Hispanophobia (from Latin "Hispanicus", "Spanish" + Greek + φοβία ("phobia"), "fear") is extreme or irrational fear, aversion, or discrimination regarding Hispanic persons. As a historical phenomenon it is considered to have had three main stages, originating in 16th century Europe, reawakening during 19th century disputes over Spanish and Mexican territory such as the Spanish-American and Mexican-American Wars, and lastly increasing in tandem with politically charged controversies such as bilingual education and illegal immigration to the United States.


The "Black Legend"

Early instances of hispanophobia arose as the influence of the Spanish Empire and Inquisition spread through late-medieval Europe. During this period hispanophobia materialized in folklore sometimes referred to as "the Black Legend": :"The legend first arose amid the religious strife and imperial rivalries of 16th-century Europe. Northern Europeans, who loathed Catholic Spain and envied its American empire, published books and gory engravings that depicted Spanish colonization as uniquely barbarous: an orgy of greed, slaughter and papist depravity, the Inquisition writ large." [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/09/opinion/09horwitz.html?pagewanted=1&ei=5090&en=576beb4a7ead76f2&ex=1310097600&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss "Immigration — and the Curse of the Black Legend." Tony Horwitz. "New York Times" 9 July 2006] ] "La leyenda negra," as Spanish historians first named it, entailed a view of Spaniards as "unusually cruel, avaricious, treacherous, fanatical, superstitious, hot-blooded, corrupt, decadent, indolent, and authoritarian." As Spain and England colonized the Americas, " [t] he Black Legend informed Anglo Americans' judgments about the political, economic, religious, and social forces that had shaped the Spanish provinces from Florid to California, as well as throughout the hemisphere." [ [http://www.jstor.org.www2.lib.ku.edu:2048/cgi-bin/jstor/printpage/00433810/ap030088/03a00010?backcontext=results&action=download&backurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3Dhispanophobia%26wc%3Don "The Spanish Legacy in North America and the Historical Imagination." David J. Weber. "The Western Historical Quarterly," Vol. 23, No. 1. (Feb., 1992), pp. 4-24.] ]

Thus in North America, hispanophobia preceded the United States' Declaration of Independence by almost two hundred years. Historians theorize that the English and the Dutch employed and encouraged it as part of their efforts to undermine the Spanish Empire; early New Englanders engaged in hispanophobic efforts to assimilate Spanish colonies:: " [I] n North America a deep current of Hispanophobia pervades Anglo-Saxon culture. ... As early as the late seventeenth century, we find Puritan divines like Cotton Mather and Samuel Sewell studying Spanish--with a view to winning converts to their version of Protestantism. Sewell spoke of "bombing [sic| [sic] Santo Domingo, Havana, Puerto Rico, and Mexico itself" with the Spanish Bible, and Cotton Mather even wrote a book on Protestant doctrine in Spanish, published in Boston in 1699, intended for--as he might say--the darker regions of Spanish America." [ [http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.17613/pub_detail.asp "Beyond Bilingualism." Mark Falcoff, American Enterprise Institute] ]

Hispanophobia in the United States

As the United States' foreign policy began to develop expansionist tendencies, citizens adapted the "Black Legend" in order to exploit it for political purposes. In so doing, they imparted elements of racism to hispanophobia. In the account given by Tony Horwitz, " [w] hen 19th-century jingoists revived this caricature to justify invading Spanish (and later, Mexican) territory, they added a new slur: the mixing of Spanish, African and Indian blood had created a degenerate race." [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/09/opinion/09horwitz.html?pagewanted=1&ei=5090&en=576beb4a7ead76f2&ex=1310097600&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss "Immigration — and the Curse of the Black Legend." Tony Horwitz. "New York Times" 9 July 2006] ]

"Another circumstance," according to historian David J. Weber, "that shaped the depth of Anglo Americans' Hispanophobia was the degree to which they saw Hispanics as an obstacle to their ambitions." [ [http://www.jstor.org.www2.lib.ku.edu:2048/cgi-bin/jstor/printpage/00433810/ap030088/03a00010?backcontext=results&action=download&backurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3Dhispanophobia%26wc%3Don "The Spanish Legacy in North America and the Historical Imagination." David J. Weber. "The Western Historical Quarterly," Vol. 23, No. 1. (Feb., 1992), pp. 4-24.] ] As the U.S. grew into a republic, anti-Spanish sentiment exhibited a recrudescence. Spain was perceived as the antithesis of Separation of church and state and as a paragon of monarchy and colonialism; this apparently fundamental opposition to the United States' founding principles fueled hostility that would eventually culminate in the Spanish-American War of 1898. [ [http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.17613/pub_detail.asp "Beyond Bilingualism." Mark Falcoff, American Enterprise Institute] ] Hispanophobia is particularly evident in the historiography of the Texas Revolution::"In essence, the Texas rebellion had been little more than a struggle for political and economic power, but early Texas historians elevated the revolt against Mexico to a sublime collision of moral influences",' 'a "moral" struggle,' and a war for principles".'... Hispanophobia, with its particularly vitriolic anti-Mexican variant, also served as a convenient rationale to keep Mexicans 'in their place.'" [ [http://www.jstor.org.www2.lib.ku.edu:2048/cgi-bin/jstor/printpage/00433810/ap030088/03a00010?backcontext=results&action=download&backurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3Dhispanophobia%26wc%3Don "The Spanish Legacy in North America and the Historical Imagination." David J. Weber. "The Western Historical Quarterly," Vol. 23, No. 1. (Feb., 1992), pp. 4-24.] ]

Throughout the 20th century, an array of mostly political and economic forces have driven immigration from a multitude of Spanish-speaking countries--such as Cuba, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, and Mexico--to the relatively strong economy and stable political environment of the United States. As a result, according to some historians, Americans "now have something called a 'Hispanic,' which describes not someone born in a Spanish-speaking country, nor someone who speaks Spanish well or badly, nor even someone with a Hispanic surname, but someone who identifies himself as such." [ [http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.17613/pub_detail.asp "Beyond Bilingualism." Mark Falcoff, American Enterprise Institute] ] As key corollary to this development, it is toward this group, which is not precisely or rigorously defined, that U.S. hispanophobia is now predominantly oriented. Many forms of hispanophobia endemic to the Texas Revolution still flourish in the United States today. [ [http://www.jstor.org.www2.lib.ku.edu:2048/cgi-bin/jstor/printpage/00433810/ap030088/03a00010?backcontext=results&action=download&backurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3Dhispanophobia%26wc%3Don "The Spanish Legacy in North America and the Historical Imagination." David J. Weber. "The Western Historical Quarterly," Vol. 23, No. 1. (Feb., 1992), pp. 4-24.] ]

Contemporary forms of hispanophobia

"Official English" and mock Spanish

Sociologists cite the "Official English" or English-only movement, together with hispanophobic jokes and discourse, as a prominent example of modern-day hispanophobia. [ [http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2457295 "The Hispanophobia of the Official English movement in the US." A.C. Zentella. "International journal of the sociology of language" 1997, no 127 (1 p.1/4), pp. 71-86] ] The "Official English movement" has been criticized because its mass appeal is perceived not as relating to any measurable benefit that would result from the eradication of bilingual education and other bilingual services, but from the idea that "challenges to the status of one's language typically engage deep-seated feelings about national identity and group worth." [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-4078(199009)43%3A3%3C535%3AT%22EMAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4 "The 'Official English' Movement and the Symbolic Politics of Language in the United States." Jack Citrin, Beth Reingold, Evelyn Walters, Donald P. Green "The Western Political Quarterly", Vol. 43, No. 3 (Sep., 1990), pp. 535-559] ] Proponents of this view claim that the English-only movement attracts public support primarily by functioning as a hispanophobic form of intimidation.

"Mock Spanish" is also a particular point of controversy:
*"'Mock Spanish' indirectly indexes one dimension of “White Public Space”: the right of people racialized as “White” to use a language associated with “Color” without any attention to norms of correctness of grammar, orthography, or pronunciation – in sharp contrast to the linguistic terrorism directed against persons in the United States who speak foreign languages or who speak “non-standard” forms of English.... Finally, Mock Spanish exploits and continually reproduces negative stereotypes of Spanish speakers." [ [ "Mock Spanish, Cultural Competence, and Complex Inference." Jane H. Hill and Daniel M. Goldstein, "Textus" 2001] ]

*"Jokes...along with exaggerated imitations of a Spanish accent, as in, “Es no my yob,” and “My ney José Jiménez”; racist labels such as spic, wetback, greaser, beaner; and public insults like J. Edgar Hoover’s admonition that one need not worry if Mexicans or Puerto Ricans came at you with a gun because they couldn’t shoot straight, but if they had a knife, watch out—are examples of the blatantly racist discourses that construct Latinos in the United States as stupid, dirty, lazy, sexually loose, amoral, and violent." [ [ AC Zentella. "'José, can you see?': Latino Responses to Racist Discourse."] retrieved 4 July 2007]

U.S. immigration controversy

Citing groups such as the Minuteman Project, sociologists have concluded that some anti-illegal-immigration arguments in the United States have been tainted with xenophobia and hispanophobia, many of them drawing on concepts of racial purity and eugenics. These groups' concern with illegal immigration, they assert, "lies not in immigration per se., which has declined in the last decade, but in the changing national origin of new immigrants, that is immigrants are now mainly Latin American or Asian, which is seen as a threat to Anglo-Saxon hegemony." [ [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mcb/031/1998/00000018/00000005/art00002 " Biological categories and border controls: the revival of eugenics in anti-immigration rhetoric." "International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy" Volume 18, Number 56, 1998 , pp. 35-63(29)] ]

In 2006, Arizona Attorney General Terry Goddard and U.S. Attorney Paul Charlton sent a letter of complaint to Federal Communications Commission chairman Kevin Martin, in response to the following comments made by radio host Brian James::"What we'll do is randomly pick one night every week where we will kill whoever crosses the border. Step over there and you die. You get to decide whether it's your lucky night or not. I think that would be more fun." [ [http://kvoa.com/Global/story.asp?S=4744652 "Officials: Radio host's call to kill border crossers dangerous." Associated Press ©2006.] ] Calling the speech "dangerous and totally irresponsible for anyone, particularly a licensed body using public airways," Goddard and Charlton expressed concern that it would lead to violence in the state, where conflict over illegal immigration was growing increasingly heated. [ [http://kvoa.com/Global/story.asp?S=4744652 "Officials: Radio host's call to kill border crossers dangerous." Associated Press ©2006.] ]

New Jersey internet radio host Hal Turner made similar remarks, a number of which the Anti-Defamation League has posted under the category of extremism. On April 1, 2006, Turner said::"These filthy, disease ridden, two-legged bags of human debris are too stupid to believe....Just think, America, if we bring enough of them here, they can do for America exactly what they did for Mexico! Turn our whole country into a crime-ridden, drug infested slum....These people are sub-human. I would love it if folks who do have such weapons, used them on the crowds on April 10 [at immigration rallies] . I advocate machine gunning these invaders to death at their rallies!" [ [http://www.adl.org/main_Extremism/turner_own_words.htm Anti-Defamation League] ]

cientific racism

Alike black people, Asians, Jews, homosexuals, Poles, Italians, and the Irish, pseudoscientists with racist and bigoted agendas for much of the 20th century examined and created theories to explain why "Hispanics" display cultural stereotypes to produce discrimination and defamation (group libel) or why they should be despised in Anglo American society to further fuel a fear of Hispanic-Latino populations.

Hispanics are widely perceived as "racially distinct". Because they are a byproduct of miscegenation of white (Spanish) men with Amerindian and African slave women, they are all assumed to have darker features and difficulties blending in a mostly white (esp. Anglo-saxon/European/Caucasian) American society. Some false racial "scientific" studies in the early 20th century used Mexican-Americans of multiracial or Amerindian descent to represent all Hispanics, often as poor examples of "racial inferiority." The strong Amerindian foundation (indigenismo) of Mexican and Central American societies made migrants from these countries "culturally inferior." Also the perception was that Mexicans felt victimized by the Mexican American war and it was the fault of Mexicans for their inability to protect, and for easily surrendering, the northern extremity of their country. The victory over Spain, the imperial superpower which first conquered the Americas, during the Spanish American war further strengthened perceptions of Anglo-supremacy over Hispanics.

There are also stereotyped "Hispanic" behavioral traits (mostly negative, some positive, but not always correct): Machismo or male aggressiveness but passiveness when confronted by white Anglos (similar to that of racial stereotypes about blacks or African Americans); criminality among young Hispanic men in forms of cholos (youth gangs) and bandits; "loudness" or "singsong" speech patterns; formation of youth gangs in barrios across the country; tendency to have large families due to observant practices of Roman Catholicism and Amerindian traditions for high progeny; "clannishness," alleged laziness; Hispanics being more likely to work manual jobs requiring more time at work for less pay; the inability or refusal to adopt the English language while vigourously preserving Spanish as the sole language of the Hispanic-Latino community; and continuous national identity or loyality to their respective ancestral homelands instead of being American first, such as "Mexican", "Puerto Rican", "Cuban", and other Latin American nationalities, all are exaggerated traits of a refusal to become American first (see hyphenated American and multiculturalism), resulting in their second or third-generation descendants identifying themselves as a different nationality or "race."

There is the perception that Mexicans and other Hispanic-Latinos have the desire to "take over" or "reclaim" the Southwestern United States as a conspiratoral plot to eventually populate, resettle, and rule over the world's strongest country by removing all security along the U.S.-Mexico border to allow unlimited streams of migrants to enter the country. Often cited is radical activism in the Hispanic (mainly Mexican) communities: the Aztlan, La Raza and Mexica Movement causes that want ethnic separation, reunification and "restoration" of a predominantly Hispanic-Amerindian country (the mythical land of the Aztecs and indigenous Mexicans was in the Southwestern United States) produces a very negative image of Mexicans and other Hispanic-Latinos as "disloyal," "parasitic," and "seditious." Many white-Anglo racists (and even some white Hispanos) throughout the Western states assumed Mexicans are biogenetically "inferior" or too racially different from Caucasians or aren't willing to "Americanize" but want to live in America because Mexico is a "bad country" for them, and they are playing the "race card" as a people of color who want preferential treatment as an ethnic minority group to get jobs, education, public services and even political representation a lot faster than American citizens.

ee also

*Illegal immigration to the United States

External links

* [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/09/opinion/09horwitz.html?pagewanted=1&ei=5090&en=576beb4a7ead76f2&ex=1310097600&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss "Immigration — and the Curse of the Black Legend." Tony Horwitz. "New York Times" 9 July 2006]


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