- Landships Committee
The Landships Committee was a small British war cabinet committee established in 1915 to deal with the design and construction of what would turn out to be
tanks during the First World War. Headed by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, the Landships Committee was composed mainly of naval officers, politicians and engineers.
The committee came about when Colonel
Maurice Hankeytook Colonel Ernest Swinton's proposals for an armoured trench-crossing vehicle to Churchill after they had been discounted by General French and other senior staff in the British Army.
The committee was chaired by
Eustace Tennyson d’Eyncourt, the Director of Naval Constructionat the Admiralty. Among those who attended were Thomas Hetherington, Robert Francis Macfie and Colonel Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton.
Many had been inspired by early ideas for from pre-war years. Among these would be the armoured "war car" built in the early 1890s in Eastern Europe. The armoured car was already in use with the Royal Naval Air Service on the continent. Another inspiration was a 1904 short story by
HG Wells, " The Land Ironclads", and all but Winston Churchill were willing to borrow Wells' creation despite it being restricted under copyright law.
The Landships Committee was effectively responsible for creating the first tank corps. A small battery of the
Motor Machine Gun Corpsin Surreywas used as a cover before the Tank Corps was established in 1916. Both battalions were replaced by the Royal Armoured Corpsand the Royal Artilleryafter the war. Today, the tank's naval lineage can be traced directly back to its naval designers by some of its past and present terminology: the hull, deck, sponsons, bow, turret, and hatches. Prior to the tank, armies used horses and field guns (cannon), and possessed no gun designed to fire within a confined space. Consequently, the first army tank guns were borrowed from the navy.
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