- Administrative division of Polish territories after partitions
This article covers the changing administration of the territories acquired after three partitions of Poland in the late 18th century by the
Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussiaand the Russian Empirein the period 1772-1918. These changes were further complicated by the changes within those states and periodic recreations of some form of Polish state itself.
It does not cover the administrative divisions of two main Polish states of the 19th century -
administrative division of Duchy of Warsaw(1807-1815) and administrative division of Congress Poland(1815-1918). For the administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthbefore its final third partition, see Administrative division of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. For administrative divisions of the states that partitioned Poland, covering their entire administrative division, see:
* for Prussia,
Provinces of Prussia
* for Russia,
History of the administrative division of Russia,
Austrian Empire(known from second half of the 19th century as the Austro-Hungarian Empire) acquired Polish territories in the First (1772) and Third (1795) partitions of Polanddivided the former territories of the Commonwealth it obtained into:
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria- from 1772 to 1918.
*New Galicia - from 1795 to 1809
Free City of Kraków- from 1815 to 1846
Kingdom of Prussia(known from second half of the 19th century as German Empire) acquired Polish territories in all three partitions and divided the former territories of the Commonwealth it obtained into:
Netze District- from 1772 to 1793
New Silesia- from 1795 to 1807
New East Prussia- from 1795 to 1807
South Prussia- from 1793 to 1806
East Prussia- from 1773-1829
West Prussia- from 1773-1824
Russian Empirewhich acquired the territories of the Kingdom of Poland as well as of the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniain all three Partitions, divided the former territories of the Commonwealth it obtained by creating or enlarging the following guberniyas:
Lithuania Governorate, later split into Lithuania-Grodno Governorateand Lithuania-Vilna Governorate, the last one later split into Vilna and Kovno Governorates
Slonim Governorate- several moths after creation connected to Lithuania Governoratein and split off from it in 1801 as Lithuania-Grodno Governorate
Congress of Viennain 1815, the Russian Empire created a separate entity called Congress Polandout of some of the above governorates. See administrative division of Congress Polandfor details.
Territories in the Russian partition which were not incorporated into Congress Poland were officially known as the
Western Krai, and in Poland as the taken lands ( _pl. ziemie zabrane).
The Western Krai comprised the following lands of the Commonwealth:
* from the
first partition of Poland(1772): Polish Inflants( Latgale), the northern part of the Polotsk Voivodeship, the entire Mstsislaw Voivodeshipand Vitebsk Voivodeships, and the south-eastern part of the Minsk Voivodeship(about 92,000 km²)
* from the
second partition of Poland(1793): the remaining part of the Minsk Voivodeship, the entire Kiev Voivodeship, Bracław Voivodeshipand Vilnius Voivodeships, parts of Podole Voivodeshipand eastern parts of the Wołyń Voivodeship and Brest Litovsk Voivodeships (about 250,000 km²)
* from the
third partition of Poland(1795): all the territories east of the Bug river(about 120,000. km²) and after 1807 the Belostok Oblast)
It consisted of 9
guberniyas: six Belarusian and Lithuanian ones that constituted the Northwestern Krai( Vilna Governorate, Kovno Governorate, Grodno Governorate, Minsk Governorate, Mogilev Governorateand Vitebsk Governorate) and three Ukrainian ones that constituted the Southwestern Krai( Volhynia Governorate, Podolia Governorateand Kiev Governorate).
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