Treaty on the Creation of the USSR

Treaty on the Creation of the USSR
Treaty of the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Russian: Договор об образовании СССР
Type Union treaty
Signed 30 December 1922
Location Moscow, Russian SFSR
Expiration 26 December 1991
Union dissolved at last session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
Signatories  Russian SFSR
Flag of the Ukrainian SSR (1923-1927).svg Ukrainian SSR
Flag of the Byelorussian SSR (1919).svg Byelorussian SSR
 Transcaucasian SFSR

The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR is a document that legalized the creation of a union of several Soviet republics in the form of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Declaration of the Creation of the USSR was also issued; it may be considered a political preamble to the Treaty.

On December 29, 1922, a conference of delegations from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, these two documents were confirmed by the 1st Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by heads of delegations[1] - Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze and Grigory Petrovsky, Aleksandr Chervyakov[2] respectively on December 30, 1922.

Successive republics were formed by separate amendments to the treaty.


1922 – 1940

The first such examples were the Uzbek and Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republics, which on October 27, 1924, were separated from Turkestanian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the RSFSR. Following this, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, formerly part of the Uzbek SSR was elevated to a union republic on October 16, 1929, becoming the Tajik SSR.

The Transcaucasian SFSR existed until December 5, 1936, when it was broken into Armenian, Georgian and Azerbaijani SSRs. The same day Turkestanian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the RSFSR ceased to exist, and its territory was divided between the new Kazakh and Kirghiz SSRs.


In prelude to the World War II, several new republics were created prior to the German invasion of USSR in 1941. First was the Karelo-Finnish SSR, which on March 31, 1940 was elevated to a union republic from the Karelian ASSR, previously part of the RSFSR.

After the annexation of Baltic states, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia were transformed into the Lithuanian SSR (July 13), Latvian SSR (July 21) and Estonian SSR (also July 21), and were formally adjoined to the Soviet Union on August 3, August 5 and August 6, respectively. The final republic was the Moldovian SSR that merged the large territory of Bessarabia with the Moldovian ASSR previously part of the Ukrainian SSR.

After the War, no new republics were established, instead the Karello-Finnish SSR was downgraded into an autonomous republic and re-annexed by the RSFSR on July 16, 1956.

On December 8, 1991, the leaders of the Ukrainian and Belorussian SSRs, and the RSFSR met to agree on the annulment of the 1922 treaty, which was terminated on December 25, 1991, effectively dissolving the USSR.

On March 15, 1996, the State Duma of the Russian Federation expressed its legal position in relation to the decision of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR "The denunciation of the Treaty establishing the Soviet Union" as the wrongful, unconstitutional act passed by a grave violation of the Constitution of the RSFSR, the norms of international law and then in force legislation. [3]


  • December 21, 1922 - Treaty signed.
  • December 30, 1922 - Treaty ratified.
  • October 27, 1924 - Uzbek and Turkmen populated regions of the Turkestani ASSR (previously of RSFSR) elevated into union republics.
  • October 16, 1929 - Tajik SSR created from the Tajik ASSR (previously part of the RSFSR).
  • December 5, 1936 - Simultaneous split of the Transcaucasian SFSR into Armenian, Georgian and Azerbaijani SSRs. Simultaneous breakup of the RSFSR administered Turkestan (then consisting of Kazakh and Kirgiz ASSRs) into Kazakh and Kirgiz SSRs.
  • March 31, 1940 - RSFSR administered Karelian ASSR raised into the Karelo-Finnish SSR.
  • August 3, 1940 - Lithuanian SSR joins USSR.
  • August 5, 1940 - Latvian SSR joins USSR.
  • August 6, 1940 - Estonian SSR joins USSR.
  • August 24, 1940 - Moldavian SSR created from the Ukrainian administered Moldavian ASSR and annexed Romanian territory of Bessarabia.
  • July 16, 1956 - Karelo-Finnish SSR downgraded into an autonomous republic and re-annexed by RSFSR.
  • December 8, 1991 - Treaty termination agreed by three of the four founding republics.
  • December 25, 1991 - Treaty terminated.

See also


  1. ^ (Russian)Voted Unanimously for the Union
  2. ^ (Russian)Creation of the USSR at

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