- Dolphin Gas Project
The Dolphin Gas Project is the natural gas project of the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Oman. It is the GCC's first cross-border refined gas transmission project and the largest energy-related venture ever undertaken in the region.
Dolphin gas pipeline was conceived in 1999 to produce, process and transport natural gas from Qatar's North Field to the UAE and Oman. Justin Dargin, the natural gas expert who developed the first substantive research on the geopolitical and economic implications of the pipeline, argued that, fundamentally, the Dolphin pipeline represents a foundational step for increased Gulf integration. Dargin argued that the regional impact of the Dolphin project is not limited merely to natural gas export, but extends to the political, economic and financial realms.
The project involves:
- development of gas wells and installation of two platforms in Qatar's North Field;
- two multiphase sea lines from the wellheads to the processing plant;
- gas processing and compression plant at Ras Laffan in Qatar;
- offshore pipeline from Ras Laffan to Taweelah in the UAE;
- gas receiving facilities at Taweelah.
In addition, the gas supplies from Qatar to Oman are planned through the Al Ain – Fujairah pipeline, which is officially considered as separate project.
The total costs of the project are US$7 billion, of which $3.5 billion are costs of the offshore pipeline.
North Field facilities
The North Field facilities were designed by Foster Wheeler Sofresid. The first appraisal well was completed in April 2002 and the second appraisal well was completed in June 2002. The offshore platforms were constructed by J Ray McDermott Middle East Inc. The first gas from the wells were produced on 25 June 2007.
Two 36 inches (910 mm) diameter concrete-coated sealines to transport the production stream from the wellheads to the Ras Laffan processing plant were designed and installed by Saipem, a subsidiary of Eni. The 80 kilometres (50 mi) long sealines were laid in 2006.
Ras Laffan processing plant
The Ras Laffan gas processing and compression plant is located at Coordinates: . It was designed by JGC Middle East FZE, a subsidiary of JGC Corporation. Ras Laffan is the single largest gas processing plant in the world. The six compression trains are driven by 52 MW gas turbines supplied by Rolls Royce Energy Systems. The plant came on line in 2006 and compresses up to 2 billion cubic feet per day (57 million cubic metres per day) of refined methane gas. The by-products condensate, propane and butane, are sold on spot markets, while ethane is supplied to Qatar Petroleum.
The offshore pipeline from Ras Laffan to Taweelah in the UAE (export pipeline) was designed by Saipem, and the pipes were supplied by Mitsui of Japan. The 48 inches (1,200 mm) pipeline has capacity of 33 billion cubic metres (1.2 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas per year. The construction of the pipeline was objected by Saudi Arabia because of the border dispute between Saudi Arabia and the UAE, however the pipeline was built.
Taweelah receiving facilities
The gas receiving facilities at Taweelah were constructed as adjacent to the Taweelah Power Station and comprise three parallel gas-receiving trains and associated equipment, metering facilities, control buildings and warehouses and interconnecting pipelines to the Taweelah Power Stations and to the existing Maqta-Jebel Ali Pipeline. The facilities were designed by Technip of Abu Dhabi and Al Jaber Energy Services Consortium of the UAE. The construction were completed in 2006.
Al Ain – Fujairah gas pipeline
The Al-Ain – Fujairah pipeline is a 182 kilometres (113 mi) long 24 inches (610 mm) natural gas pipeline with capacity of 20 billion cubic metres (710 billion cubic feet) of natural gas per year. The pipeline was constructed in 2003. In 2004-2005, the pipeline was operated by the Emirates General Petroleum Corporation (Emarat), and since 2006 by Dolphin Energy. Until 2008, the pipeline is used for supplying Omani natural gas to the Fujairah power and desalination plant. Starting from November 2008, the pipeline is used for a regular natural gas export from Qatar to Oman.
Taweelah – Fujairah gas pipeline
The Taweelah – Fujairah pipeline is an underconstruction 244 kilometres (152 mi) long 48-inch (1,219 mm) pipeline between Taweelah gas receiving facilities and Fujairah to feed a new Fujairah power and desalination plant. It will be the longest overland natural gas pipeline in the United Arab Emirates. Five companies were invited to bid by 7 May 2008 for design and construction, and on 22 July 2008, the US$418 million contract was awarded to Stroytransgaz. Coated line pipes are supplied by Salzgitter Mannesmann International. The construction started in March 2009. On 6 May 2010, the second stage of the pipeline was completed and test deliveries started through the 128-kilometre (80 mi) section.
The project is developed and operated by Dolphin Energy, a company established in Abu Dhabi. It is the operator of all upstream, midstream and downstream phases of the project. Dolphin Energy is 51% owned by Mubadala Development Company, on behalf of the Government of Abu Dhabi, and 24.5% each owned by Total S.A. of France and Occidental Petroleum of the US. 
- ^ a b "MEED - Dolphin Pipeline: Top stories and fast facts". 2008-06-16. http://www.meed.com/feature/fast_facts/2008/08/dolphin_pipeline_fast_facts.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25.
- ^ Dargin, Justin (January 2008) (PDF). The Dolphin Project: The Development of a Gulf Gas Initiative. Working Paper NG #22. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. ISBN 978-1-901795-69-1. http://www.oxfordenergy.org/pdfs/NG22.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Dolphin Gas Project, Ras Laffan, Qatar". hydrocarbons-technology.com. http://www.hydrocarbons-technology.com/projects/dolphin-gas/. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- ^ a b "New Processing Plant at Ras Laffan Under Test" (Press release). Dolphin Energy. 2007-06-25. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927013757/http://www.dolphinenergy.com/press_news_rel_jun_25_07.html. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- ^ "Dolphin Energy produces first gas in Qatar and supplies UAE customers" (Press release). Dolphin Energy. 2007-07-10. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927013805/http://www.dolphinenergy.com/press_news_rel_jul_10_07.html. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- ^ Critchlow, Andy (2006-07-12). "Saudis demand say in Emirates pipeline". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/07/12/business/pipe.php. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- ^ "UAE & Oman sign first GCC gas pipeline accord" (Press release). Dolphin Energy. 2004-03-29. Archived from the original on 2007-06-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20070608173151/http://www.dolphinenergy.com/press_news_releases_29_march2004.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- ^ "Dolphin makes Oman leap". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2008-11-03. http://www.upstreamonline.com/live/article165849.ece. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
- ^ a b Klaus, Oliver (2008-05-05). "Dolphin Energy Set To Receive Pipeline Bids". Dow Jones Newswires. Downstream Today. http://www.downstreamtoday.com/news/article.aspx?a_id=10632. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- ^ "Dolphin Energy issues tender documents for Taweelah-Fujairah Gas Pipeline project" (Press release). Dolphin Energy. 2007-11-11. http://www.ameinfo.com/137797.html. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
- ^ Hatoum, Majdoline (2008-07-23). "Dolphin Taps Russian Firm for $418M Gas Pipeline Contract". Dow Jones Newswires. Downstream Today. http://www.downstreamtoday.com/news/article.aspx?a_id=12028. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- ^ "Stroytransgaz begins work on Taweelah Fujairah gas pipeline". SteelGuru. 2009-03-13. http://www.steelguru.com/middle_east_news/Stroytransgaz_begins_work_on_Taweelah_Fujairah_gas_pipeline/85880.html. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ "Stroytransgaz celebrates completion of phase2 of Dolphin gas pipeline". WAM/MAB. 2010-05-21. http://www.wam.org.ae/servlet/Satellite?c=WamLocEnews&cid=1273559260262&p=1135099400124&pagename=WAM%2FWamLocEnews%2FW-T-LEN-FullNews. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- ^ "Delayed Dolphin pipeline extension completed". Utilities-ME.com (ITP Business Publishing Ltd.). 2010-05-06. http://www.utilities-me.com/article-499-delayed-dolphin-pipeline-extension-completed/. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
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