England Runestones


England Runestones

:"Main article: Viking Runestones."The England Runestones is a group of c. 30 runestones that refer to Viking Age voyages to England. They constitute one of the largest groups of runestones that mention voyages to other countries, and they are comparable in number only to the c. 30 Greece RunestonesJansson 1980:34] and the 26 Ingvar Runestones, of which the latter refer to a Viking expedition to the Middle East. They were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark.

The Anglo-Saxon rulers paid large sums, Danegelds, to Vikings, who mostly came from Denmark and who arrived to the English shores during the 990s and the first centuries of the 11th century. Some runestones relate of these Danegelds, such as the Yttergärde runestone, U 344, which tells of Ulf of Borresta who received the danegeld three times, and the last one he received from Canute the Great. Canute sent home most of the Vikings who had helped him conquer England, but he kept a strong bodyguard, the Þingalið, and its members are also mentioned on several runestones.Harrison & Svensson 2007:198]

The vast majority of the runestones, 27, were raised in modern-day Sweden and 17 in the oldest Swedish provinces around lake Mälaren. In contrast, modern-day Denmark has no such runestones, but there is a Danish runestone in Scania that mentions London. There is also a runestone in Norway and a Swedish one in Schleswig, Germany.

Some Vikings, such as Guðvér did not only attack England, but also Saxony, as reported by the Grinda Runestone Sö 166 in Södermanland:

Below follows a presentation of the Greece Runestones based on information collected from the Rundata project, organized according to location. The transcriptions from runic inscriptions into standardized Old Norse are in the Swedish and Danish dialect to facilitate comparison with the inscriptions, while the English translation provided by Rundata give the names in standard dialect (the Icelandic and Norwegian dialect).

Uppland

There are eight runestones in Uppland that mention voyages to England. Several of them were raised in memory of men who had partaken in the Danegeld in England.

U 194

in Uppland.

Latin transliteration:

: al|i| |l|it raisa stain þino| |oftiR sik sialfan ' hon tuk| |knuts kialt a| |anklanti ' kuþ hialbi hons ant

Old Norse transcription:

: "Ali/Alli let ræisa stæin þenna æftiR sik sialfan. Hann tok Knuts giald a Ænglandi. Guð hialpi hans and."

English translation:

: "Áli/Alli had this stone raised in memory of himself. He took Knútr's payment in England. May God help his spirit." [Entry U 194 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 241

.

Latin transliteration:

: n tan auk huskarl ' auk sua(i)n ' l(i)tu rita stin aftiR ' ulfrik ' faþurfaþur sino ' hon hafþi o| |onklanti tuh kialt| |takit + kuþ hialbi þiRa kiþka salu| |uk| |kuþs muþ(i)

Old Norse transcription:

: "En Dan ok Huskarl ok Svæinn letu retta stæin æftiR Ulfrik, faðurfaður sinn. Hann hafði a Ænglandi tu giald takit. Guð hialpi þæiRa fæðga salu ok Guðs moðiR."

English translation:

: "And Danr and Húskarl and Sveinn had the stone erected in memory of Ulfríkr, their father's father. He had taken two payments in England. May God and God's mother help the souls of the father and son." [Entry U 241 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 344

, it is considered to be the earliest example of the Urnes style in Uppland.Horn Fuglesang 1998:201]

The runes are written from right to left with the orientation of the runes going in the same direction, but the last words outside the runic band have the usual left-right orientation.Enoksen 1998:122] It can be dated to the first half of the 11th century because of its use of the ansuz rune for the a and æ phomenes, and because of its lack of dotted runes.Enoksen 1998:124]

This stone is notable because it commemorates that the Viking Ulf of Borresta had taken three danegelds in England. The first one was with Skagul Toste in 991,Pritsak 1981:392] the second one with Thorkel the High in 1012 and the last one with Canute the Great in 1018. Since there were many years between the danegelds, it is likely that Ulfr returned to Sweden after each danegeld to live as as a wealthy magnate.Enoksen 1998:125] It is a remarkable feat in itself to summarize his adventurous life in so few unsentimental words.Jansson 1980:36]

Latin transliteration:

: in ulfr hafiR o| |onklati ' þru kialt| |takat þit uas fursta þis tusti ka-t ' þ(a) ---- (þ)urktil ' þa kalt knutr

Old Norse transcription:

: "En UlfR hafiR a Ænglandi þry giald takit. Þet vas fyrsta þet's Tosti ga [l] t. Þa [galt] Þorkætill. Þa galt Knutr."

English translation:

:"And Ulfr has taken three payments in England. That was the first that Tosti paid. Then Þorketill paid. Then Knútr paid." [Entry U 344 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 539

This runestone is located at the church of Husby-Sjuhundra. It is one of the older runestones as it is in the style RAK. It is raised in memory of Sveinn who intended to go to England but died on route in Jutland. Omeljan Pritsak comments that Sveinn probably died in the Limfjord, Jutland, as the fjord was usually the starting point for campaigns against England.Jansson 1980:38] When the fleet departed for England, Sveinn was no longer aboard.

The hope that God and God's mother would treat the man better than he deserved is an expression that appears on several runestones, and it is not understood as an expression of his having a bad character but it is a request that he should be favoured in the afterlife.Jansson 1987:116]

Latin transliteration:

: A tiarfR × uki × urika × uk ' uiki × uk × iukiR × uk × kiRialmR × þiR bryþr × aliR × litu × risa ×: B stin þina × iftiR × suin × bruþur × sin × saR × uarþ × tuþr a × iut(l)ati × on skulti: C fara × til × iklanþs × kuþ × ialbi × (o)ns × at uk salu × uk| ×| kus muþiR × betr × þan an karþi til

Old Norse transcription:

: A "DiarfR ok Orøkia ok Vigi ok IogæiRR ok GæiRhialmR, þæiR brøðr alliR letu ræisa": B "stæin þenna æftiR Svæin, broður sinn. SaR varð dauðr a Iutlandi. Hann skuldi": C "fara til Ænglands. Guð hialpi hans and ok salu ok Guðs moðiR bætr þan hann gærði til."

English translation:

: A "Djarfr and Órœkja and Vígi and Jógeirr and Geirhjalmr, all of these brothers had" : B "this stone raised in memory of Sveinn, their brother. He died in Jútland. He meant to" : C "travel to England. May God and God's mother help his spirit and soul better than he deserved." [Entry U 539 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 616

This runestone is located at Tång, and it is raised in memory of a man who died in battle in England. It is in the style Pr1, but the runemaster is considered to have had little experience in the craft.Latin transliteration:

: fir--(r)iui : lit rita * kuml : yfitiRr : fnþur : sih : baosa : auk : boruþur : kuru- * kuþ hi=a=l-... * ul kuru -ial uti * a| |akla--

Old Norse transcription:

: " let retta kuml æftiR faður sinn Bosa(?)/Bausa(?) ok broður . Guð hial [pi]

    [f] ioll uti a Ængla [ndi] ."

    English translation:

    : " had the monument erected in memory of his father Bósi(?)/Bausi(?) and (his) brother . May God help

      fell abroad in England." [Entry U 616 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      U 812

      is raised at the church of Hjälsta. It is raised in memory of a man's father who died in England.Latin transliteration:

      : × faþur × sin × saR × uarþ × tauþr × o eg×loti ×

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "faður sinn. SaR varð dauðr a Ænglandi."

      English translation:

      : "his father. He died in England." [Entry U 812 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      U 978

      This stone is located in the wall of the church of Gamla Uppsala. It is in the style Pr2 and it is made of sandstone. It was made by a man who called himself "traveller to England" in memory of his father.Latin transliteration:

      : sihuiþr ...-i + stain + þina + iklats+fari + iftir + uitarf + faþ(u)(r) [+ -... ...sia] ... ...ku---

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Sigviðr [ræist] i stæin þenna Ænglandsfari æftiR Vidiarf, faður ... ... ..."

      English translation:

      : "Sigviðr, traveller to England, raised this stone in memory of Védjarfr, (his) father ... ... ..." [Entry U 978 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      U 1181

      This fragmented runestone in style Fp is located at Lilla Runhällen and it was raised by a man who had travelled to England in memory of himself.Latin transliteration:

      : ...-(i) × lit × (a)kua ... ... [k × sa] (l)fan × ek-...ns*fari ' a(f)i × kunu-s *

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "... let haggva ... [si] k sialfan, Æng [la] ndsfari, afi ."

      English translation:

      : "... had (the stone) cut ... (in memory of) himself, traveller to England, grandfather of ." [Entry U 1181 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      ödermanland

      There are six known runestones in Södermanland that mention men who had travelled to England.

      ö 46

      This runestone was found in Hormesta, and it is one of the older runestone being in style RAK. It is raised by two men in memory of their brother who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : iskil : auk : knauþimanr : raistu : stain : þansi : at : bruþur : sin : suera : as : uarþ : tauþr * o * eklanti kuml * kiarþu : þatsi : [kitil slakR]

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Æskell ok Gnauðimandr(?) ræistu stæin þannsi at broður sinn Sværra(?), es varð dauðr a Ænglandi. Kumbl giærðu þatsi Kætill [ok] StakkR."

      English translation:

      : "Áskell and Gnauðimaðr(?) raised this stone in memory of their brother Sverri(?), who died in England. Ketill and Stakkr made this monument." [Entry Sö 46 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      ö 55

      This runestone in Bjudby is style Pr2 and it is raised by a man in memory of his son Hefnir who went to England and back, and instead of having a warrior's death overseas, he died at home. Due to the use of the ansuz rune for the o phoneme, Erik Brate argues that Hefnir participated in a late 11th century expedition to England. [http://runeberg.org/runor/0061.html Brate 1922:60] ] He suggests that Hefnir was part of the invasion force sent to England by Sweyn Estridsson, in 1069, and which was intended to defeat William the Conqueror's Normans. [http://runeberg.org/runor/0062.html Brate 1922:61] ] The invasion had been planned for two years, but William the conqueror bought off the commander of the force who was Sweyn Estridsson's brother Asbjörn.

      Latin transliteration:

      : þorstain (l)(i)... ...sa : stain : þena : ... sik : sialfan : auk : sun : sin : hefni : uaR til : enklans : ukr : trenkr : farin : uarþ : þa * haima : at : harmi tauþr kuþ hialbi : sialu : þaima bruni : auk : sloþi : þaiR ...(u) stan þena

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Þorstæinn le [t ræi] sa stæin þenna [æftiR] sik sialfan ok sun sinn Hæfni. VaR til Ænglands ungR drængR farinn, varð þa hæima at harmi dauðr. Guð hialpi sialu þæiRa. Bruni ok Sloði þæiR [rist] u stæin þenna."

      English translation:

      : "Þorsteinn had this stone raised in memory of himself and his son Hefnir. The young valiant man travelled to England; then died grievously at home. May God help their souls. Brúni and Slóði, they carved this stone." [Entry Sö 55 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      ö 83

      This runestone has disappeared but it was located at the church of Tumbo and it was possibly in style Pr4. It was made by the runemaster Näsbjörn, and what little remained of the stone when it was discovered said that a man drowned in England. Latin transliteration:

      : [...an : truknaþi : i eklans : han...]

      Old Norse transcription:

      : " [H] ann drunknaði i Ænglands ..."

      English translation:

      : "He drowned in England's ..." [Entry Sö 83 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      ö 160

      This runestone is located at the church of Råby. Like the Kolsta Runestone, it is raised in memory of a man who died in the assembly retinue ("þingalið") in England. [Pritsak 1981:339]

      Latin transliteration:

      : : aybirn : raisþi : stain : þansi : at : karþi : han uarþ : tauþr : o| |oklati i liþi

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Øybiorn ræisþi stæin þannsi at Skærði. Hann varð dauðr a Ænglandi i liði."

      English translation:

      : "Eybjôrn raised this stone in memory of Skerðir. He died in the retinue in England." [Entry Sö 160 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      ö 166

      This runestone which is located in Grinda is in the style RAK. It is raised in memory of a father who divided up gold in England and attacked some towns in northern Germany. According to Omeljan Pritsak, the gold which was divided was part of the danegeld,Pritsak 1981:343] and Erik Brate argues that it was the same expedition as the one mentioned on the Berga Runestone. [http://runeberg.org/runor/0063.html Brate 1922:62] ]

      Latin transliteration:

      : : kriutkarþr : ainriþi : suniR : kiarþu : at : faþur : snialan : kuþuiR : uaR uastr : a : aklati : kialti : skifti : burkiR : a : sahks:lanti : suti : kaula

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Griutgarðr, Æinriði, syniR, giærðu at faður sniallan. GuðveR vaR vestr a Ænglandi, gialdi skifti, borgiR a Saxlandi sotti karla."

      English translation:

      : "Grjótgarðr (and) Einriði, the sons made (the stone) in memory of (their) able father. Guðvér was in the west; divided (up) payment in England; manfully attacked townships in Saxony." [Entry Sö 166 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      ö 207

      This runestone is located at the church of Överselö. It is in sandstone and in the style Fp. It is in memory of a father who travelled to England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : kuþr... ... (f)aþur sin * fur * hfila * hn * til * iklans * kuþ halbi * sil hns

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Guð... ... faður sinn. For hæfila hann til Ænglands. Guð hialpi sal hans."

      English translation:

      : "Guð-... ... his father. He competently travelled to England. May God help his soul." [Entry Sö 207 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Västmanland

      In Västmanland, there are three runestones that refer to voyages to England.

      Vs 5

      This runestone is located in the garden of the farm Vändle and it is tentatively categorized as being in style Fp. It is raised in memory of a man who travelled to England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : [kra-hni- × lit × resa × s... ...] + uas × farin + til + ekla-s [× (t)u i × sbelbuþa × --s(a)þu × helb] i × kuþ [× se... ... ... sigi * iuk × -u...]

      Old Norse transcription:

      : " let ræisa s [tæin] ... vas farinn til Ængla [nd] s. Do i Spiallbuða ... Hialpi Guð se [lu hans] ... Siggi hiogg [r] u [naR] ."

      English translation:

      : " had the stone raised ... travelled to England, died in Spjallboði's ... May God help his soul ... Siggi cut the runes." [Entry Vs 5 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Vs 9

      This runestone is located near the bridge of Saltängsbron and it is in the style Pr3. It is in memory of a man who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      × kisl × lit × kera × buru × eftR × osl × sun × sin × han u(a) [rþ] × tyþr × a eklati × kuþ ialbi × has × ont auk × selu

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Gisl let gærva bro æftiR Asl/Ôsl, sun sinn. Hann varð dauðr a Ænglandi. Guð hialpi hans and ok selu."

      English translation:

      : "Gísl had the bridge made in memory of Ásl/Ôsl, his son. He died in England. May God help his spirit and soul." [Entry Vs 9 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Vs 18

      This runestone is located in Berga and it is in the style Fp. It is made by the same runemaster as Ingvar runestone Vs 19.

      Latin transliteration:

      : (k)hunaltr * liet resa * sthin * þensa * iftir * kerfast * sun sen * trek| |kuþan * auk * uas farin * til eklans * hiolbi * kuþ * salu * hans

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Gunnaldr let ræisa stæin þennsa æftiR GæiRfast, sun sinn, dræng goðan, ok vas farinn til Ænglands. Hialpi Guð salu hans."

      English translation:

      : "Gunnvaldr had this stone raised in memory of Geirfastr, his son, a good valiant man. And (he) had travelled to England. May God help his soul." [Entry Vs 18 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Gästrikland

      In Gästrikland, there is only one runestones that mentions a voyage to England.

      Gs 8

      This is a fragment that remains of a runestone. It was found in Västra Hästbo near the church of Torsåker, and today it is almost hidden behind a pillar inside the church. It is in sandstone and it is one of the older runestones as it is in the style RAK. It was raised in memory of a man who went to England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : asmuntr -... ...faþ-... han : uas : uist : --- ikla-ti ...k=uust--

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Asmundr ... ... Hann vas vestr [ut a] Ængla [n] di ..."

      English translation:

      : "Ásmundr ... ... He was abroad in the west in England ..." [Entry Gs 8 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Östergötland

      In Östergötland, there are two runestones that mention men who travelled to England, and both men died there.

      Ög 104

      This runestone is located in Gillberga. It is in the style Fp and it is raised in memory of a brother who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : : ruþr : risti : stin : þinsi : iftiR : tuk- : bruþur : sin : saR : uarþ : trbin : a : ilati : triR : arþa : kuþr :

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Rauðr ræisti stæin þennsi æftiR Tok [a] , broður sinn, saR varð drepinn a Ænglandi, drængR harða goðr."

      English translation:

      : "Rauðr raised this stone in memory of Tóki, his brother, a very good valiant man, who was killed in England." [Entry Ög 104 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Ög Fv1950;341

      This runestone is dated to c. 1025, and it was raised in memory of a father who died in England. It was discovered in 1950 lying with the text downwards on the property of the farm Kallerstad, only 200 metres from Ög 113. It was probably found in its original location since a road used to pass the stone. The stone had been broken into two pieces, but was reassembled and raised outside of the county museum of Linköping. The stone is in greyish red granite and it is 3.95 m tall (2.98 above soil) and 1.43 m wide, and the surface is quite weathered. The name "Vígfastr" is otherwise unattested on runestones and also the name "Helga" was quite rare.Jansson 1950:341-342] It is in the style Fp.

      Latin transliteration:

      : ...-iur- : auk : as-iurn : þiR : ristu : stin : þasi : eft-R : uikfast : faþur : sin : es uas : tuþr : o : eklati : sun : helgu

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "... [b] ior [n] ok As [b] iorn þæiR ræistu stæin þasi æft [i] R Vigfast, faður sinn, es vas dauðr a Ænglandi, sun Hælgu."

      English translation:

      : "...-bjôrn and Ásbjôrn, they raised this stone in memory of Vígfastr, their father, Helga's son. He died in England."Entry Ög Fv1950;341 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      måland

      In Småland, there are five or six runestones that mention voyages to England. One of them (Sm 77) mentions a man who was a marshal ("stallari") in England.

      m 5

      This runestone is located in Transjö. It is one of the older stones as it is in the style RAK. The runes are unusual as the m-runes are dotted ( have a stroke to the left instead of to the right. It is raised in memory of a son who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : A : kotr : sati : sten : þana : eftR : ketil :: B : sun : sin : han : faR :: C : mana : mesr o:niþikR : eR a : eklati : ali : tunþi

      Old Norse transcription:

      : A "Gautr satti stæin þenna æftiR Kætil,": B "sun sinn. Hann vaR": C "manna mæstr oniðingR, eR a Ænglandi aldri tyndi."

      English translation:

      : A "Gautr placed this stone in memory of Ketill" : B "his son. He was" : C "the most unvillainous of men, who forfeited his life in England." [Entry Sm 5 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      m 27

      This runestone is raised on the cemetery of the church of Berga. It is in the style RAK and it is consequently one of the older runestones. It is raised in memory of a man who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : --rþr * ris(t)i * kuml * þe... ... ...-aþis * o * eklanti *

      Old Norse transcription:

      : " [Þo] rðr ræisti kumbl þe [ssi] /þe [tta] ... [ænd] aðis a Ænglandi."

      English translation:

      : "Þórðr raised this/these(?) monument(s) ... met his end in England." [Entry Sm 27 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      m 29

      This runestone is located in Ingelstad. It is in the style RAK and it is consequently one of the older runestones. It was raised in memory of a father who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : ...r rsþi * stin * iftiR * þur--(R) * fa-ur * sin * saR * etaþis * o * -klanti *

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "... ræisþi stæin æftiR Þor [gæi] R, fa [ð] ur sinn. SaR ændaðis a [Æ] nglandi."

      English translation:

      : "... raised the stone in memory of Þorgeirr, his father. He met his end in England." [Entry Sm 29 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      m 77

      This runestone is located in Sävsjö, and it is raised by Vrái in memory of a brother who died in England. Later, Vrái would also receive a memorial, the nearby Komstad Runestone which tells that Vrái had been the marshall ("stallari") of an earl Hakon,Pritsak 1981:411] who was probably the earl Håkon Eiriksson.Pritsak 1981:343] [Jansson 1980:38]

      Latin transliteration:

      : : urai : sati : stin : þonsi : eftiR : kuna : bruþur : sin : han : uaR tauþr : o : iklati

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Vrai satti stæin þannsi æftiR Gunna, broður sinn. Hann vaR dauðr a Ænglandi."

      English translation:

      : "Vrái placed this stone in memory of Gunni, his brother. He died in England." [Entry Sm 77 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      m 101

      The Nävelsjö runestone is located at the estate of Nöbbelesholm, and it is raised in memory of a father who died in England and was buried by his brother in Bath, Somerset.

      Latin transliteration:

      : : kun(t)(k)el : sati : sten : þansi : eftiR : kunar : faþur : sin : sun : hruþa : halgi : lagþi : han : i : sten:þr : bruþur : sin : a : haklati : i : baþum

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Gunnkell satti stæin þannsi æftiR Gunnar, faður sinn, sun Hroða. Hælgi lagði hann i stæinþro, broður sinn, a Ænglandi i Baðum."

      English translation:

      : "Gunnkell placed this stone in memory of Gunnarr, his father, Hróði's son. Helgi, his brother, laid him in a stone coffin in Bath in England." [Entry Sm 101 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      m 104

      This fragment of a runestone is located in the atrium of the church of Vetlanda and what remains appears to say "in the west in England".

      Latin transliteration:

      : ...(l)ika : uastr * a * i...-ti

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "... vestr a Æ [nglan] di(?)."

      English translation:

      : "... in the west in England(?)." [Entry Sm 104 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Västergötland

      Vg 20

      This runestone is located in Västanåker, and it is in the style RAK. It is raised in memory of a son who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : ... risti × stin × iftiR × kurmar × sun × sin + iaR × uaR + trbin × a × iklanti ×

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "... ræisti stæin æftiR Guðmar(?), sun sinn. ER vaR drepinn a Ænglandi."

      English translation:

      : "... raised the stone in memory of Guðmarr(?), his son, who was killed in England." [Entry Vg 20 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Vg 187

      This runestone is located at the church of Vist. It is in the style RAK and it is thus one of the older runestones. It is raised in memory of a brother who died in England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : + giRi * sati * stin * þana * eftiR * kuþa * bruþur * sin * eR * a ok*lanti * altri * tynþi ×

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "GæiRi satti stæin þenna æftiR Guða, broður sinn. ER a Ænglandi aldri tynði."

      English translation:

      : "Geiri placed this stone in memory of Guði, his brother, who forfeited his life in England." [Entry Vg 187 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      cania

      DR 337

      This runestone is located in Valleberga at "runestone hill" in Lund. It is one of the older runestones as it is in the style RAK.

      Latin transliteration:

      : A : suin : auk : þurgutr : kiaurþu : kubl : þisi ¶ eftiR : mana ¶ auk * suina: B kuþ : hialbi : siaul : þeRa : uel : ian : þeR : likia : i : luntunum

      Old Norse transcription:

      : A "Swen ok Þorgotr/Þorgundr gærþu kumbl þæssi æftiR Manna ok Swena.": B "Guþ hialpi siol þeRa wæl, æn þeR liggia i Lundunum."

      English translation:

      : A "Sveinn and Þorgautr/Þorgunn made this monument in memory of Manni and Sveini." : B "May God well help their souls. And they lie in London." [Entry Dr 337 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Germany

      DR 6

      This runestone is located in Schleswig Cathedral. The ornamentation shows that it was made by a Swede. It was made in memory of a man who lay dead in a location called "Skía" in Old Norse in England. According to Omeljan Pritsak, "Skía" was probably Shoebury in Essex or Skidby in Yorkshire.Pritsak 1981:342]

      Latin transliteration:

      : A ... l(i)t (:) r(i)(s)(a) : stain : e...: B ...-an : s(u)(l)... ¶ ... ...(a)uþr : ... ¶ ...(n) : auk : kuþmuntr : þaR [:] [r] ... ... [(a)R] : C : a enklanti : i skiu (:) -uilis : kr... ... ...

      Old Norse transcription:

      : B "... ... ... [d] øþr ... ... ok Guþmundr þeR r [istu run] aR.": C "A Ænglandi i Skiu [h] wilis. Kr [istr] (?) ... ..."

      English translation:

      : A "... had the stone raised in memory of" : B "... ... ... dead ... ... and Guðmundr, they carved the runes." : C "(He) rests at Skía in England. Christ ... ..." [Entry Dr 6 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Norway

      N 184

      This runestone is located in Galteland in Aust-Agder. It is an older runestone as it is in the style RAK. It was raised in memory of a son who died in the army of Canute the Great when he attacked England.

      Latin transliteration:

      : arn× [stin] × risti × stin × þi [na] × iftir × bior × [s] un × sin × [sa × uar] tuþr × i liþi × þ [(o)s × knutr soti × iklot +] ¶ × in is ko [þ]

      Old Norse transcription:

      : "Arnsteinn reisti stein þenna eptir Bjór, son sinn. Sá varð dauðr í liði, þá's Knútr sótti England. Einn er Guð."

      English translation:

      : "Arnsteinn raised this stone in memory of Bjórr his son who died in the retinue when Knútr attacked England. God is one." [Entry N 184 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

      Notes

      ources

      *Brate, Erik. (1922). "Sverges runinskrifter". Stockholm, Bokförlaget Natur och kultur. [http://runeberg.org/runor/]
      *Enoksen, Lars Magnar. (1998). "Runor : historia, tydning, tolkning". Historiska Media, Falun. ISBN 91-88930-32-7
      *Harrison, D. & Svensson, K. (2007). "Vikingaliv". Fälth & Hässler, Värnamo. ISBN: 978-91-27-35725-9.
      *Horn Fuglesang, Signe. (1998). "Swedish runestones of the eleventh century: ornament and dating", Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung (K.Düwel ed.). Göttingen
      *Jansson, S. B. F. (1950). "Några nyligen uppdagade runstenar", in Stenberger, M. (ed) "Fornvännen årgång 45". [http://fornvannen.se/1950talet/fornvannen_1950.html] pp. 330-344.
      *Jansson, S. B. F. (1980). "Runstenar". STF, Stockholm. ISBN 91-7156-015-7
      *
      *Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). "The origin of Rus'". Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4
      * [http://www.sofi.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=1472 "Nordisk runnamslexikon"] by Lena Peterson at the Swedish Institute for Linguistics and Heritage (Institutet för språk och folkminnen).
      *Rundata

      External links

      * [http://runicdictionary.nottingham.ac.uk/index.php An English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark, at the university of Nottingham]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • England runestones — …   Wikipedia

  • Viking runestones — Runestones that mention expeditions outside of Scandinavia Viking runestones England runestones Hakon Jarl runestones Varangian runestones Baltic area runestones Greece runestones Italy runestones Ingvar runestones …   Wikipedia

  • Greece Runestones — The Greece Runestones comprise around 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Scandinavians to Greece , which refers to the Byzantine Empire (ON.: Grikkland , Grikk(i)aR ), during the Viking Age and until the early 12th… …   Wikipedia

  • Viking Runestones — The Viking Runestones are runestones that mention Scandinavians who participated in Viking expeditions. This article treats the runestone that refer to people who took part in voyages abroad, in western Europe, and stones that mention men who… …   Wikipedia

  • Varangian runestones — …   Wikipedia

  • Orkesta Runestones — Coordinates: 59°36′N 18°07′E / 59.6°N 18.117°E / 59.6; 18.117 …   Wikipedia

  • List of runestones — Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age.List of stones Compare Megalithic Standing stones, Pictish stones, Gaelic High crosses and… …   Wikipedia

  • Varangian Runestones — The Varangian Runestones are runestones that mention voyages to the East ( Austr ) or the Eastern route ( Austrvegr ), or to more specific eastern locations such as Garðaríki (what is today Russia and Ukraine). There are also many additional… …   Wikipedia

  • Baltic expeditions runestones — The Baltic expeditions runestones are Varangian Runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic States are presently located.Beside the runestones treated in this… …   Wikipedia

  • Lingsberg Runestones — The Lingsberg Runestones are two 11th century runestones (U 240, U 241), and one fragment (U 242), engraved in Old Norse with the younger futhark at the farm of Lingsberg in Uppland, Sweden.The two intact runestones were raised by members of the… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.