Horner's syndrome


Horner's syndrome

Infobox_Disease
Name = PAGENAME



Caption = Left-sided Horner's syndrome
DiseasesDB = 6014
ICD10 = ICD10|G|90|2|g|90
ICD9 = ICD9|337.9
ICDO =
OMIM = 143000
MedlinePlus = 000708
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 1029
eMedicine_mult = eMedicine2|oph|336 | MeshID = D006732

Horner's syndrome is a clinical syndrome caused by damage to the sympathetic nervous system. It is also known by the names Bernard-Horner syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy.

igns

Signs found in all patients on affected side of face include ptosis (drooping upper eyelid from loss of sympathetic innervation to the Müller or superior tarsal muscle cite book |author=Adams, Raymond Delacy; Victor, Maurice; Ropper, Allan H. |title=Adam and Victor's principles of neurology |publisher=McGraw-Hill |location=New York |year=2001 |pages= |isbn=0-07-067497-3 |oclc= |doi=] ), upside-down ptosis (slight elevation of the lower lid), and miosis (constricted pupil) and dilation lag. Enophthalmos (the impression that the eye is sunk in) and anhidrosis (decreased sweating) on the affected side of the face, loss of ciliospinal reflex and blood shot conjunctiva may occur depending on the site of lesion. Also flushing of the face is common on the affected side of the face due to dilation of blood vessels under the skin.

In children Horner's syndrome sometimes leads to a difference in eye color between the two eyes (heterochromia). [cite journal | author=Gesundheit B, Greenberg M | title=Medical mystery: brown eye and blue eye--the answer | journal=N Engl J Med | year=2005 | pages=2409–10 | volume=353 | issue=22 | pmid=16319395 | doi=10.1056/NEJM200512013532219] This happens because a lack of sympathetic stimulation in childhood interferes with melanin pigmentation of the melanocytes in the superficial stroma of the iris.

History

It is named after Johann Friedrich Horner, the Swiss ophthalmologist who first described the syndrome in 1869. [Horner JF. "Über eine Form von Ptosis." Klin Monatsbl Augenheilk 1869;7:193-8.] [WhoNamedIt|synd|1056] Several others had previously described cases, but "Horner's syndrome" is most prevalent. In France and Italy, Claude Bernard is also eponymised with the condition ("Claude Bernard-Horner syndrome").

Causes

Horner's syndrome is acquired as a result of pathology but may also be congenital (inborn) or iatrogenic (caused by medical treatment). Although most causes are relatively benign, Horner's syndrome may reflect serious pathology in the neck or chest (such as a Pancoast tumor (tumor in the apex of the lung) or thyrocervical venous dilatation).
* Due to lesion or compression of one side of the cervical or thoracic sympathetic chain which generates symptoms on the ipsilateral (same side as lesion) side of the body.
* Lateral medullary syndrome
* Cluster headache - combination termed Horton's headache [cite web | author=Graff JM, Lee AG | title=Horner's Syndrome (due to Cluster Headache): 46 y.o. man presenting with headache and ptosis. | url=http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/cases/case22.htm | work=Ophthalmology Grand Rounds | date=February 21, 2005 | publisher=The University of Iowa | accessdate=2006-09-22]
* Trauma - base of neck, usually blunt trauma, sometimes surgery.
* Middle ear infection
* Tumors - often bronchogenic carcinoma of the superior fissure (Pancoast tumor) on apex of lung
* Aortic aneurysm, thoracic
* Neurofibromatosis type 1
* Goitre
* Dissecting aortic aneurysm
* Thyroid carcinoma
* Multiple sclerosis
* Carotid artery dissection
* Klumpke paralysis
* Cavernous sinus thrombosis
* Sympathectomy
* Syringomyelia
* Nerve blocks, such as cervical plexus block, stellate ganglion or interscalene block

Pathophysiology

Horner's syndrome is due to a deficiency of sympathetic activity.The site of lesion to the sympathetic outflow is on the ipsilateral side of the symptoms.The following are examples of conditions that cause the clinical appearance of Horner's syndrome:
*"First-order neuron disorder:" Central lesions that involve the hypothalamospinal pathway (e.g. transection of the cervical spinal cord).
*"Second-order neuron disorder:" Preganglionic lesions (e.g. compression of the sympathetic chain by a lung tumor).
*"Third-order neuron disorder:" Postganglionic lesions at the level of the internal carotid artery (e.g. a tumor in the cavernous sinus).

Diagnosis

Three tests are useful in confirming the presence and severity of Horner's syndrome:
#Cocaine drop test - Cocaine blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine resulting in the dilation of a normal pupil. Due to the lack of norepinephrine in the synaptic cleft, the pupil will fail to dilate in Horner's syndrome.
#Paredrine test:- This test helps to localize the cause of the miosis. If the 3rd order neuron (the last of 3 neurons in the pathway which ultimately discharges norepinephrine into the synaptic cleft) is intact, then the amphetamine causes neurotransmitter vesicle release, thus releasing norepinephrine into the synaptic cleft and resulting in robust mydriasis of the affected pupil. If the lesion itself is of the aforementioned 3rd order neuron, then the amphetamine will have no effect and the pupil remains constricted. There is no pharmacological test to differentiate between a 1st and 2nd order neuron lesion.
#Dilation lag test

It is important to distinguish the ptosis caused by Horner's syndrome from the ptosis caused by a lesion to the oculomotor nerve. In the former, the ptosis occurs with a constricted pupil (due to a loss of sympathetics to the eye), whereas in the latter, the ptosis occurs with a dilated pupil (due to a loss of innervation to the sphincter pupillae). In an actual clinical setting, however, these two different ptoses are fairly easy to distinguish. In addition to the blown pupil in a CNIII (oculomotor nerve) lesion, this ptosis is much more severe, occasionally occluding the whole eye. The ptosis of Horner's syndrome can be quite mild or barely noticeable.

When anisocoria occurs and the examiner is unsure whether the abnormal pupil is the constricted or dilated one, if a one-sided ptosis is present then the abnormally sized pupil can be presumed to be the one on the side of the ptosis.

ee also

* Anisocoria

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Horner's syndrome — Hor·ner s syndrome hȯr nərz n a syndrome marked by sinking in of the eyeball, contraction of the pupil, drooping of the upper eyelid, and vasodilation and anhidrosis of the face, and caused by paralysis of the cervical sympathetic nerve fibers… …   Medical dictionary

  • Horner ptosis syndrome — Hor·ner ptosis, syndrome (horґnər) [Johann Friedrich Horner, Swiss ophthalmologist, 1831–1886] see under ptosis and syndrome …   Medical dictionary

  • Horner's syndrome — a syndrome consisting of a constricted pupil, drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis), and an absence of sweating over the affected side of the face. The symptoms are due to a disorder of the sympathetic nerves in the brainstem or cervical (neck)… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Horner's syndrome — noun a pattern of symptoms occurring as a result of damage to nerves in the cervical region of the spine (drooping eyelids and constricted pupils and absence of facial sweating) • Hypernyms: ↑syndrome …   Useful english dictionary

  • Syndrome de Claude-Bernard-Horner — Pour les articles homonymes, voir CBH. Le syndrome de Claude Bernard Horner (CBH ou SCBH) est caractérisé par la concomitance de quatre signes cliniques : ptosis, myosis, énophtalmie ainsi qu une vasodilation et une absence de sudation… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Syndrome de Horner — Syndrome de Claude Bernard Horner Pour les articles homonymes, voir CBH. Le syndrome de Claude Bernard Horner (CBH ou SCBH) est caractérisé par la concomitance de quatre signes cliniques : ptosis, myosis, énophtalmie ainsi qu une… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Syndrome de claude bernard-horner — Pour les articles homonymes, voir CBH. Le syndrome de Claude Bernard Horner (CBH ou SCBH) est caractérisé par la concomitance de quatre signes cliniques : ptosis, myosis, énophtalmie ainsi qu une vasodilation et une absence de sudation… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Horner — is an English surname that derives from the occupation horner who is a person who cuts the horns off cattle, or deals in horns , or plays a horn.Horner refers to: *People named Horner **Bob Horner (1957 ndash;), American professional baseball… …   Wikipedia

  • Syndrome de Claude Bernard-Horner — Pour les articles homonymes, voir CBH. Syndrome de Claude Bernard Horner Classification et ressources externes …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Horner syndrome — A complex of abnormal findings, namely sinking in of one eyeball, ipsilateral ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid on the same side) and miosis (constriction of the pupil of that eye) together with anhidrosis (lack of sweating) and flushing of… …   Medical dictionary