- Italy Runestones
Varangian Runestones"The Italy Runestones are three or four Varangian Runestonesfrom 11th century Swedenthat talk of warriors who died in "Langbarðaland" ("Land of the Lombards"), the Old Norsename for Italy. On these rune stones it is southern Italy that is referred to [http://www.lansmuseum.a.se/runriket/taby.html "2. Runriket - Täby kyrka"] , an online article at Stockholm County Museum, retrieved July 1 2007.] ( Langobardia), but the Rundataproject renders it rather anachronistically as Lombardy(see the translations of the individual stones, below).
The rune stones are engraved in
Old Norsewith the Younger Futhark, and two of them are found in Upplandand one or two in Södermanland.
The memorials are probably raised in memory of members of the
Varangian Guard, the elite guard of the Byzantine Emperor, and they probably died while fighting in southern Italy against Normansor Muslims. Many of their brothers-in-arms are remembered on the 28 Greece Runestonesmost of which are found in the same part of Sweden.
The young men who applied for a position in the Varangian guard were not uncouth roughnecks, as in the traditional stereotype, but instead, it appears that they were usually fit and well-raised young warriors who were skilled in weapons.Larsson 2002:145] They were the kind of warriors who were welcome as the elite troups of the
Byzantine Emperor, and who the rulers of Kievan Rus'requested from Scandinaviawhen they were under threat.
Below follows a presentation of the runestones based on the
Rundataproject. The transcriptions into Old Norseare in the Swedish and Danish dialect to facilitate comparison with the inscriptions, while the English translation provided by Rundatagives the names in the de facto standard dialect (the Icelandic and Norwegian dialect):
There are two rune stones in Uppland that mention Italy. They were raised by the same lady in memory of her son.
This runestone in
style Pr3[Entry U 133 in Rundata.] is in reddish granite and it has been broken into two parts and walled into the foundation of the church of Täby. The larger part was known as early as Johannes Bureus(1568 – 1652), but the smaller part was not noticed by scholars until 1857, when it was documented by Richard Dybeck. The larger part is 1.02 m in height and 0.86-1 m in width, while the smaller one is 0.45 tall and 1.23 m wide. It probably formed a twin monument together with U 141 on the estate of Fittja, before it was moved to the church to be used as building material.Wessén 1940-43:198ff]
It is believed to be made by the
runemaster Fotfor a grieving mother named Guðlaug in memory of herself, and in honour of her son who had died in southern Italy and it was probably as a member of the Varangian Guard.
Guðlaug may be the same woman as Ónæm's daughter who is mentioned on U 328, and his father Assurr who is mentioned on U 330.Pritsak 1980:392]
:+ kuþluk * lit ... ... ... ...a × sun * sin * auk * at * sik * sialfa * han * to * a lank*barþa*l--ti *
Old Norse transcription:
: "Guðlaug let [ræisa stæina at Holm] a, sun sinn, ok at sik sialfa. Hann do a Langbarðal [an] di."
: "Guðlaug had the stones raised in memory of Holmi, her son, and in memory of herself. He died in Lombardy."
This runestone was first documented by
Johannes Messenius, in 1611, who wrote about the inscription, and who appears to have learnt about the runestone from Johannes Bureus. Aschaneus (1575-1641) made a note that the runestone was to be seen at the estate of Fittja near Täby, but it later disappeared and the last scholar who saw it was Anders Celsiusin 1727. Richard Dybeckand later Erik Brate both searched for it in vain. However, in 1933, a fragment with the final three runes were discovered during an installation of heating equipment in the cellar of the estate. The granite fragment, which measures 0.45 in height and 0.38 in width, has been raised in the garden of Fittja.Wessén 1940-1943:206ff]
: [kuþluk × lit * raisa * staina * at * hulma * sun * sin * han * to * a * lank*barþa*la(n)ti ×]
Old Norse transcription:
: "Guðlaug let ræisa stæina at Holma, sun sinn. Hann do a Langbarðalandi."
: "Guðlaug had the stones raised in memory of Holmi, her son. He died in Lombardy."
There are two rune stones that mention Italy in Södermanland. However, one of them only says La-, having lost the series of runes that followed. However, the rune stone informs that the location was on the Eastern route, and "Langbarðaland" is the only known
Old Norseplace name on the Eastern route that begins with these two runes.
This runestone is in reddish grey and fine grained granite, and it was found in 11 pieces in Lagnö, in 1949. At the location, the land slopes towards Eldsundet, which is an old sailing route, and where there was a Viking Age assembly location. A house had once been in the same spot and it is likely that the runestone had been used as material in its stone foundation. The stone was moved to a conservation institute in Stockholm where it was repaired but it was impossible to make a complete runestone out of it. As of 1953, fifteen pieces had been recovered but only twelve could be put together. [Jansson 1954:21-25] It is presently stored inside the
Swedish Museum of National Antiquitiesin Stockholm.
:...i : risti : ---... ... ...in... ... sin : han : iR : entaþr : i : austruiki : ut : o : la-...
Old Norse transcription:
: "... ræisti ... ... ... ... sinn. Hann eR ændaðr i austrvegi ut a La [ngbarðalandi] (?)."
: "... raised ... ... ... ... his. He met his end on the eastern route abroad in Lombardy(?)."
This rune stone was found at Djulefors, and it is presently raised in the park of Eriksberg. It is in the style Pr1, which dates it to the first half of the
11th century. A missing piece of the stone was found in 1934.
: [inka : raisti : stain : þansi : at : ulai] (f) : sin : [a...k] : han : austarla : arþi : barþi : auk : o : lakbarþilanti : [anlaþis +]
Old Norse transcription:
: "Inga ræisti stæin þannsi at Olæif sinn ... Hann austarla arði barði ok a Langbarðalandi andaðis."
: "Inga raised this stone in memory of Óleifr, her ... He ploughed his stern to the east, and met his end in the land of the Lombards."
*Jansson, S. B. F. (1954). "Uppländska, småländska och sörmländska runstensfynd", in Bohrn, E. (ed) "Fornvännen årgång 54". [http://fornvannen.se/1950talet/fornvannen_1954.html] pp. 1-25.
*Larsson, Mats G (2002). "Götarnas Riken : Upptäcktsfärder Till Sveriges Enande". Bokförlaget Atlantis AB ISBN 9789174866414
* [http://www.sofi.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=1472 "Nordisk runnamslexikon"] by Lena Peterson at the Swedish Institute for Linguistics and Heritage (Institutet för språk och folkminnen).
*Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). "The origin of Rus
'". Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4
* [http://www.lansmuseum.a.se/runriket/taby.html "2. Runriket - Täby kyrka"] , an online article at Stockholm County Museum, retrieved
July 1 2007.
* [http://runicdictionary.nottingham.ac.uk/index.php An English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark, at the university of Nottingham]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Italy (disambiguation) — Italy may refer to: *the country Italy *the Italian peninsula *the Roman province of ItaliaUS toponyms: *Italy, New York, USA, a town in Yates County *Italy, Texas, USA, a town in Ellis County *Little ItalyOther*Air Italy, an airline based in… … Wikipedia
Viking runestones — Runestones that mention expeditions outside of Scandinavia Viking runestones England runestones Hakon Jarl runestones Varangian runestones Baltic area runestones Greece runestones Italy runestones Ingvar runestones … Wikipedia
Varangian runestones — … Wikipedia
Greece Runestones — The Greece Runestones comprise around 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Scandinavians to Greece , which refers to the Byzantine Empire (ON.: Grikkland , Grikk(i)aR ), during the Viking Age and until the early 12th… … Wikipedia
England runestones — … Wikipedia
Varangian Runestones — The Varangian Runestones are runestones that mention voyages to the East ( Austr ) or the Eastern route ( Austrvegr ), or to more specific eastern locations such as Garðaríki (what is today Russia and Ukraine). There are also many additional… … Wikipedia
Baltic expeditions runestones — The Baltic expeditions runestones are Varangian Runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic States are presently located.Beside the runestones treated in this… … Wikipedia
Risbyle Runestones — The Risbyle Runestones are runestones found near the western shore of Lake Vallentunasjön in Uppland, Sweden. They were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark in the early 11th century by the Viking Ulf of Borresta ( Báristaðir ) who had… … Wikipedia
List of runestones — Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age.List of stones Compare Megalithic Standing stones, Pictish stones, Gaelic High crosses and… … Wikipedia
Varangians — The Varangians or Varyags (Old Norse: Væringjar, Greek: Βάραγγοι, Βαριάγοι, Váraggoi / Varyágoi , Ukrainian and Russian: Варяги, Varyahy / Varyagi ), sometimes referred to as Variagians , were Vikings, [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article… … Wikipedia