- Research funding
Most research funding comes from two major sources, corporations (through
research and developmentdepartments) and government (primarily carried out through universities and specialised government agencies). Some small amounts of scientific research are carried out (or funded) by charitable foundations, especially in relation to developing cures for diseases such as cancer, malariaand AIDS.
OECD, around two-thirds of research and developmentin scientific and technical fields is carried out by industry, and 20% and 10% respectively by universitiesand government, although in poorer countries such as Portugaland Mexicothe industry contribution is significantly less. The US government spends more than other countries on military R&D, although the proportion has fallen from around 30% in the 1980s to under 20%. Government funding for medical research amounts to approximately 36% in the U.S. The government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social scienceand humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions (e.g. biotechnology) government provides the bulk of the funds for "basic" scientific research. In commercial research and development, all but the most research-oriented corporations focus more heavily on near-term commercialisation possibilities than "blue-sky" ideas or technologies (such as nuclear fusion). One of the most famous exceptions is the innovation-favouring environment of the 1970s at Xerox Parc, where various ideas including the computer mouse were developed. Similarly, IBM's research into quantum computinghas been going on for some years, and it will likely be some years more before it yields commercialisable technology.
Many governments of developed countries provide considerable funds (primarily to universities) for scientific research (in fields such as
physicsand geology) as well as social science research (in fields such as economicsand history). Much of this is not intended to provide concrete results that may be commercialisable, although research in scientific fields may lead to results that have such potential. Most university research is aimed at gaining publication in peer reviewed academic journals.
Northern and Central America
Government funding for research into defense-related technological research has historically been significant. Some of this takes place in public research institutions such as
DARPA, whilst much else is carried out by major defense contractors in expectation of being able to sell the results to the government (so is funded privately, but on the basis of implicit or explicit agreement of costs being recouped from the government).
Inventions "conceived or actually
reduced to practice" in the performance of government-funded research may be subject to the Bayh-Dole Act.
Research funding agencies:
National Institutes of Health: biomedicalresearch.
National Science Foundation: fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of scienceand engineering.
Research funding agencies:
Canada Foundation for Innovation: research infrastructure.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research: health research.
Genome Canada: genomics.
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council: natural sciences and in engineering.
Networks of Centres of Excellence[http://www.nce.gc.ca/] : partnerships between university, government and industry.
Minister of Research and Innovation (Ontario)
* Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR) (Vancouver, British Columbia) [http://www.msfhr.org]
Research funding agencies:
National ICT R&D Fund (Pakistan): The Government of Pakistan has mandated that a certain percentage of gross revenue generated by all telecom service providers be allocated to development and research of information and communication technologies. National ICT R&D Fund was established in January 2007 by Ministry of IT, Government of Pakistan with the vision to transform Pakistan's economy into a knowledge based economy by promoting efficient, sustainable and effective ICT initiatives through synergic development of industrial and academic resources.
Research funding agencies:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: scienceand humanities.
- Research Councils
Arts and Humanities Research Council Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council(EPSRC) Natural Environment Research Council(NERC) Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(BBSRC) Economic and Social Research Council(ESRC)
- Medical Research Council (MRC)
Science and Technology Facilities Council
- Funding councils
- Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (IRCSET)
- Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS)
Science Foundation Ireland
Corporate and private research
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as the pace of technological progress increased before and during the
industrial revolution, most scientific and technological research was carried out by individual inventors using their own funds. A system of patents was developed to allow inventors a period of time (often twenty years) to commercialise their inventions and recoup a profit, although in practice many found this difficult. The talents of an inventor are not those of a businessman, and there are many examples of inventors (e.g. Charles Goodyear) making rather little money from their work whilst others were able to market it.
In the twentieth century, scientific and technological research became increasingly systematised, as
corporations developed, and discovered that continuous investment in research and developmentcould be a key element of success in a competitive strategy. It remained the case, however, that imitation by competitors - circumventing or simply flouting patents, especially those registered abroad - was often just as successful a strategy for companies focused on innovation in matters of organisation and production technique, or even in marketing. A classic example is that of Wilkinson Swordand Gillette in the disposable razormarket, where the former has typically had the technological edge, and the latter the commercial one.
Criticism and support of government-funded and privately-funded research
Government-funded research allows basic science
Government-funded research into such matters as the nature of
quantum mechanicsor the existence of water on Mars
Since the value of such knowledge is often difficult or impossible to judge, and no commercial benefit (at least on any relevant time horizon) can be derived, a frequent apparently common-sense position is that therefore such knowledge should not be pursued at public expense. However, even in the most theoretical of fields, it is often difficult to determine in advance where research may lead.
For example, decades of research into quantum mechanics have made possible work on
quantum computing, which is now expected to be an even greater leap forward in computing technology than the development of the microchip, which in some areas is beginning to reach the limits of what is physically possible with this technology. It remains to be seen whether the inherent technical difficulties in quantum computing actually allow for a widespread application of this technology.
Privately-funded research is profit oriented
A characteristic of privately funded research is that it is almost always profit-oriented. In other words, private corporations tend to devote a relatively small investment to fund research into a field that shows little prospect of being profitable in the near future, even if such research could lead to highly beneficial results (for example, drug companies may not want to invest in finding the cure for a disease if most of the people affected by that disease are too poor to be able to afford such a cure). Some protest that cures and treatments for rare diseases are not pursued due to the lack of profit potential. Supporters of commercially funded research make a
utilitarianargument, saying that the fact that profit potential directs investment in treatment for diseases that afflict the many individuals rather than few individuals is a good thing, since it results in alleviating the greater amount of human suffering.
Privately-funded research is more efficient
An often-quoted example used to illustrate the difference in efficiency between government-funded and privately funded research projects is the quest of mapping the human genome. The U.S. government was funding such a mission, called the
Human Genome Project, while at the same time the quest was being pursued separately with private venture capital by Celera Genomics.
Celera Genomics used a newer, albeit riskier technique and proceeded at a faster pace and at a fraction of the cost of the tax-funded project (approximately $3 billion of taxpayer dollars versus about $300 million of private funding). Some HGP researchers claimed Celera's method of genome sequencing "would not work," however that project eventually adopted some of Celera's methods.
However, some researchers in the field of genomics have claimed that this comparison is unjust. Much of the funding provided for the HGP served the development of new technologies, rather than the sequencing of the human genome itself. Since Celera was a late-comer the company could already take advantage of the experience gained by the HGP. Though Celera's sequencing strategy allowed the sequencing of the majority of the human genome with a lot higher efficacy, the strategy used by the HGP allowed the sequencing of a higher percentage of the genome.
Influences on research
Funding influence on research
A 2005 study in the journal "Nature" surveyed 3247 US researchers who were all publicly funded (by the
National Institutes of Health). Out of the scientists questioned, 15.5% admitted to altering design, methodology or results of their studies due to pressure of an external funding source. In a contemporary study published in the " New England Journal of Medicine", a similar proportion of the 107 medical research institutions questioned were willing to allow pharmaceutical companies sponsoring research to alter manuscripts according to their interests before they were submitted for publication.
Political and social influence on research funding
Occasionally some research is politically controversial; in the US, there have been cases of controversy over research into
sexually transmitted disease, and restrictions on federally funded research into stem cells.
Research funding process
Often research funding is applied for by scientists and approved by a granting agency to financially support research. These "grants" require a lengthy process as the granting agency can inquire about the researcher(s)'s background, the facilities used, the equipment needed, the time involved, and the overall potential of the scientific outcome. The process of grant writing and grant proposing is a somewhat delicate process for both the granter and the grantee: the granter wants to choose the research that best fits their scientific principles, and the grantee wants to apply for research in which she has the best chances but also in which she can build a body of work towards future scientific endeavours. This interplay can be a frustrating and lengthy process.
*Martinson, Brian C. "et al." (2005): " [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v435/n7043/full/435737a.html Scientists behaving badly] ". "Nature" Vol.435, p.737-738.
*Mello, Michelle M. "et al." (2005): "Academic Medical Centers' Standards for Clinical-Trial Agreements with Industry". "New England Journal of Medicine" Vol.352, Iss.21, p2202-2210.
*cite news | first=Jennifer | last=Washburn | title=Science's Worst Enemy: Corporate Funding | url=http://discovermagazine.com/2007/oct/sciences-worst-enemy-private-funding | publisher= DISCOVER Magazine | date=
*cite news | first=Andrew | last=Odlyzko | authorlink=Andrew Odlyzko | title=The Decline of Unfettered Research | url=http://www.dtc.umn.edu/~odlyzko/doc/decline.txt | date=
* [http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_development/tools_resources/how_to_guides/how_to_get_funding] How to get funding, from Science Careers, from the Journal Science.
* [http://www.ResearchCrossroads.org ResearchCrossroads] Aggregated funding data from NIH, NSF, private foundations and EU
* [http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/fp6/index_en.cfm Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)] The European Unions's programme for funding and promoting research at the European level
* [http://cordis.europa.eu.int/en/home.html CORDIS - the official website of the European Unions's programme for funding and promoting research] This website contains comprehensive information on research projects already funded in addition to plans for future funding of research by the EU.
* [http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/ Research Councils UK] The portal for the UK-based Research Councils.
- Research Councils
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