- Indian Plate
continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plateresulting in the formation of the Himalayas.]
The India or Indian Plate is a
tectonic platethat was originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwanalandfrom which it split off, eventually becoming a major plate. About 50 to 55 million years ago, it fused with the adjacent Australian Plate. It is today part of the major Indo-Australian Plate, and includes the subcontinentof Indiaand a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean.
In the late
CretaceousPeriod about 90 million years ago, subsequent to the splitting off from Gondwanaland of conjoined Madagascar and India, the India Plate split from Madagascar. It began moving north, at about 20 cm/yr (8 in/yr) [http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-10/haog-tfc101507.php "The fastest continent: India's truncated lithospheric roots"] ] , and began colliding with Asiabetween 50 and 55 million years ago, in the Eoceneepoch of the CenozoicEra. During this time, the India Plate covered a distance of 2,000 to 3,000 km (1,200 to 1,900 mi), and moved faster than any other known plate. In 2007, German geologists determined that the reason the India Plate moved so quickly is that it is only half as thick as the other plates which formerly constituted Gondwanaland.
The collision with the
Eurasian Platealong the boundary between India and Nepalformed the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateauand the HimalayaMountains, as sediment bunched up like earth before a plow.
The India Plate is currently moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2 in/yr), while the Eurasian Plate is moving north at only 2 cm/yr (0.8 in/yr). This is causing the Eurasian Plate to deform, and the India Plate to compress at a rate of 4 mm/yr (0.15 in/yr).
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
The 9.3 magnitude
2004 Indian Ocean earthquakewas caused by stress in the subduction zonewhere the India Plate is sliding under the Burma Platein the eastern Indian Ocean, at a rate of 6 cm/yr (2.5 in/yr). The Sunda Trenchis formed along this boundary where the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates meet. Earthquakes in the region are either caused by "thrust-faulting", where the faultline slips at right angles to the trench; or "strike-slip faulting", where material to the east of the faultline slips along the direction of the trench.
Like all similarly large earthquakes, the December 26, 2004 event was caused by thrust-faulting. A 100 km (60 mi) rupture caused about 1,600 km (994 mi) of the interface to slip, which moved the fault 15 m (50 ft) and lifted the sea floor several meters (yards), creating the great
2005 Kashmir earthquakeoccurred at the northern tip of the Indian plate.]
2005 Kashmir earthquake
On October 8, 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 occurred near
Muzaffarabad, Kashmir, Pakistankilling at least 60,000 people, and leaving more than 2.5 million homeless.
Geology of India
List of tectonic plates
List of tectonic plate interactions
* [http://www.scotese.com/indianim.htm The collision of India and Asia (90 mya — present)] , by Christopher R. Scotese, from the Paleomap Project. Retrieved December 28, 2004.
* [http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_slav_ts.html Magnitude 9.0 off W coast of northern Sumatra Sunday, December 26, 2004 at 00:58:49 UTC: Preliminary earthquake report] , from the
U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved December 28, 2004.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Indian Plate — /ɪndiən ˈpleɪt/ (say indeeuhn playt) noun See Indo Australian Plate … Australian English dictionary
Indian subcontinent — This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. For geopolitical treatments, see South Asia. The Indian subcontinent is a large section of the Asian continent consisting of countries lying substantially on the Indian tectonic plate. The… … Wikipedia
Plate tectonics — The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century … Wikipedia
plate tectonics — plate tectonic, adj. Geol. a theory of global tectonics in which the lithosphere is divided into a number of crustal plates, each of which moves on the plastic asthenosphere more or less independently to collide with, slide under, or move past… … Universalium
Indian copper plate inscriptions — play an important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. Prior to their discovery, historians were forced to rely on ambiguous archaeological findings such as religious text of uncertain origin and interpretations of bits of… … Wikipedia
Indian Head test card — The Indian Head Test Card was a black and white television test pattern which was introduced in 1939 by RCA of Harrison, New Jersey as a part of the RCA TK 1 Monoscope. 20th century television later became so important socially that this purely… … Wikipedia
Indian maritime history — To the northwest of Lothal (2400 BCE) lies the Kutch peninsula. Proximity to the Gulf of Khambhat allowed direct access to sea routes. Lothal s topography and geology reflec … Wikipedia
Indian Head, Maryland — Infobox Settlement official name = Indian Head, Maryland settlement type = Town nickname = motto = imagesize = image caption = image imagesize = image caption = image mapsize = 250x200px map caption = Location of Indian Head, Maryland mapsize1 =… … Wikipedia
Indian Rare Earths Limited — On August 18 1950, Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL) was incorporated as a private limited company jointly owned by the Government of India and Government of Travancore, Cochin with the primary intention of taking up commercial scale processing… … Wikipedia
Indian-Australian Plate — /ɪndiən ɒstˌreɪljən ˈpleɪt/ (say indeeuhn ost.raylyuhn playt) noun → Indo Australian Plate … Australian English dictionary