- F Kikan
nihongo|Fujiwara kikan|藤原機関|Fujiwara or Efu (F) Kikan was a
military intelligenceoperation established by the Imperial Japanese Armyin the early stages of the Pacific War. Set up in Bangkokin late 1941, the unit was headed by Major Fujiwara Iwaichi, chief of intelligence of the , and was tasked to contact the Indian independence movement, the overseas Chinese and the Malayan Sultan with the aim of encouraging friendship and cooperation with Japan. [Harvnb|Lebra|1977|p=23] It is notable for its success in establishing cooperative ties between the Empire of Japanand the Indian independence movement, overseas Chineseand various Malay sultans. [Harvnb|Lebra|1977|p=23]
History and development
Based on experiences in China, the Imperial Japanese Army established a semi-autonomous unit to carry out liaison duties with local independence movements in
Southeast Asiaand transmit intelligence gathered from these movements back to the army command. Two such units were established before the outbreak of World War II in South-East Asia: the Minami Kikanand the F Kikan.Harvnb|Newell|1981|p=Allen L, in Newell 1981, 83]
The F-Kikan was named after its leader, Major
Fujiwara Iwaichi, chief of intelligence of the Japanese 15th Army, initially stationed in Bangkokin late 1941. Fujiwara's staff included five commissioned officers and two Hindi-speaking interpreters.
attack on Pearl Harbor, the 15th Army was tasked with the invasion of Malaya, during which time F-Kikan rescued Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim of Kedahand his family. His son (and future Malaysian Prime Minister) Tunku Abdul Rahmanmade a radio announcement urging the Malay people to cooperate with Japan. F-Kikan also attempted to mobilize the anti-British Young Malay Union, but since most of its leadership had been arrested by the British shortly after the start of the war, its impact was minor.
The F-Kikan was also instrumental in establishing relations with
Indonesians resistance movements against Dutch colonial rule, especially in Acehin norther Sumatra, which formed a backdrop to the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. [ [http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=7428 Indonesian Volunteers in the Japanese Army.] ]
However, F-Kikan's greatest success was in its contacts with Indian independence leader
Giani Pritam Singh Dhillonand Captain Mohan Singh, and recruitment of some 40,000 Indian prisoners of warinto what eventually became the Indian National Army. [Harvnb|Lebra|1977|p=24] This development was a tremendous propagandacoup for the Japanese government, and was a direct threat to the British position in India.
After the British surrender of Singapore in 1942, F-Kikan was dissolved, and replaced by a new liaison agency, the
Iwakuro Kikan, or "I-Kikan", to coordinate activities between the Indian National Army and the Japanese army.
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Lebra
Given1 = Joyce C.
Year = 1971
Title = Japanese trained Armies in South-East Asia
Publisher = New York,Columbia University Press
ISBN = 0231039956.
Surname1 = Fay
Given1 = Peter W.
Year = 1993
Title = The Forgotten Army: India's Armed Struggle for Independence, 1942-1945.
Publisher = Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
ISBN = 0472083422 .
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Newell
Given1 = W.H.
Year = 1981
Title = Japan in Asia, 1942-1945
Publisher = National University of Singapore Press
ISBN = ISBN 9971690144.
last = Fujiwara
first = Iwaichi
year = 1983
title = F. Kikan: Japanese Army Intelligence Operations in Southeast Asia During World War 11
publisher = Heinemann
id = ISBN: 9622250726
* [http://www.waseda.jp/L3-intelligence/iwaichi-e.html The Fujiwara Iwaichi Memorial] ,
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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