- Proximity effect (electromagnetism)
In a conductor carrying current, if currents are flowing through one or more other nearby conductors, such as within a closely wound coil of wire, the distribution of current within the first conductor will be constrained to smaller regions. The resulting "current crowding" is termed the

**proximity effect**.**Explanation**A changing

magnetic field will influence the distribution of anelectric current flowing within anelectrical conductor . When analternating current (AC) flows through an isolated conductor, it creates an associated alternating magnetic field. The alternating magnetic field induceseddy currents within adjacent conductors, altering the overall distribution of current flowing through them.The proximity effect significantly increases the AC resistance of adjacent conductor when compared to its resistance to a DC current. At higher frequencies, the AC resistance of a conductor can easily exceed ten times its DC resistance.

The additional resistance increases electrical losses which, in turn, generate undesirable heating. Proximity and skin effects significantly complicate the design of efficient

transformer s operating at high frequencies within switching power supplies.Many methods exist for determining winding losses due to the proximity effect in transformers and inductors.

**Dowell method for determination of losses**This 1D method for transformers assumes the wires have rectangular cross-section, but can be applied approximately to circular wire by treating it as square with the same cross-sectional area.

The windings are divided into 'portions', each portion being a group of layers which contains one position of zero m.m.f. For a transformer with a separate primary and secondary winding, each winding is a portion. For a transformer with interleaved (or sectionalised) windings, the innermost and outermost sections are each one portion, while the other sections are each divided into two portions at the point where zero m.m.f occurs.

The total resistance of a portion is given by$R\_\{AC\}\; =\; R\_\{DC\}igg(Re(M)\; +\; frac\{(m^2-1)\; Re(D)\}\{3\}igg)$:R

_{DC}is the DC resistance of the portion:Re(.) is the real part of the expression in brackets:m number of layers in the portion, this should be an integer:$M\; =\; alpha\; h\; coth\; (alpha\; h)\; ,$:$D\; =\; 2\; alpha\; h\; anh\; (alpha\; h/2)\; ,$:$alpha\; =\; sqrt\{frac\{j\; omega\; mu\_0\; eta\}\{\; ho$:$omega$Angular frequency of the current:$ho$ resistivity of the conductor material:$eta\; =\; N\_l\; frac\{a\}\{b\}$:N_{l}number of turns per layer:a width of a square conductor:b width of the winding window:h height of a square conductor**quared-field-derivative method**This can be used for round wire or

litz wire transformers or inductors with multiple windings of arbitrary geometry with arbitrary current waveforms in each winding. The diameter of each strand should be less than 2 δ. It also assumes the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the wire, which is the case in most designs.* Find values of the B field due to each winding individually. This can be done using a simple magnetostatic FEA model where each winding is represented as a region of constant current density, ignoring individual turns and litz strands.

* Produce a matrix,

**D**, from these fields.**D**is a function of the geometry and is independent of the current waveforms.

$mathbf\{D\}=gamma\_1\; left\; langleegin\{bmatrix\}\; left\; |\; hat\; vec\; B\_1\; ight\; |^2\; hat\; vec\; B\_1\; cdot\; hat\; vec\; B\_2\; \backslash \; hat\; vec\; B\_2\; cdot\; hat\; vec\; B\_1\; left\; |\; hat\; vec\; B\_2\; ight\; |^2\; end\{bmatrix\}\; ight\; angle\_1\; +\; gamma\_2\; left\; langleegin\{bmatrix\}\; left\; |\; hat\; vec\; B\_1\; ight\; |^2\; hat\; vec\; B\_1\; cdot\; hat\; vec\; B\_2\; \backslash \; hat\; vec\; B\_2\; cdot\; hat\; vec\; B\_1\; left\; |\; hat\; vec\; B\_2\; ight\; |^2\; end\{bmatrix\}\; ight\; angle\_2$:$hat\; vec\; B\_j$ is the field due to a unit current in winding j:<.>_{j}is the spatial average over the region of winding j:$gamma\_j\; =\; frac\{pi\; N\_j\; l\_\{t,j\}d\_\{c,j\}^4\}\{64\; ho\_c\}$::$N\_j$ is the number of turns in winding j, for litz wire this is the product of the number of turns and the strands per turn.::$l\_\{t,j\}$ is the average length of a turn::$d\_\{c,j\}$ is the wire or strand diameter::$ho\_c$ is the resistivity of the wire* AC power loss in all windings can be found using

**D**, and expressions for the instantaneous current in each winding:

$P\; =\; overline\{egin\{bmatrix\}\; frac\{di\_1\}\{dt\}\; frac\{di\_2\}\{dt\}\; end\{bmatrix\}mathbf\{D\}egin\{bmatrix\}\; frac\{di\_1\}\{dt\}\; \backslash \; frac\{di\_2\}\{dt\}\; end\{bmatrix$* Total winding power loss is then found by combing this value with the DC loss, $I\_\{rms\}^2\; imes\; R\_\{DC\}$

The method can be generalized to multiple windings.

**Cables**Proximity effect can also occur within electrical cables. For example, if the conductors are a pair of audio

speaker wire s, their currents have opposite direction, and currents will preferentially flow along the sides of the wires that are facing each other. The AC resistance of the wires will dynamically change (slightly) along with the audio signal. Some believe that this will potentially introducedistortion and degrade stereo imaging. However, it can be shown that, for reasonable conductor sizes, spacing, and length, this effect is so small as to have an unmeasurable practical impact on audio quality.**ee also***

Skin effect **External links*** [

*http://www.dartmouth.edu/~sullivan/litzwire/skin.html Skin Effect, Proximity Effect, and Litz Wire*] Electromagnetic effects

* [*http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~www_pa/Scots_Guide/audio/skineffect/page1.html Skin and Proximity Effects and HiFi Cables*]**References***Terman, F.E. "Radio Engineers' Handbook", McGraw-Hill 1943 -- details electromagnetic proximity and skin effects

*cite journal

last = Dowell

first = P.L.

title = Effects of Eddy Currents in Transformer Windings

journal = Proceedings IEE

volume = 113

issue = 8

pages = 1387–1394

year = 1966

month = August

*Citation

last=Sullivan

first=Charles

year=2001

title=Computationally Efficient Winding Loss Calculation with Multiple Windings, Arbitrary Waveforms, and Two-Dimensional or Three-Dimensional Field Geometry

periodical=IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS

volume=16

issue=1

url=http://thayer.dartmouth.edu/other/inductor/papers/sfdj.pdf.

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

### Look at other dictionaries:

**Proximity effect**— may refer to: *Proximity effect (atomic physics) *Proximity effect (audio) * Proximity Effect (comic) *Proximity effect (electromagnetism) *Proximity effect (electron beam lithography) *Proximity effect (superconductivity) * The Proximity Effect … Wikipedia**Skin effect**— Skin depth redirects here. For the depth (layers) of biological/organic skin, see skin. Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor with the current density being largest near the… … Wikipedia**History of electromagnetism**— The history of electromagnetism, that is the human understanding and recorded use of electromagnetic forces, dates back over two thousand years ago, see Timeline of electromagnetism. The ancients must have been acquainted with the effects of… … Wikipedia**Chirality (electromagnetism)**— Chirality with hands and two enantiomers of a generic amino acid. The term chiral (pronounced /ˈkaɪrəl/) describes an object, especially a molecule, which has or produces a non superimposeable mirror image of itself. In chemistry, such a … Wikipedia**List of effects**— This is a list of names for observable phenonema that contain the word effect, amplified by reference(s) to their respective fields of study. #*3D audio effect (audio effects)A*Accelerator effect (economics) *Accordion effect (physics) (waves)… … Wikipedia**Electrical resistance**— is a ratio of the degree to which an object opposes an electric current through it, measured in Ohms. Its reciprocal quantity is electrical conductance measured in Siemens. Assuming a uniform current density, an object s electrical resistance is… … Wikipedia**Conducted electromagnetic interference**— EMI Electromagnetic Interference: EMI is unwanted effects in the electrical system due to electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic conduction. Electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic conduction are differentiated by the way an EM field … Wikipedia**Transformer**— This article is about the electrical device. For the toy line franchise, see Transformers. For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). Pole mounted distribution transformer with center tapped secondary winding. This type of transformer is… … Wikipedia**Eddy current**— This article is about the electrical phenomenon. For the Ted McKeever comic, see Eddy Current (comics). Electromagnetism … Wikipedia**Фотонный кристалл**— Фотонный кристалл это материал, структура которого характеризуется периодическим изменением показателя преломления в пространственных направлениях[1]. В другой работе[2] встречается расширенное определение фотонных кристаллов … … Википедия