- Rockefeller Museum
The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeological
museumlocated in East Jerusalemthat houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Palestine beginning in the late 19th century. The museum building is also the head office of the Israel Antiquities Authority.
Visiting Palestine in 1925, during the days of the British Mandate,
James Henry Breasted, founder and director of the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, discovered that Jerusalemlacked a proper archaeological museum to house important regional finds.
Lord Plumer, the British High Commissioner, Breasted approached American philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, Jr.. Rockefeller agreed to donate the sum of two million dollars, an enormous amount of money in those days. Previously, he had offered to build an archeological museum in Cairo, Egypt, but he was turned down, possibly due to pressure from the British government, which was anxious to keep America from establishing a foothold in the region.
A short while after the donation was announced, a site was chosen for the building—Kerem el-Sheik—a hill located just outside the northeastern corner of the
The museum was designed by
Austen St. Barbe Harrison, chief architect of the Mandatory Department of Public Works, who drew up blueprints for a white limestone building integrating eastern and western architectural elements.
The cornerstone of the new museum was laid on
June 19, 1930, although it only opened to the public on January 13, 1938.
Officially, it was called the "Palestine Archaeological Museum", but from the outset it was known as the "Rockefeller Museum".
The museum was run by an international board of trustees until 1966, when it was nationalized by
King Husseinof Jordan. Soon after, the 1967 Six-Day Warbroke out and control of the museum fell into Israeli hands. During the war, the building was captured by Israeli soldiers and its hexagonal tower was used as a lookout. Fierce fighting took place here between Israeli and Jordanian forces, ending in an Israeli victory and the occupation of East Jerusalem.
Since 1967, the museum has been jointly managed by the
Israel Museumand the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums (later renamed Israel Antiquities Authority).
The museum's first curator was John H. Iliffe, who arranged the artifacts in chronological order, from two million years ago to 1700 CE. Among the museum's prized possessions are 8th-century wooden panels from the
al-Aqsa Mosqueand 12th-century ( Crusader-period) marble lintels from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The collection is based on finds from the early years of archaeological excavation in the region(1890–1948). On display are artifacts unearthed in Jerusalem, Megiddo, Ashkelon, Lachish, Samaria, and Jericho.
Some of the
Dead Sea Scrollsdiscovered at Qumranbetween 1947 and 1956, consisting of Jewish texts and commentaries, were purchased by Israel soon after they were unearthed. Others were housed in the Rockefeller Museum and moved to the Shrine of the Bookafter the 1967 war. At a conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1997, this was criticized by the head of the Palestinian Archaeology Department. cite web|publisher= [The Times|title=Scholars dispute ownership of Dead Sea Scrolls|author=Christopher Walker|date=July 1997|url=http://www.museum-security.org/97/july22.html|accessdate=2008-02-12]
*"Memoirs", David Rockefeller, New York: Random House, 2002.
* [http://www.imj.org.il/eng/branches/rockefeller/ The Rockefeller Museum]
* [http://www.ilmuseums.com/museum_eng.asp?id=13 Rockefeller Archaeological Museum] at ilMuseums.com
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