- Shrine of the Book
The Shrine of the Book, a wing of the
Israel Museumnear Givat Ramin western Jerusalem, houses the Dead Sea Scrolls—discovered 1947–56 in 11 caves in and around the Wadi Qumran. (The shrine was initially to be built, but was not, on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University, adjoining the National Library.)
An elaborate planning process of seven years led to the building's eventual construction in 1965 which was funded by the family of
David Samuel Gottesman, the Hungarian émigré, the philanthropist who had purchased the scrolls as a gift to the State of Israel. One of the architects—the pragmatic Armand Phillip Bartos(1910–2005)—was evidently chosen based on his being married to Gottesman's daughter Celeste Ruth Gottesman (who formerly had married Jerome John Altman in 1935 and divorced). For the other appointed architect—the oddball visionary Frederick John Kiesler(1890–1965)—Gottesman had earlier funded a fact-finding project to discover if Kiesler's "Endless House" could be installed at The Museum of Modern Artin New York City. On the architect team was a man called Gezer Heller, who went on to build many important structures in the new State of Israel. He married Alice Hammer, sister of Ibbi Hammer, the woman who became the chief banker of the State of Israel. She was the daughter of the Chief Rabbi of Budapest.
Initially, Israeli architects strongly objected to non-Israeli architects' having been chosen through nepotism and to Kiesler's having never completed his architectural studies in
Viennaand Berlin(though licensed as an architect in New York) and having never built anything. He was primarily an avant-garde stage designer who taught occasionally. Nevertheless, the American-Jewish architects had been chosen by Gottesman as early as 1955.
shrineis built as a white dome, covering a structure placed two-thirds below the ground, that is reflected in a pool of water that surrounds it. Across from the white dome is a black basaltwall. The colors and shapes of the building are based on the imagery of the Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, whereas the white dome symbolizes the Sons of Light and the black wall symbolizes the Sons of Darkness.
As the fragility of the scrolls makes it impossible to display all on a continuous basis, a system of rotation is used. After a scroll has been exhibited for 3–6 months, it is removed from its showcase and placed temporarily in a special storeroom, where it "rests" from exposure.
museumalso holds other rare ancient manuscripts and displays The Aleppo Codex. Its dome, due to the quirky architecture, has been used as scenery for several science fiction movies.
* Anon., [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,898691,00.html "Endless Cave in Jerusalem"] , "Time" magazine (April 30, 1965).
* Meir Ronen, "Keepers of the Scrolls," "
The Jerusalem Post" (July 24, 1997).
* Lelke, Roland, "Der endlose Raum in Frederick Kieslers Schrein des Buches," ("The endless space in Frederick Kiesler's Shrine of the Book") " (book, 187 p.) Shaker Verlag, Aachen," (1999) (german)
* [http://www.imj.org.il/eng/shrine/index.html The Shrine of the Book]
* [http://www.ilmuseums.com/museum_eng.asp?id=12 The Israel Museum] at ilMuseums.com
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