Clan Mackenzie


Clan Mackenzie
Clan Mackenzie
Crest badge
Mackenzie crest.gif
Crest: A mount in flames Proper[1]
Motto: Luceo non uro (I shine not burn)[1]
Slogan: Tulach Àrd (The high hill or The high knoll or "The high hillock)
Profile
Region Highland
District Ross-shire
Plant badge variegated holly or
deer's grass
Gaelic name Mac Coinnich
Chief

Earl of cromartie arms.svg
John Ruaridh Grant Mackenzie
5th Earl of Cromartie

Clan Mackenzie is a Highland Scottish clan, traditionally associated with Kintail and lands in Ross-shire.

Contents

Origins

The Mackenzies, a powerful clan of Celtic stock, were not among the clans that originated from Norman ancestry. Descendants of the long defunct royal Cenél Loairn of Dál Riata, they are believed to be related to Clan Matheson and Clan Anrias. All three descend from the 12th century Gill'Eòin of the Aird. Based initially in Kintail, the clan was recorded at Eilean Donan on Loch Duich, a stronghold with which it was for many centuries associated. For generations, the constable of Eilean Donan was traditionally Macrae of Inverinate, with the result that the Clan Macrae became known as "Mackenzie's shirt of mail". There were also strongholds at Kilcoy Castle and Brahan Castle and the Mackenzies of Tarbat had their seat at Castle Leod, in Strathpeffer in the 17th century.

Traditional early history

There was a tradition - not borne out, however, by any tangible evidence or confirmation and quite possibly invented by the Earl of Cromartie - that the family deduced its descent from a member of the House of Geraldine, in Ireland (whence sprang the noble families of Leinster, Desmond, &c.), who, with a considerable number of his followers, was stated to have settled in Scotland about the year 1261 and to have so powerfully aided King Alexander III in repelling the invasion of Haco, King of Norway. He was reportedly rewarded by a grant of the lands of Kintail, in the County of Ross, which were erected into a free Barony by charter, dated 9 January 1266. Therefore, Colin Fitzgerald was the first feudal Baron of Kintail.

His grandson, who in the Gaelic was called Coinneach Mac Choinnich (Kenneth, son of Kenneth), 3rd Baron of Kintail, became corrupted in English into Mackenzie and hence arose all the families of Mackenzie in Scotland. The name "Mackenzie", therefore, coming from the Gaelic: "Mac Coinnich" meaning: "Son of the Fair One".

In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Mackenzie is said to have been among the clans who fought against the English. The Clan Mackenzie fought on the side of King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Inverurie (1308) against the forces of the Clan Comyn who were rivals to the throne. Chief Iain Mac Coinnich is said to have led a force of five hundred Mackenzies at the Battle of Bannockburn 1314 where the English were defeated.[2]

Later in the 14th century the Mackenzies are said to have become involved in battles against their powerful neighbour the Earl of Ross and his allies. This resulted in the capture and subsequent execution of chief Kenneth Mackenzie in 1346. Soon after this it appears that his successor, chief of the clan Mackenzie was living in an island castle in Loch Kinellan near Strathpeffer in Easter Ross and it was from this base that the clan was to advance westward once again to Kintail.[3]

History

The earliest likeness of a Mackenzie - the effigy of Kenneth Mackenzie, 7th of Kintail (d. 1491/ 1492) located at Beauly Priory.

Early history

The earliest contemporary record of a Mackenzie is of Alexander Mackenzie of Kintail (Alexandro McKennye de Kintaill) who is listed as a witness to a charter by John of Islay, Earl of Ross, and Lord of the Isles on November 4, 1471.[4] The earliest known likeness of a Mackenzie is that of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie (d. February 7, 1491/1492), whose effigy can be seen at Beauly Priory.[5] He is the first Mackenzie to be buried at Beauly Priory. There is no reliable evidence to support the traditional assertion that previous members of his family were buried at Iona.[6]

15th century and clan conflicts

The Battle of Bealach nam Broig was fought to the north-west of Ben Wyvis, perhaps in about 1452, between a force of Munros and Dingwalls against a force of western tribes loyal to Mackenzie of Kintail who had taken hostage the Earl of Ross's son. The Munros and their allies rescued the Ross hostage but won a hollow victory with the loss of their chiefs, George Munro of Foulis and William Dingwall of Kildun.[7][8]

The Battle of Blàr-na-Pairc was fought, perhaps in about 1477, between the Clan Mackenzie and Clan MacDonald. The MacDonalds were defeated.[9]

At the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488, the Clan Mackenzie fought under Hector Roy Mackenzie on the side of King James III of Scotland against an army of Scottish nobles who favoured the King's then-15-year-old son, Prince James.

The Raid on Ross took place in 1491 in the Scottish Highlands. It was fought between the Clan Mackenzie and a number of clans including the Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh, Clan MacDonald of Clanranald the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh.[10]

The Battle of Drumchatt took place in 1497. In 1495 King James assembled an army at Glasgow and, on 18 May 1495, many of the Highland Chiefs made their submissions to him, including the Mackenzies and Munros. Soon after this Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh and his clan rebelled against the King. Macdonald invaded the fertile lands of Ross-shire where he was defeated in battle by the Munros and Mackenzies at Drumchatt, after which he was driven out of Ross-shire. He escaped southward amongst the Isles but was caught on the island of Oransay, by Mac Iain of Ardnamurchan, and put to death.[11]

Map of Scotland showing the district of Ross, where the Mackenzies lived.

16th century and clan conflicts

During the Anglo-Scottish Wars John Mackenzie, 9th of Kintail led the clan at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 where he was captured by the English. The Mackenzies paid a ransom for his release. The growing importance of the Clan Mackenzie was vividly demonstrated in 1544 when the Earl of Huntly, the Lieutenant of the North, commanded John Mackenzie of Killin to raise his clan against Clan Ranald of Moidart. The Mackenzie chief refused and Huntly's supporters, the Clan Grant, Clan Ross and Clan Mackintosh declined to attack the Mackenzies. From that time the Mackenzies were recognised as a separate and superior force in the north-west.[12]

On 13 December 1545 at Dingwall, the Earl of Sutherland entered into a bond of manrent with John Mackenzie of Kintail for mutual defence against all enemies, reserving only their allegiance to the youthful Mary, Queen of Scots.[13]

At the Battle of Langside, in 1568, the Mackenzies fought on the side of Mary, Queen of Scots, against the forces of her half-brother James Stewart, Earl of Moray. Their chief, Kenneth Mackenzie, 10th of Kintail died soon afterwards.

The Mackenzies were often at feud with the Munros, and Andrew Munro of Milntown defended and held, for three years, the Castle Chanonry of Ross, which he had received from the Regent Moray who died in 1569, against the Clan Mackenzie, at the expense of many lives on both sides. The feud was settled when the castle was handed over to the Mackenzies peacefully after the Mackenzies had improved their legal claim to the castle.[14][15][16]

The small-scale Battle of Logiebride in 1597 involved a fight at a fair in Logiebride between clansmen from the Clan Bane, Clan Munro and the Mackenzies.[17][18][19]

17th century and Civil War

A romanticised Victorian-era illustration of a Clan Mackenzie clansmen by R. R. McIan from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands published in 1845.

The Battle of Morar in 1602 was fought between the Clan Mackenzie and Clan MacDonell of Glengarry.[20]

In 1623, the clan chief Colin Mackenzie was made Earl of Seaforth, a title in the peerage of Scotland, taking his title from a sea loch on the island of Lewis. In 1645, Lord Seaforth led a large force of Scottish Covenanters. They fought against James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, who was the commander of the Royalist forces in Scotland at the Battle of Auldearn in 1645.

In 1646 during the Civil War the Mackenzies were still in possession of the Castle Chanonry of Ross. However, John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton laid siege to the castle and took it from the Mackenzies after a siege of four days.[21] The Mackenzies retook the castle again in 1649.

In 1649 Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine led a force which included Colonel John Munro of Lemlair, Colonel Hugh Fraser and Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty in taking Inverness Castle. They were all opposed to the authority of the current parliament. However, on the approach of the parliamentary forces led by General David Leslie, the clans retreated back into Ross-shire, with the exception of the Mackenzies, who left a garrison of men in Inverness Castle; Leslie withdrew to deal with a rising in the south. Skirmishes took place between these parties over the following year and the Mackenzies retook the Castle Chanonry of Ross from the Parliamentary forces. Soon afterward, however, the Parliamentary forces (led by a Colonel Kerr) soon took the Mackenzie stronghold of Redcastle and hanged the garrison.[22][23]

The Battle of Mulroy, in 1668, involved the Clan Mackenzie and Clan Mackintosh, on the one hand, and the Clan MacDonald and Clan Cameron, on the other.

In 1672 Ardvreck Castle was attacked and captured by the Mackenzies, who took control of the lands of Assynt. In 1726 they constructed a more modern manor house nearby, Calda House, which takes its name from the Calda burn beside which it stands. The house burned down under mysterious circumstances one night in 1737 and both Calda House and Ardvreck Castle stand as ruins today.[24]

During the Williamite War in Ireland the Clan Mackenzie (led by their chief Kenneth Mackenzie, 4th Earl of Seaforth) are believed to have supported King James at the siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in 1690.

18th century and Jacobite Risings

During the Jacobite Rising of 1715 chief William Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Seaforth led the Clan Mackenzie in support of the Jacobite rebels. However during the Jacobite Rising of 1745 his son, the next chief, Kenneth Mackenzie, Lord Fortrose did not support the Jacobites. However during the 1745 rising the Clan Mackenzie followed the chief's cousin, George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie, who did support the Jacobites.

1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising

A MacKenzie of Seaforth crest
"CUIDICH' N' RIGH" (Save the King) The older Clan MacKenzie crest

.

In 1715 the Earl of Seaforth, chief of Mackenzie led a force of 3000 men headed by the Clan Mackenzie which also included men from the Clan MacDonald, Clan Mackinnon, Clan MacRae and the Clan Chisholm. He was opposed by Colonel Sir Robert Munro, 6th Baronet who had formed a camp at the Bridge of Alness with 600 men including men from Clan Ross. Munro was soon joined by the Earl of Sutherland and the chief of Clan Mackay who both brought with them only a portion of their clans and expected support from the Clan Grant did not arrive. The Earl of Seaforth's forces advanced on the Sutherland's camp who made a quick retreat to avoid contact with their more powerful foe. It is said that the Earl of Seaforth himself said that they made a wise move. Soon after a council of war was held between the two sides and the Sutherlanders and MacKays peacefully moved back north to their own territory, while much of the Ross's and Munro's lands were ravaged.[25]

Inverness 1715, During the early Jacobite Uprising the Mackenzie Jacobite garrison at Inverness were trapped by the Clan Fraser. The Clan MacDonald of Keppoch did attempt to relieve the Mackenzies, but their path was blocked by the Frasers, and Keppoch was forced to retreat. Inverness was surrendered to Simon Fraser of Lovat upon the very day when the Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought and another Jacobite force was defeated at the Battle of Preston. Soon after this 31 year old Colonel Robert Munro of Foulis marched into the town of Inverness with 400 Munros and took over control as governor from Fraser. Government troops arrived in Inverness towards the end of February, and for some months the process of disarming the rebels went on, helped by a Munro detachment under George Munro of Culcairn.

The clan rivalries which had erupted in rebellion were finding an outlet in local politics. The Mackenzie's position as Earl of Seaforth came to an end in 1716, and it seems to have been arranged that while the Clan Ross held the county seat the Munros would represent the Tain Burghs. To secure the burghs, control of three out of the five was necessary. Ross ascendancy was secure in Tain, and from 1716 to 1745 the Munros controlled Dingwall.

Many men from the clan fought at the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719 where they were defeated by Government forces and where the Mackenzie chief was wounded. He afterwards escaped to France. In 1721 the Clan Mackenzie defeated the Clan Ross at the Battle of Glen Affric.[26]

1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising

George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie led the Clan Mackenzie at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where they were victorious in helping to defeat British Government forces. The Mackenzies then went on to lay waste to the lands of the Munros who supported the government and burn down Foulis Castle. They also went on to lay waste to the lands of the Clan Sutherland and the Earl of Sutherland who also supported the government and captured Dunrobin Castle, although the Earl of Sutherland himself escaped through a back door.[27]

However soon after as the Earl of Cromartie and his forces were travelling south to meet Charles Edward Stuart they were attacked by the Clan Sutherland near Bonar Bridge, in what became known as the Battle of Littleferry and the Clan Mackenzie were prevented from joining the Jacobite army at the Battle of Culloden.[28]

Soon after George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie and his son were surprised and captured at Dunrobin Castle. The Earl of Cromartie's titles were then forfeited.[29]

However Mackenzies later took the side of the British government in one of the Independent Companies under Captain Colin Mackenzie. It is recorded that the Mackenzie Company was at Shiramore in Badenoch in June 1746 and it included many of them from Kintail as well as more than sixty men from the Clan MacRae.[30]

War, France, and India

A number of famous regiments have been raised from the MacKenzie clan, including the Highland Light Infantry (raised in 1777), the Seaforth Highlanders (raised in 1778), and the second battalion of the Seaforth Highlanders, known as the Ross-shire Buffs (raised in 1793). All those regiments wore the MacKenzie tartan.

Born in 1754, Chief Francis Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, the last Lord Seaforth raised a regiment for the British Army in 1778, the 72nd, and the clan produced another the 78th in 1793. Both had distinguished records fighting against Napoleon and were later amalgamated into the Queen's Own Highlanders.

The 78th Regiment, as it was first called, was raised in 1778 from men on the Seaforth and other Mackenzie estates. The Earl of Seaforth, having raised his men, sailed with them to India in 1781, but died there a few months later.

During the Wars in India, Colin Mackenzie (1754–1821) was Surveyor General of India, and an art collector and orientalist. He produced many of the first accurate maps of India, and his research and collections contributed significantly to the field of Asian studies. In 1799, he was part of the British force at the Battle of Seringapatam. He also fought in the Napoleonic Wars.

Modern history

Castle Leod, seat of the chief of Clan Mackenzie.

Throughout the 19th century Clan Mackenzie was without a chief that was recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms.[31] In 1979, Roderick Grant Francis Blunt-Mackenzie, 4th Earl of Cromartie legally changed his surname to Mackenzie and was appointed chief of Clan Mackenzie by the Lord Lyon King of Arms.[32] Although not descended from a Mackenzie in the male line (his father was born a Blunt and later changed to Blunt-Mackenzie after marrying Sibell Lilian Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, Countess of Cromartie) he inherited his titles and Mackenzie descent through his mother (even she only claims a Mackenzie descent as a great-great-great-great-granddaughter of George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie).[33][34] On his death in 1990 his son John Ruaridh Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Cromartie succeeded as chief of Clan Mackenzie.[35] The Earl of Cromartie still owns lands in clan country however, the largest remaining Mackenzie landowner by some margin is Mackenzie of Gairloch, with an estate which extends to over 50,000 acres (like the clan chief, Mackenzie of Gairloch has inherited his clan name and lands through the female line).[5][36] The current chief is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs.[31][37]

The current chief of Clan Mackenzie lives at Castle Leod, which is thought to date from the 16th century. The chief has leased the unoccupied old tower to the Clan Mackenzie Charitable Trust (CMCT) for 99 years.[38] In 1991 it was announced that the castle was planned to be restored. The restoration was to include a clan genealogical centre that would be open to the public.[39] During the 1990s there was extensive work done on the tower. In 2002 the Highland Buildings Preservation Trust (HBPT) was contacted, and public funding was sought to cover the costs of restoration. Because of concerns of physical and legal separation between the clan chief and the tower, the chief decided that the conditions of public funding were too onerous.[38]

The Mackenzie dress tartan is a modern tartan.
The Mackenzie tartan, otherwise known as the regimental tartan of the Seaforth Highlanders.

Chief

Clan chief: John Ruaridh Grant Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Cromartie (1861), Viscount Tarbat of Tarbat, Baron Castlehaven, Baron MacLeod of Castle Leod, Chief of Clan Mackenzie.[40] Chiefs of Clan Mackenzie are title as Caberféidh (translation from Scottish Gaelic: "Deer's antlers"). This Gaelic title is derived from the crest of a stag's head in the old Mackenzie Coat of Arms.[5]

Tartan

Tartans associated with the name Mackenzie include :

  • Mackenzie.[1]
    The tartan is the regimental tartan of the Seaforth Highlanders, which was raised in 1778 by the Earl of Seaforth. The tartan is recorded in the Collection of the Highland Society of London in 1816.[41][42] The tartan is worn by members of the Royal Military College of Canada Pipes and Drums band.
  • Mackenzie dress.[1]
  • Mackenzie hunting.[1]
  • Mackenzie Millennium, also known as Mackenzie 78th Highlanders.[1]
    This tartan, according to the Clan Mackenzie Society of Scotland and the UK website, was recently "discovered" and recreated for the "Millennium Gathering". The society currently sells this tartan.[41]

Origin of the name

The surname Mackenzie is of Scottish origin and derived from Gaelic. The name is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Mac Coinnich, which is a patronymic form of the personal name Coinneach meaning "comely" or "handsome".[43][44] Today personal name Coinneach is generally Anglicised as Kenneth however Kenneth was originally used as an Anglicisation of different Gaelic personal name – Cionaodh.[44]

The Anglicised Mackenzie had originally been pronounced "Mackaingye" – with a modern English Y sound represented with the letter yogh ȝ.[5] In the 18th century it became popular to write and pronounce the name with what is the equivalent of a modern English Z sound, because of the similarity of the letter yogh and letter Z.[5] There are Lowland Scots words and Scottish names that have been affected in a similar way (example: the surname Menzies).[45]

See also

Notes and footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Clan Mackenzie Society of Scotland and the UK". http://www.clan-mackenzie.org.uk/. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  2. ^ "General History of the Highlands of Scotland - Disturbances in Moray and Caithness to 1266". http://www.electricscotland.com/history/genhist/hist25.html. 
  3. ^ Alan Mackenzie's History of the Mackenzies, chapter 3
  4. ^ McKenzie, Alan. History of the Mackenzies, p. 11. (link to chapter 2). A transcription of the charter that lists "Alexandro McKennye de Kintaill" can be found in Antiquities of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff. Illustrations of the Topography and Antiquities of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff. (volume 3). The Spalding Club, 1857. pp. 526-527.
  5. ^ a b c d e Moncreiffe of that Ilk, pp.150–154.
  6. ^ Brydall, Robert. "The Monumental Effigies of Scotland from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Volume 29 (1894–95). pp. 329–410.
  7. ^ "Bealachn nam Broig@Conflicts of the Clans". http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Humanities/FSCNS/Scots_NS/Hty_Sct/Conflict_Clans/CC/Bealach_Broige.html. 
  8. ^ "Conflicts of the Clans@ElectricScotland". http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/conflict/Bealach_Broige.html. 
  9. ^ "Conflicts of the Clans". http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Humanities/FSCNS/Scots_NS/Hty_Sct/Conflict_Clans/CC/Blar_na_Pairc.html. 
  10. ^ "The Raid on Ross@Clan Cameron.org". http://www.clan-cameron.org/battles/1491.html. 
  11. ^ "Clan MacDonald". http://www.electricscotland.com/WEBCLANS/m/macdonald/intro3.html. 
  12. ^ Alan MacKenzie's "History of the Mackenzies". Chapter 4
  13. ^ History of the Mackenzies, with genealogies of the principal families of the name, by Mackenzie, Alexander, 1833-1898 [1]
  14. ^ Alan MacKenzie's History of the MacKenzies, chapter 5
  15. ^ "Clan MUNRO". http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/munro2.html. 
  16. ^ "Doings of Mackay and the Earl of Caithness". http://www.electricscotland.com/history/genhist/hist33.html. 
  17. ^ "Conflicts of the Clans". http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Humanities/FSCNS/Scots_NS/Hty_Sct/Conflict_Clans/CC/Tumult_Ross.html. 
  18. ^ "Conflicts of the Clans". http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/conflict/Tumult_Ross.html. 
  19. ^ Alan MacKenzie's History of the MacKenzies, chapter 6
  20. ^ ’Conflicts of the Clans’ published in 1764 by the Foulis press, written from a manuscript wrote in the reign of James VI of Scotland. [2]
  21. ^ "www.electricscotland.com/history/genhist/hist46.html". http://www.electricscotland.com/history/genhist/hist46.html. 
  22. ^ Alan MacKenzie's History of the MacKenzies, chapter 9
  23. ^ "website.lineone.net/~indexer/suter04.html". http://website.lineone.net/~indexer/suter04.html. 
  24. ^ "Ardvreck Castle and Calda House, near Lochinver Scotland, Scottish Villages". http://www.lochinver.bordernet.co.uk/places/ardvreck.html. 
  25. ^ Memorabilia Domestica OR PARISH LIFE IN THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND BY THE LATE REV. DONALD SAGE, A.M. MINISTER OF RESOLIS EDITED BY HIS SON. Chapter1.
  26. ^ Alan MacKenzie's History of the MacKenzies, chapter 10
  27. ^ "www.tartanthemes.com/mackenziehistory.htm". http://www.tartanthemes.com/mackenziehistory.htm. 
  28. ^ "The Clan Sutherland Society of North America, Inc". http://www.clansutherland.org/. 
  29. ^ "A Brief History Of The Clan MacKenzie". http://www.tartanthemes.com/mackenziehistory.htm. 
  30. ^ "The Independent Companies". http://www.clan-macrae.org.uk/scotland/history.cfm?ID=3. 
  31. ^ a b The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs website. (link to website) Retrieved on 2008-03-17
  32. ^ "Roderick Grant Francis Mackenzie, 4th Earl of Cromartie". http://www.thepeerage.com/p4343.htm#i43429. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  33. ^ "Lt.-Col. Edward Walter Blunt-Mackenzie". http://www.thepeerage.com/p4680.htm#i46793. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  34. ^ "Clan Mackenzie Box Chart". http://www.clan-mackenzie.org.uk/clan/chart.html#c10316. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  35. ^ McKenzie, Alan. History of the Mackenzies, pp. 176–177. (link to chapter 11)
  36. ^ Gairloch (Flowerdale & Shieldaig) & Conon. Who Owns Scotland. Retrieved on 2008-03-16 (The estate encompasses 53,625 acres (217.01 km2). The landownership in Scotland still in the hands of very few landowners. Note that of 97% of the total land in Scotland is rural, of this 87.7% ownership of private interests. Of the land in private ownership one quarter of it is held by only 66 landowners; one third of it is owned by 120; one half is owned 343; two thirds is owned by 1,252 landowners).
  37. ^ "The 5th Earl of Cromartie (Mackenzie)". http://www.clanmackenzie.com/mackenzie_clan-chief.html. Retrieved 2008-03-17. 
  38. ^ a b Castle Leod. Highland Buildings Preservation Trust (HBPT). Retrieved on 2008-03-17
  39. ^ "A History of the Clan MacKenzie". http://www.clanmackenzie.com/mackenzie_clan-history.html. Retrieved 2008-03-17. 
  40. ^ CROMARTIE, CHIEF OF MACKENZIE Retrieved 2008-03-14 (Tarbat in County Cromartie; Castlehaven in County Cromartie).
  41. ^ a b "Tartans of the Clan Mackenzie". http://www.clan-mackenzie.org.uk/clan/tartan.html. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  42. ^ "MacKenzie Clan Tartan WR267". http://www.tartans.scotland.net/tartan_info.cfm@tartan_id=1653.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  43. ^ McKenzie Name Meaning and History Retrieved 2008-03-14 (the website cites: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4).
  44. ^ a b Kenneth Name Meaning and History Retrieved on 2008-03-16 (the website cites: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4).
  45. ^ Menzies Name Meaning and History Retrieved on 2008-03-16 (the website cites: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4).

References

External links


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