- Technocracy (bureaucratic)
Technocracy : A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control; "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves by appeal to technical experts who justify themselves by appeal to scientific forms of knowledge". A governmental or organizational system where decision makers are selected based upon how highly knowledgeable they are, rather than how much
political capitalthey hold.
Technocrats are individuals with technical training and occupations who perceive many important societal problems as being solvable, often while proposing technology-focused solutions. The administrative scientist Gunnar K. A. Njalsson theorizes that technocrats are primarily driven by their cognitive "problem-solution mindsets" and only in part by particular occupational group interests. Their activities and the increasing success of their ideas are thought to be a crucial factor behind the modern spread of technology and the largely ideological concept of the "Information Society." Technocrats may be distinguished from "
econocrats" and " bureaucrats" whose problem-solution mindsets differ from those of the technocrats.cite journal | last =Njalsson| first=Gunnar K. A.| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =From autonomous to socially conceived technology: toward a causal, intentional and systematic analysis of interests and elites in public technology policy| journal =Theoria: a journal of political theory| volume =| issue =108| pages =56–81| publisher =Berghahn Books|date=12/05 | url =http://www.berghahnbooks.com/journals/th| doi =| id =ISSN| accessdate =2006-12-15 ]
Some forms of technocracy are a form of "de facto elitism", whereby the "most qualified" and the administrative elite tend to be the same. Other forms have been described as not being an oligarchic human group of controllers, but rather an administration by science without the influence of special interest groups. Regardless, technical and leadership skills selected through bureaucratic processes on the basis of specialized knowledge and performance, rather than democratic elections are used as the most important criteria. [ [http://www.technocracy.org/Archives/History%20&%20Purpose-r.htm History and Purpose of Technocracy by Howard Scott] ]
Development of term
William Henry Smyth used the term "Technocracy" in his 1919 article "'Technocracy'—Ways and Means to Gain Industrial Democracy," in the journal "Industrial Management" (57). [Oxford English Dictionary 3rd edition (Word from 2nd edition 1989)] However, Smyth's usage referred to
Industrial democracy: a movement to integrate workers into decision making through existing firms or revolution. [Oxford English Dictionary 3rd edition (Word from 2nd edition 1989)] The term came to mean government by technical decision making in 1932. [Oxford English Dictionary 3rd edition (Word from 2nd edition 1989)] It came into common usage through management theorist James Burnham's 1941 work "Managerial Revolution".Fact|date=May 2008
The technocratic instinct among engineers and its outcomes
Technocracy is one solution to a problem faced by
engineers in the early twentieth century. Following Samuel Haber [Haber, Samuel. "Efficiency and Uplift" Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.] Donald Stabile argues that engineers were faced with a conflict between physical efficencyand cost efficiencyin the new corporate capitalist enterprises of the late nineteenth century USA.:Profit-conscious, nontechnical managers of the firm where the engineers work, because of their perceptions of market demand, often impose limits on the projects the engineer desires to undertake; workers do not perform according to the specifications of the engineer's plans; and the prices of all inputs vary with market forces thereby upsetting the engineer's careful calculations. As a result, the engineer loses control over his own little world and must continually revise his plans. To keep his little world secure, the engineer is forced to extend his control over these outside variables and transform them into constant factors. [Stabile, Donald R. "Veblen and the Political Economy of the Engineer: the radical thinker and engineering leaders came to technocratic ideas at the xzame time," "American Journal of Economics and Sociology (45:1) 1986, 43-44.]
Engineers heatedly discussed these issues in US engineering journals and proceedings. Three ideological outcomes were produced. Firstly,
Taylorismwhich integrates price structures into engineering concerns, thus producing scientific managementwhere the capitalist managerand engineer divide control over the production processand working classbetween themselves. Secondly, building on Taylorismthe Soviet Unionimplemented socialist- Taylorismwhere economic planning, a political bureaucracy and a technical elite divided control over the economy through institutions like the GOELRO planor five year plans. While political concerns influenced Soviet planning, the political bureaucracy designed plans so as to achieve technical outcomes, and used production priceaccounting as a technical, rather than economic measure. Finally, in the United States a view that technical concerns should take precedence developed among engineers such as William Howard Smythbased on the early conception of Industrial democracywhich was limited merely to the technical government of firms. Thorstein Veblen, a member of the Technical Alliance, wrote his book "The Engineers and the Price System" during this time. [ [http://socserv2.mcmaster.ca/%7Eecon/ugcm/3ll3/veblen/Engineers.pdf "The Engineers and the Price System", 1921.] ] . It was later used as reference material by the Technocracy movement. The various schools of thought amongst engineers and other interested parties eventually produced social institutions arguing for purely technical government of society in the 1930s. Technocracy Incorporatedformulated a plan for the land mass of North America, to employ a non monetary system " Energy Accounting" [http://telstar.ote.cmu.edu/environ/m3/s3/05account.shtml Environmental Decision making, Science and Technology] , which uses a post scarcitytype of economy as its basis. [The Energy Certificate essay by Fezer. An article on energy accounting as proposed by Technocracy Inc. http://www.technocracy.org/Archives/The%20Energy%20Certificate-r.htm Article on alternative system to money 'Energy Accounting'] The system proposed, based on energy accounting instead of money, uses thermodynamicsas its basis. [http://ecen.com/eee9/ecoterme.htm Economy and Thermodynamics] The Technate scientific social design as projected in the "Technocracy Study Course", would include such post scarcity aspects as free housing ( Urbanates), transportation, recreation, and education. In other words free everything, including all consumer products, as a right of citizenship. [Ivie, Wilton "A Place to Live: 1955 Technocracy Digest] Everyone would receive an equal amount of consuming power via this Non-market economics, post scarcity method, in theory.
In "Wealth, Virtual Wealth and Debt",
Frederick Soddyturned his attention to the role of energy in economic systems. He criticized the focus on monetary flows in economics, arguing that “real” wealth was derived from the use of energy to transform materials into physical goods and services. Soddy’s economic writings were largely ignored in his time, but would later be applied to the development of biophysical economicsand ecological economicsand also bioeconomicsin the late 20th century. [http://www.eoearth.org/article/Soddy,_FrederickSoddy, Frederick - Encyclopedia of Earth]
Other movements advocating technocratic government included, in France, the
Groupe X-Crise, formed by French former students of the " Ecole Polytechnique" engineer school in the 1930s, as well as " Redressement Français", a French technocratic movement founded by Ernest Mercierin 1925. Along with the Belgian Henri de Man, X-Crise advocated " planisme" (planism), which advocated, instead of economic liberalism, the use of economic plans and planification. Influenced by de Man's planism, the Neo-socialists Marcel Déat, Pierre Renaudel, René Belin, the "neo-Turks" of the Radical-Socialist Party( Pierre Mendès-France, etc.) promoted a "constructive revolution" headed by the state and technocrat] , through economic planification. Such ideas also influenced the Non-Conformist Movementin the French right-wing.
In Great Britain,
Political and Economic Planning, a think-tank founded in 1931, also advocated such economic intervention.
A technocratic government is a government of experts designed to ensure administrative functions are carried out efficiently. Technocracy can, in theory, take many forms and incorporate many systems of government. Technocracy may come about as a provisional form of
oligarchy, in which the economy is regulated by economists, social policyis decided by political scientists, the health care systemis run by medical professionals, with the branches of the government working together and sharing knowledge to maximize the performance of each in as equal a way as is feasible. Technocracy is often thought of as 'administration of scientistsand engineers.
ystem of governance
Technocracy can also refer to a system of governance in which laws are enforced by designing the system such that it is impossible to break them. For instance, to prevent people from riding a
tramwithout paying, the carriage's doors could be designed in such a way that a payment was required to open the doors.
The same idea can be applied on much larger scales, with automated public surveillance by semi-intelligent systems that automatically control or limit the actions of individuals to prevent illegal activity. This is called the
carceral state, in which the whole state is effectively a Panopticon- a prisonwith strict rules, where all individuals are supervised to ensure compliance. Author Charles Strosscalled this a Panopticon Singularity. In this way, the bureaucratic form of technocracy may be an authoritariansystem of governance.
The principles of anticipatory design,
wayfinding, and B. F. Skinner's vision " Walden Two" similarly concern authoritarian systems of governance but are based on psychologyand conditioningexclusively and not on any intrusive technologyto enforce the rules.
Many technocrats would suggest that fear of technology and social change often assume the most oppressive and
dystopianof scenarios, pointing to popular media and propagandain which socialism, democracy, and communism have all been portrayed in an equally dystopian and cautionary light.
Technocracy in fiction
"", a popular roleplaying game published by
White Wolf, prominently features the Technocracy, a/k/a the "Technocratic Union," as a shadowy, world-controlling organization similar in principle to (and indeed containing) such conspiracies as the "New World Order," the "Freemasons," and others.
The animated series
Insektorsfeatures a character, Teknocratus, as the "chief engineer" to the Yuk society. At one point, he creates a computer, Kalkulator, capable of automating a city.
A technocratic elite rule the last human city of Bregna in the 2005 movie "Æon Flux".
Groupe X-Crise, formed by French former students of the " Ecole Polytechnique" engineer school in the 1930s
Technocracy Incorporated, a US group formed in the 1930s
Redressement Français, a French technocratic movement founded by Ernest Mercierin 1925
The Revolt of the Masses" a book containing a critique of technocracy
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