the Province of Palawan is known as Usba.[47]

Honorary Datus

The title of "Honorary Datu" has also been conferred to certain foreigners and non-tribe members by the heads of local tribes and Principalities of ancient origin. During the colonial period, some of these titles carried with them immense legal privileges. For example, on 22 January 1878, Sultan Jamalul A'Lam of Sulu appointed the Baron de Overbeck (an Austrian who was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire's Consul-General in Hong Kong) as Datu Bendahara and as Rajah of Sandakan, with the fullest power of life and death over all the inhabitants.[48] At present, arrangements such as this can not carry similar legal bearing under the Philippine laws.

The various tribes and claimants to the royal titles of certain indigenous peoples in the Philippines have their own particular or personal customs in conferring local honorary titles, which correspond to the specific and traditional social structures of some indigenous peoples in the Country.[49][50]

(N.B. In unhispanized, unchristianized and unislamized parts of the Philippines, there exist other structures of society, which do not have heirarchical classes.)[51][52]

Filipino Martial Arts

The title 'datu' is used for high-ranking practitioners of certain Filipino martial arts. For example, six practitioners of Modern Arnis were granted the title by Remy Presas.

Prohibition of New Royal and Noble Titles in the Philippine Constitution

Article VI, Section 31 of the present Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (1986), prohibits the granting of new titles of royalty or nobility.[53] Titles of "Honorary Datu" conferred to certain foreigners and non-tribe members by local chieftains are only forms of local award or appreciation for some goods or services done to a local tribe or to the person of the chieftain, and has nothing to do with the creation of legitimate new titles of royalty or nobility. Any contrary claim is otherwise unconstitutional under the Philippine laws. However, an exception is granted by Philippine laws for members of indigenous tribes, in view of the local traditional social structure, through the IPRA Law. This special law allows among tribal members, i.e. natives, to be conferred with traditional leadership titles as specified under the Law's Implementing Rules and Guidelines (the Administrative Order No. 1 series of 1998 of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples specifically under Rule IV, Part I, Section 2, a-c), which read:

a) Right to Confer Leadership Titles. The ICCs/IPs concerned, in accordance with their customary laws and practices, shall have the sole right to vest titles of leadership such as, but not limited to, Bae, Datu, Baylan, Timuay, Likid and such other titles to their members.

b) Recognition of Leadership Titles. To forestall undue conferment of leadership titles and misrepresentations, the ICCs/IPs concerned, may, at their option, submit a list of their recognized traditional socio-political leaders with their corresponding titles to the NCIP. The NCIP through its field offices, shall conduct a field validation of said list and shall maintain a national directory thereof.

c) Issuance of Certificates of Tribal Membership. Only the recognized registered leaders are authorized to issue certificates of tribal membership to their members. Such certificates shall be confirmed by the NCIP based on its census and records and shall have effect only for the purpose for which it was issued.

The fons honorum (source of honors) in the Philippine Republic is the Sovereign Filipino people who are all equal in dignity under a democratic form of government.[53] The Philippine government grants State honors, through the Orders of Merit of the Republic, and through the system of awards and decorations of its Military and Police Forces. These honors accorded by the Orders of Merit do not grant or create titles of royalty or nobility, in accordance to the provisions of the Democratic Constitution. The Philippines is a rare example of having orders and decorations that are considered to be of equal rank to each other; this is a reflection of the particular circumstances surrounding the establishment of the various awards, each of which has its own purpose.

There are opinions that ancient Filipino royalties, who never relinquished their sovereign rights by voluntary means (according to opinions of some historians), of whom the sovereign powers over their territories (de facto sovereignty) passed on to the Spanish jura regalia through some disputed means, retain their "fons honorum" as part of their "de jure" sovereignty. According to many opinions, as long as the blood is alive in the veins of these royal houses, "de jure" sovereignty is alive as well which means they can still bestow titles of nobility. However, the practical implications of this claim is a subject, which does not have clear definitions, e.g., in the case of usurpation of titles by other members of the bloodline. [54][55]

Heads of Dynasties (even the deposed ones) belong to one of the three kinds of sovereignties that has been existing in human society. The other two are: Heads of States (of all forms of government, e. g., monarchy, republican, communist, etc.), and Traditional Heads of the Church (both Roman Catholic and Orthodox). The authority that emanates from this last type is transmitted through an authentic Apostolic Succession, i.e., direct lineage of ordination and succession of Office from the Apostles (from St. Peter, in case of the Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church - the Pope).

These sovereign authorities excercise the following sovereign rights and powers: “Ius Imperii” (the right to command and rule a territory); “Ius Gladii” (the right to impose obedience through command and also control armies);“Ius Majestatis” (the right to be honored and respected according to one's title); and “Ius Honorum” (the right to award titles, merits and rights). Considering the theory of Jean Bodin (1530–1596), a French jurist and political philosopher, that "Sovereignty is one and indivisible, it cannot be delegated, sovereignty us irrevocable, sovereignty is perpetual, sovereignty is a supreme power", one can argue about the rights of deposed dynasties, also as "fons honorum". It can be said that their "Ius Honorum" depends on their rights as a family, and does not depend on the authority of the "de facto" government of a State. This is their "de jure" right. Even though it is not a "de facto" right, it is still a right. [56]

But again, in case of conflict of norms on "fons honorum" in actual situations, the legislations of the "de facto" sovereign authority has precedence. All others are abrogated, unless otherwise recognized under the terms of such de facto authority.[57]

See also


  1. ^ For more information about the social system of the Indigenous Philippine society before the Spanish colonization confer Barangay in Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europea-Americana, Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, S. A., 1991, Vol. VII, p.624. The article also says: Los nobles de un barangay eran los más ricos ó los más fuertes, formándose por este sistema los dattos ó maguinoos, principes á quienes heredaban los hijos mayores, las hijas á falta de éstos, ó los parientes más próximos si no tenían descendencia directa; pero siempre teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de fuerza ó de dinero...Los vassalos plebeyos tenían que remar en los barcos del maguinoo, cultivar sus campos y pelear en la guerra. Los siervos, que formaban el término medio entre los esclavos y los hombres libres, podían tener propriedad individual, mujer, campos, casa y esclavos; pero los tagalos debían pagar una cantidad en polvo de oro equivalente á una parte de sus cosechas, los de los barangayes bisayas estaban obligados á trabajar en las tieras del señor cinco días al mes, pagarle un tributo anual en arroz y hacerle un presente en las fiestas. Durante la dominación española, el cacique, jefe de un barangay, ejercía funciones judiciales y administrativas. A los tres años tenía el tratamiento de don y se reconocía capacidad para ser gobernadorcillo, con facultades para nombrarse un auxiliar llamado primogenito, siendo hereditario el cargo de jefe. It should also be noted that the more popular and official term used to refer to the leaders of the district or to the cacique during the Spanish period was Cabeza de Barangay.
  2. ^ “También fundó convento el Padre Fray Martin de Rada en Araut- que ahora se llama el convento de Dumangas- con la advocación de nuestro Padre San Agustín...Está fundado este pueblo casi a los fines del río de Halaur, que naciendo en unos altos montes en el centro de esta isla (Panay)...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla...Hay en dicho pueblo algunos buenos cristianos...Las visitas que tiene son ocho: tres en el monte, dos en el río y tres en el mar...Las que están al mar son: Santa Ana de Anilao, San Juan Evangelista de Bobog, y otra visita más en el monte, entitulada Santa Rosa de Hapitan.” Gaspar de San Agustin, O.S.A., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565-1615), Manuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas: Madrid 1975, pp. 374-375.
  3. ^ In Mindanao, there have been several Sultanates. The Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu, and Confederation of Sultanates in Lanao are among those which are more known in history. Cf. http://www.royalsocietydignitariesgroup.org/royal-house-of-sultan-council.php
  4. ^ The Olongapo Story, July 28, 1953 - Bamboo Breeze - Vol.6, No.3
  5. ^ The title is also being used in Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Cf. Dato and Datuk.
  6. ^ Jovito S. Abellana, "Bisaya Patronymesis Sri Visjaya" (Ms., Cebuano Studies Center, ca. 1960)
  7. ^ Maragtas by Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro
  8. ^ a b c http://scjphil.org/mindanao%20land%20of%20promise.htm
  9. ^ a b http://findarticles.com/p/news-articles/manila-bulletin/mi_7968/is_2009_April_22/lumad-chieftain-abandons-rebel-movement/ai_n35458725/
  10. ^ http://muslim.mindanao.com/2010/02/chieftains/
  11. ^ During the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines the Spanish Augustinian Friar, Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A., describes Iloilo and Panay as one of the most populated islands in the archipelago and the most fertile of all the islands of the Philippines. He also talks about Iloilo, particularly the ancient settlement of Halaur, as site of a progressive trading post and a court of illustrious nobilities. The friar says: Es la isla de Panay muy parecida a la de Sicilia, así por su forma triangular come por su fertilidad y abundancia de bastimentos... Es la isla más poblada, después de Manila y Mindanao, y una de las mayores, por bojear más de cien leguas. En fertilidad y abundancia es en todas la primera... El otro corre al oeste con el nombre de Alaguer [Halaur], desembocando en el mar a dos leguas de distancia de Dumangas...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla...Mamuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565-1615), Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1975, pp. 374-376.
  12. ^ The encomienda of 1604 shows that many coastal barangays in Panay, Leyte and Cebu were flourishing trading centers. Some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants; in Leyte (Baybay) 15,000 inhabitants; and in Cebu, 3,500 residents. There were smaller barangays with less number of people. But these were generally inland communities; or if they were coastal, they were not located in areas which were good for business pursuits. Cf. F. Landa Jocano, Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage (1998), pp. 157-158, 164
  13. ^ Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, p. 4. Also cf. Antonio Morga, Sucessos de las Islas Filipinas, 2nd ed., Paris: 1890, p. xxxiii.
  14. ^ William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, pp. 102 and 112
  15. ^ In Panay, even at present, the landed descendants of the Principales are still referred to as Agalon or Amo by their tenants. However, the tenants are no longer called Oripon (in Karay-a, i.e., the Ilonggo sub-dialect) or Olipun (in Sinâ, i.e., Ilonggo spoken in the lowlands and cities). Instead, the tenants are now commonly referred to as Tinawo (subjects)
  16. ^ William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, pp. 112- 118.
  17. ^ http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/pssr/article/viewFile/1274/1630 Seclusion and Veiling of Women: A Historical and Cultural Approach
  18. ^ William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, p. 113.
  19. ^ Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, pp. 124-125.
  20. ^ a b c d Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, p. 125.
  21. ^ “It is not right that the Indian chiefs of Filipinas be in a worse condition after conversion; rather they should have such treatment that would gain their affection and keep them loyal, so that with the spiritual blessings that God has communicated to them by calling them to His true knowledge, the temporal blessings may be added and they may live contentedly and comfortably. Therefore, we order the governors of those islands to show them good treatment and entrust them, in our name, with the government of the Indians, of whom they were formerly lords. In all else the governors shall see that the chiefs are benefited justly, and the Indians shall pay them something as a recognition, as they did during the period of their paganism, provided it be without prejudice to the tributes that are to be paid us, or prejudicial to that which pertains to their encomenderos.” Felipe II, Ley de Junio 11, 1594 in Recapilación de leyes, lib. vi, tit. VII, ley xvi. Also cf. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands (1493-1898), Cleveland: The A.H. Clark Company, 1903, Vol. XVI, pp. 155-156.The original text in Spanish (Recapilación de leyes) says: No es justo, que los Indios Principales de Filipinas sean de peor condición, después de haberse convertido, ántes de les debe hacer tratamiento, que los aficione, y mantenga en felicidad, para que con los bienes espirituales, que Dios les ha comunicado llamándolos a su verdadero conocimiento, se junten los temporales, y vivan con gusto y conveniencia. Por lo qua mandamos a los Gobernadores de aquellas Islas, que les hagan buen tratamiento, y encomienden en nuestro nombre el gobierno de los Indios, de que eran Señores, y en todo lo demás procuren, que justamente se aprovechen haciéndoles los Indios algún reconocimiento en la forma que corría el tiempo de su Gentilidad, con que esto sin perjuicio de los tributos, que á Nos han de pagar, ni de lo que á sus Encomenderos. Juan de Ariztia, ed., Recapilación de leyes, Madrid (1723), lib. vi, tit. VII, ley xvi. This reference can be found at the library of the Estudio Teologico Agustiniano de Valladolid in Spain.
  22. ^ Cf. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands (1493-1898), Cleveland: The A.H. Clark Company, 1903, Vol. XL, p. 218.
  23. ^ Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands (1493-1898), Cleveland: The A.H. Clark Company, 1903, Vol. XXVII, pp. 296-297.
  24. ^ Gobernadorcillo in Encyclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Américana, Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, S.A.,1991, Vol. XLVII, p. 410
  25. ^ a b Cf. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands (1493-1898), Cleveland: The A.H. Clark Company, 1903, Vol. XVII, p. 329.
  26. ^ William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, pp. 117-118.
  27. ^ Cf. footnote n.3.
  28. ^ Cf. Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands (1493-1898), Cleveland: The A.H. Clark Company, 1903, Vol. XVII, p. 331; Ibid., Vol. XL, p. 218.
  29. ^ Cf. also Encomienda; Hacienda.
  30. ^ Cf. The Impact of Spanish Rule in the Philippines in www.seasite.niu.edu.[1]
  31. ^ "The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997.") Sec. 2. Declaration of State Policies.- The State shall recognize and promote all the rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples (ICCs/IPs) hereunder enumerated within the framework of the Constitution: a) The State shall recognize and promote the rights of ICCs/IPs within the framework of national unity and development; b)The State shall protect the rights of ICCs/IPs to their ancestral domains to ensure their economic, social and cultural well being and shall recognize the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or relations in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain; c) The State shall recognize, respect and protect the rights of ICCs/IPs to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of national laws and policies; d) The State shall guarantee that members of the ICCs/IPs regardless of sex, shall equally enjoy the full measure of human rights and freedoms without distinctions or discriminations; e) The State shall take measures, with the participation of the ICCs/IPs concerned, to protect their rights and guarantee respect for their cultural integrity, and to ensure that members of the ICCs/IPs benefit on an equal footing from the rights and opportunities which national laws and regulations grant to other members of the population and f) The State recognizes its obligations to respond to the strong expression of the ICCs/IPs for cultural integrity by assuring maximum ICC/IP participation in the direction of education, health, as well as other services of ICCs/IPs, in order to render such services more responsive to the needs and desires of these communities. Towards these ends, the State shall institute and establish the necessary mechanisms to enforce and guarantee the realization of these rights, taking into consideration their customs, traditions, values, beliefs, their rights to their ancestral domains.......(http://www.chanrobles.com/republicactno8371.htm,
  32. ^ Sultan of Sulu
  33. ^ http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/2011/05/13/sultan-of-sulu-attends-wedding-in-malaysia/
  34. ^ Jamalul Kiram III was a member of the Rumah Bichara (Council of the Sultan) during the reign of his late uncle, Sultan Esmail Kiram (1962–1974). He acted as "Interim Sultan" during the absence of his father Sultan Punjungan Kiram while in Sabah (1974–1981) and proclaimed in 1984 as 33rd Sultan of Sulu. He was crowned on June 15, 1986 in Jolo, Sulu.
  35. ^ Titular Sultan of Sulu from 1990-1999
  36. ^ Ismael Kiram II is the second son of Punjungan Kiram and younger brother of Jamalul Kiram III, and titular Sultan of Sulu since 1999.
  37. ^ http://royalsulu.com/rca.html
  38. ^ Sultan of Sulu
  39. ^ "Asia America Initiative". Asia America Initiative. http://www.asiaamerica.org/gallery/december_2003.html. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  40. ^ "Memo Order 427". Royal House of Sulu. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!hrh-raja-muda. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  41. ^ http://globalnation.inquirer.net/news/breakingnews/view/20080717-149023/Sulu-sultans-heirs-drop-Sabah-claim
  42. ^ http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/7/13/nation/21813677&sec=nation
  43. ^ http://maguindanaosultans.blogspot.com/2009/01/members-family-of-royal-house-of.html
  44. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/24599/lumad-first-to-sit-in-council
  45. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20100306-256931/Banished-Tagbanuas-reclaim-Calauit
  46. ^ http://au.totaltravel.yahoo.com/news-opinions/opinion/show/2529993/with-the-king-of-coron/
  47. ^ http://www.thetagbanua.blogspot.com/
  48. ^ Commission from Sultan of Sulu appointing Baron de Overbeck (an Austrian who was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire's Consul-General in Hong Kong) Dato Bendahara and Rajah of Sandakan. Dated 22nd of January 1878, The National Archives (United Kingdom).
  49. ^ Sultanate of Sulu
  50. ^ http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org
  51. ^ Historians classify four types of unhispanized societies in the Philippines, some of which still survive in remote and isolated parts of the Country: 1.) Classless societies; 2.) Warrior societies, characterized by a distinct warrior class, in which membership is won by personal achievement, entails privilege, duty and prescribed norms of conduct, and is requisite for community leadership; 3.) Petty Plutocracies, which are dominated socially and politically by a recognized class of rich men who attain membership through birthright, property and the performance of specified ceremonies. They are "petty" because their authority is localized, being extended by neither absentee landlordism nor territorial subjugation; 4.) Principalities, mostly found in Mindanao. Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, p. 139.
  52. ^ Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, pp. 127-147.
  53. ^ a b http://www.concourt.am/armenian/legal_resources/world_constitutions/constit/philipin/philip-e.htm
  54. ^ “There are not a few judgments, civil and criminal, albeit some very recent, all of which tend as a rule to the acceptance of traditional principles re-enunciated not long since. The issue is that of innate nobility - Jure sanguinis - which looks into the prerogatives known as jus majestatis and jus honorum and which argues that the holder of such prerogatives is a subject of international law with all the logical consequences of that situation. That is to say, a deposed Sovereign may legitimately confer titles of nobility, with or without predicates, and the honorifics which pertain to his heraldic patrimony as head of his dynasty.The qualities which render a deposed Sovereign a subject of international law are undeniable and in fact constitute an absolute personal right of which the subject may never divest himself and which needs no ratification or recognition on the part of any other authority whatsoever. A reigning Sovereign or Head of State may use the term recognition in order to demonstrate the existence of such a right, but the term would be a mere declaration and not a constitutive act”. A notable example of this principle is that of the People's Republic of China which for a considerable time was not recognized and therefore not admitted to the United Nations, but which nonetheless continued to exercise its functions as a sovereign state through both its internal and external organs. “The prerogatives which we are examining may be denied and a sovereign state within the limits of its own sphere of influence may prevent the exercise by a deposed Sovereign of his rights in the same way as it may paralyze the use of any right not provided in its own legislation. However such negating action does not go to the existence of such a right and bears only on its exercise. To sum up, therefore, the Italian judiciary, in those cases submitted to its jurisdiction, has confirmed the prerogatives jure sanguinis of a dethroned Sovereign without any vitiation of its effects, whereby in consequence it has explicitly recognized the right to confer titles of nobility and other honorifics relative to his dynastic heraldic patrimony. In particular it has defined the above-mentioned honorifics, among which are those non-national Orders mentioned in Article 7 of the (Italian) Law of the 3rd. March 1951 which prohibits private persons from conferring honors. As to titles of nobility, while their bestowal is legitimate, it must be observed that they receive no protection whatsoever from Italian law, which no longer recognizes statutory nobility, in accordance with the principles enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic. Thus, the concept of the usurpation of a nobiliary title falls outside of Italian legislation.” Cf. Professor Emilio Furno (Advocate in the Italian Supreme Court of Appeal), The Legitimacy of Non-National Orders in Rivista Penale, No.1, January 1961, pp. 46-70.
  55. ^ http://www.nobility-association.com/nobiliarylaw.htm
  56. ^ Cf. also Paulo Bonavides, Political Sciences (Ciência Política), p. 126.
  57. ^ Also cf. Professor Emilio Furno (Advocate in the Italian Supreme Court of Appeal), The Legitimacy of Non-National Orders in Rivista Penale, No.1, January 1961, pp. 46-70.

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